Air Conditioning Systems: Principles, Equipment, and Service / Edition 1

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Overview

Based on the Air Conditioning Institute Curriculum Guide, this book provides practical information to supplement and advance skills of the entry-level technician. It focuses on air conditioning systems and the components that make up these systems, while emphasizing information that will be useful to the service technician. The material presented here stresses the competency-based educational approach, preparing readers to exhibit learned skills in several different ways, and put information into practice so that it is useful and maintained. Chapter topics include extensive information on charging procedures; electrical and refrigerant-side troubleshooting; safety and the refrigeration cycle; preventive maintenance; and industry certification. A useful source of knowledge for entry-level technicians and experienced professionals in the air conditioning field.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780135179215
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 9/19/2000
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 361
  • Sales rank: 1,021,949
  • Product dimensions: 8.20 (w) x 10.70 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE

Much of the information in this textbook is based on the Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) Curriculum Guide. The curriculum guide was developed by leaders of the air-conditioning industry to act as a standard of what entry-level air-conditioning technicians should know when they enter the field. The ARI Curriculum Guide is a compilation of many labor-hours of serious discussion and thought about what to expect of an entry-level technician. This book addresses many of these important points.

The title, Air Conditioning Systems: Principles, Equipment, and Service prepares the reader for the book's content. The focus on the book is on air-conditioning systems and the components that make up these systems. The text discusses how the system and system components operate as a cooling unit. Another emphasis of the book is to provide information that will be useful to the service technician and suggest ways to maintain, service, and troubleshoot air-conditioning equipment. There are many practical and useful ideas in the chapters that follow.

Our goal is to provide theoretical and practical information to the entry-level technician. The practical information could be used to design laboratory activities. Generally, educators and the air-conditioning industry are advocates of competency-based education. Competency-based education means that students exhibit their learned skills in several different ways. The student should be able to write or draw an explanation of how something in an air-conditioning system operates. For example, the student should be able to draw the basic refrigeration cycle and list all the entering and leaving conditions of each of the four major components. In addition, he or she should be able to exhibit his or her practical knowledge of an air-conditioning system. Practical knowledge is tested by having the student identify the four major components of an active air-conditioning system and measure the pressures and temperatures entering and leaving each of these components. The critical part of competency-based education is being able to exhibit to the instructor that the student can do basic field-related work. Competency needs to be displayed on an ongoing basis throughout a student's coursework. Most students can do a lab activity correctly one time. The problem with doing it one time is that the behavior is not repeated, so it is quickly forgotten. For example, when describing charging procedures, the text begins with the basic pressure-temperature method of charging. It builds on this charging procedure by adding other methods, such as checking superheat, subcooling, and amperage. Each time a new charging procedure is introduced, students use previously learned charging methods along with the newly learned charging skill. This builds on the charging procedures and reinforces the charging methods previously learned. Students will retain this knowledge when they demonstrate repetitive skilled behavior. In any event, repeating the exercises correctly several times during a course will commit the behavior to memory and it will become second nature.

This book was written to supplement and advance skills of the entry-level student. It is not intended to be a textbook for first-semester students unless they are enrolled in other basic coursework. The user of this textbook should have a basic knowledge of the refrigeration cycle, basic skills in electrical troubleshooting, and an understanding of the uses of the multimeter. Students should have already taken an air-conditioning course that included basic laboratory activities. The sooner students place this information into practice, the sooner they will develop habits that are important for a professional career in air conditioning.

Chapters include extensive coverage of charging airconditioning systems and refrigerant and electrical troubleshooting procedures. The troubleshooting section includes both component diagnostics and system diagnostics. The book includes important chapters on safety and the refrigeration cycle. Preventive maintenance is a big part of equipment longevity. The chapter on preventive maintenance is extensive and can be used as a guide for servicing. The chapter on industry certification explains the different options available to the entry-level technician and the experienced professional.

The student's success is the most important objective of the writer and reviewers. Information must be placed into practice for it to be useful and retained. This is a useful source of technician knowledge in the classroom and in the air-conditioning field. Enjoy your learning journey. As long as you are in air-conditioning technology, you will always be learning something new.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank all those who were instrumental in facilitating the completing of this book, starting with my wife, Martha, who has always been supportive of my many ventures over the many years of our marriage. Leslie Sandler of ARI encouraged me to write this book and set up the contacts to begin this journey.

In the 1970s, my start in air conditioning began with Walter Hunt at the Gulf Coast Community Services, Houston, Texas, energy conservation program. Next, my knowledge and experience expanded while working under the supervision of Barby Barbara at the Texas Energy Extension Services at the University of Houston. My career diversified with employment at the City of Houston, Texas. While working for the City of Houston, I was exposed to commercial energy conservation, HVAC/R maintenance, and air-conditioning inspections. Guy Ellyson, Chief HVAC Inspector for the City of Houston, motivated me to learn more about the air-conditioning trade. Next, Larry Giroux, chief trainer of AES Houston, became a driving force behind my knowledge of the trade. For the past eighteen years I have learned from Larry and bothered him with problems and concerns I have had regarding air-conditioning systems and instructional delivery methods used to train technicians. He is a mentor to me.

My current employer, Lee College, has been a supporter of this project by allowing me the opportunity to write and learn during the summer. Allowing me free rein of an air-conditioning training program has taught me much. Lee College encourages writing as a way of growth and professional development. I must thank all my students who keep me challenged. Many of their mistakes have been shared in this book so as not be repeated by new students. I have learned much from my students. They are creative in ways of getting things done while maintaining a professional sense about their work in the classroom and in the laboratory.

I would be remiss if I did not thank Prentice Hall editor Ed Francis for his guidance on this long project. I must give a special thanks for the final editing done by Linda Thompson, and the project management skills of Lisa Garboski of bookworks. They really "cleansed" the material and molded it into the professional document that you see. These women know their air conditioning grammar, or at least they have me fooled. I must also thank Larry Jeffus of Eastfield College, a prolific author himself, for sharing his experiences and advice as an author.

Finally, I must thank all those organizations, companies, and corporations that contributed and allowed me to use their material in this book. This was one of the most difficult tasks on the road to developing this textbook. Gathering appropriate materials and gaining approval for their use was a monumental effort. The completion of this book would have been impossible without their help.

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Table of Contents

1. Safety on the Job.

2. Refrigeration Cycle: How the System Cools.

3. Leak-Detection Procedures.

4. How to Charge Air-Conditioning Systems.

5. Charging Procedures: Pressure-Temperature Method.

6. Charging Procedures: Superheat Methods.

7. Charging Procedures: Subcooling, Amperage Draw and Manufacturing Recommendations.

8. Temperature-Difference, Sight-Glass, and Sweatback Methods.

9. Weigh-In, Frostback, and Approach Charging Methods.

10. Troubleshooting Air-Conditioning Systems.

11. Mechanical Troubleshooting—Part I.

12. Mechanical Troubleshooting—Part II.

13. Mechanical Troubleshooting—Part III.

14. The Electrical Side of Air Conditioning.

15. Troubleshooting Electrical Components.

16. Understanding Electrical Diagrams.

17. Troubleshooting Electrical Diagrams.

18. Preventative Maintenance.

19. HVAC/R Industry Certification.

20. Appendix: Useful Formulas, Conversions, and Common Abbreviations.

21. Glossary.

22. Index.

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Preface

PREFACE

Much of the information in this textbook is based on the Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute (ARI) Curriculum Guide. The curriculum guide was developed by leaders of the air-conditioning industry to act as a standard of what entry-level air-conditioning technicians should know when they enter the field. The ARI Curriculum Guide is a compilation of many labor-hours of serious discussion and thought about what to expect of an entry-level technician. This book addresses many of these important points.

The title, Air Conditioning Systems: Principles, Equipment, and Service prepares the reader for the book's content. The focus on the book is on air-conditioning systems and the components that make up these systems. The text discusses how the system and system components operate as a cooling unit. Another emphasis of the book is to provide information that will be useful to the service technician and suggest ways to maintain, service, and troubleshoot air-conditioning equipment. There are many practical and useful ideas in the chapters that follow.

Our goal is to provide theoretical and practical information to the entry-level technician. The practical information could be used to design laboratory activities. Generally, educators and the air-conditioning industry are advocates of competency-based education. Competency-based education means that students exhibit their learned skills in several different ways. The student should be able to write or draw an explanation of how something in an air-conditioning system operates. For example, the student should be able to draw the basic refrigeration cycle and list all the entering and leaving conditions of each of the four major components. In addition, he or she should be able to exhibit his or her practical knowledge of an air-conditioning system. Practical knowledge is tested by having the student identify the four major components of an active air-conditioning system and measure the pressures and temperatures entering and leaving each of these components. The critical part of competency-based education is being able to exhibit to the instructor that the student can do basic field-related work. Competency needs to be displayed on an ongoing basis throughout a student's coursework. Most students can do a lab activity correctly one time. The problem with doing it one time is that the behavior is not repeated, so it is quickly forgotten. For example, when describing charging procedures, the text begins with the basic pressure-temperature method of charging. It builds on this charging procedure by adding other methods, such as checking superheat, subcooling, and amperage. Each time a new charging procedure is introduced, students use previously learned charging methods along with the newly learned charging skill. This builds on the charging procedures and reinforces the charging methods previously learned. Students will retain this knowledge when they demonstrate repetitive skilled behavior. In any event, repeating the exercises correctly several times during a course will commit the behavior to memory and it will become second nature.

This book was written to supplement and advance skills of the entry-level student. It is not intended to be a textbook for first-semester students unless they are enrolled in other basic coursework. The user of this textbook should have a basic knowledge of the refrigeration cycle, basic skills in electrical troubleshooting, and an understanding of the uses of the multimeter. Students should have already taken an air-conditioning course that included basic laboratory activities. The sooner students place this information into practice, the sooner they will develop habits that are important for a professional career in air conditioning.

Chapters include extensive coverage of charging airconditioning systems and refrigerant and electrical troubleshooting procedures. The troubleshooting section includes both component diagnostics and system diagnostics. The book includes important chapters on safety and the refrigeration cycle. Preventive maintenance is a big part of equipment longevity. The chapter on preventive maintenance is extensive and can be used as a guide for servicing. The chapter on industry certification explains the different options available to the entry-level technician and the experienced professional.

The student's success is the most important objective of the writer and reviewers. Information must be placed into practice for it to be useful and retained. This is a useful source of technician knowledge in the classroom and in the air-conditioning field. Enjoy your learning journey. As long as you are in air-conditioning technology, you will always be learning something new.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

I would like to thank all those who were instrumental in facilitating the completing of this book, starting with my wife, Martha, who has always been supportive of my many ventures over the many years of our marriage. Leslie Sandler of ARI encouraged me to write this book and set up the contacts to begin this journey.

In the 1970s, my start in air conditioning began with Walter Hunt at the Gulf Coast Community Services, Houston, Texas, energy conservation program. Next, my knowledge and experience expanded while working under the supervision of Barby Barbara at the Texas Energy Extension Services at the University of Houston. My career diversified with employment at the City of Houston, Texas. While working for the City of Houston, I was exposed to commercial energy conservation, HVAC/R maintenance, and air-conditioning inspections. Guy Ellyson, Chief HVAC Inspector for the City of Houston, motivated me to learn more about the air-conditioning trade. Next, Larry Giroux, chief trainer of AES Houston, became a driving force behind my knowledge of the trade. For the past eighteen years I have learned from Larry and bothered him with problems and concerns I have had regarding air-conditioning systems and instructional delivery methods used to train technicians. He is a mentor to me.

My current employer, Lee College, has been a supporter of this project by allowing me the opportunity to write and learn during the summer. Allowing me free rein of an air-conditioning training program has taught me much. Lee College encourages writing as a way of growth and professional development. I must thank all my students who keep me challenged. Many of their mistakes have been shared in this book so as not be repeated by new students. I have learned much from my students. They are creative in ways of getting things done while maintaining a professional sense about their work in the classroom and in the laboratory.

I would be remiss if I did not thank Prentice Hall editor Ed Francis for his guidance on this long project. I must give a special thanks for the final editing done by Linda Thompson, and the project management skills of Lisa Garboski of bookworks. They really "cleansed" the material and molded it into the professional document that you see. These women know their air conditioning grammar, or at least they have me fooled. I must also thank Larry Jeffus of Eastfield College, a prolific author himself, for sharing his experiences and advice as an author.

Finally, I must thank all those organizations, companies, and corporations that contributed and allowed me to use their material in this book. This was one of the most difficult tasks on the road to developing this textbook. Gathering appropriate materials and gaining approval for their use was a monumental effort. The completion of this book would have been impossible without their help.

Read More Show Less

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