Air Pollution Control Engineering / Edition 1

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Overview

Many human activities -- and industrial production in particular -- produce enormous quantities of wastes and pollution that require the development of major abatement technologies, processes whose implementation and costs must be justified by the degree of abatement achieved. In Air Pollution Control Engineering: Handbook of Environmental Engineering, Volume 1, a panel of eminent air pollution control educators and practicing professionals critically survey both the principles and practices involved in air pollution control processes. The authors discuss the performance, potential, and limitations of the major control processes -- including fabric filtration, cyclones, electrostatic precipitation, wet and dry scrubbing, and condensation -- as a basis for intelligent planning and realization of abatement systems. Additional chapters critically examine flare processes, thermal oxidation, catalytic oxidation, gas-phase activated carbon adsorption, and gas-phase biofiltration. The contributors also detail the Best Available Technologies (BAT) for air pollution control and provide cost data, examples, theoretical explanations, and engineering methods for the design, installation, and operation of air pollution process equipment. The emphasis throughout is on developing the necessary engineering from fundamental principles of chemistry, physics, and mathematics. A companion volume, Advanced Air and Noise Pollution Control, Handbook of Environmental Engineering, Volume 2, covers the use of multiple techniques to deal with air, thermal, and noise pollution. Cutting-edge and highly practical, Air Pollution Control Engineering: Handbook of Environmental Engineering, Volume 1 offers educators, students, and practicing engineers a strong grounding in the principles of this critical field, as well as effective methods for developing optimal abatement technologies at costs that are fully justified by the degree of abatement achieved.
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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"...the text will be equally useful for environmental engineering University students or those working in the industry." - Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology

"...one of the best texts I have reviewed...excellent and strongly recommend(ed)." Journal of Hazardous Materials

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781617373978
  • Publisher: Springer-Verlag New York, LLC
  • Publication date: 11/19/2010
  • Series: Handbook of Environmental Engineering Series , #1
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of hardcover 1st ed. 2004
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 504
  • Product dimensions: 1.05 (w) x 7.00 (h) x 10.00 (d)

Table of Contents

Air Quality and Pollution Control

Lawrence K. Wang, Jerry R. Taricska, Yung-Tse Hung, and Kathleen Hung Li

1. Introduction

2. Characteristics of Air Pollutants

3. Standards

3.1. Ambient Air Quality Standards

3.2. Emission Standards

4. Sources

5. Effects

6. Measurements

6.1. Ambient Sampling

6.2. Source Sampling

6.3. Sample Locations

6.4. Gas Flow Rates

6.5. Relative Humidity

6.6. Sample Train

6.7. Determination of Size Distribution

7. Gas Stream Calculations

7.1. General

7.2. Emission Stream Flow Rate and Temperature Calculations

7.3. Moisture Content, Dew Point Content, and Sulfur Trioxide Calculations

7.4. Particulate Matter Loading

7.5. Heat Content Calculations

7.6. Dilution Air Calculations

8. Gas Stream Conditioning

8.1. General

8.2. Mechanical Collectors

8.3. Gas Coolers

8.4. Gas Preheaters

9. Air Quality Management

9.1. Recent Focus

9.2. Ozone

9.3. Air Toxics

9.4. Greenhouse Gases Reduction and Industrial Ecology Approach

9.5. Environmental Laws

10. Control

11. Conclusions

12. Examples

12.1. Example 1

12.2. Example 2

Nomenclature

References

Fabric Filtration

Lawrence K. Wang, Clint Williford, and Wei-Yin Chen

1. Introduction

2. Principle and Theory

3. Application

3.1. General

3.2. Gas Cleaning

3.3. Efficiency

4. Engineering Design

4.1. Pretreatment of an Emission Stream

4.2. Air-to-Cloth Ratio

4.3. Fabric Cleaning Design

4.4. Baghouse Configuration

4.5. Construction Materials

4.6. Design Range of Effectiveness

5. Operation

5.1. General Considerations

5.2. Collection Efficiency

5.3. System Pressure Drop

5.4. Power Requirements

5.5. Filter Bag Replacement

6. Management

6.1. Evaluation of Permit Application

6.2. Economics

6.3. New Technology Awareness

7. Design Examples and Questions

Nomenclature

References

Appendix 1: HAP Emission Stream Data Form

Appendix 2: Metric Conversions

Cyclones

José Renato Coury, Reinaldo Pisani Jr., and Yung-Tse Hung

1. Introduction

2. Cyclones for Industrial Applications

2.1. General Description

2.2. Correlations for Cyclone Efficiency

2.3. Correlations for Cyclone Pressure Drop

2.4. Other Relations of Interest

2.5. Application Examples

3. Costs of Cyclone and Auxiliary Equipment

3.1. Cyclone Purchase Cost

3.2. Fan Purchase Cost

3.3. Ductwork Purchase Cost

3.4. Stack Purchase Cost

3.5. Damper Purchase Cost

3.6. Calculation of Present and Future Costs

3.7. Cost Estimation Examples

4. Cyclones for Airborne Particulate Sampling

4.1. Particulate Matter in the Atmosphere

4.2. General Correlation for Four Commercial Cyclones

4.3. A Semiempirical Approach

4.4. The "Cyclone Family" Approach

4.5. PM2.5 Sampler

4.6. Examples

Nomenclature

References

Electrostatic Precipitation

Chung-Shin J. Yuan and Thomas T. Shen

1. Introduction

2. Principles of Operation

2.1. Corona Discharge

2.2. Electrical Field Characteristics

2.3. Particle Charging

2.4. Particle Collection

3. Design Methodology and Considerations

3.1. Precipitator Size

3.2. Particulate Resistivity

3.3. Internal Configuration

3.4. Electrode Systems

3.5. Power Requirements

3.6. Gas Flow Systems

3.7. Precipitator Housing

3.8. Flue Gas Conditioning

3.9. Removal of Collected Particles

3.10. Instrumentation

4. Applications

4.1. Electric Power Industry

4.2. Pulp and Paper Industry

4.3. Metallurgical Industry

4.4. Cement Industry

4.5. Chemical Industry

4.6. Municipal Solid-Waste Incinerators

4.7. Petroleum Industry

4.8. Others

5. Problems and Corrections

5.1. Fundamental Problems

5.2. Mechanical Problems

5.3. Operational Problems

5.4. Chemical Problems

6. Expected Future Developments

Nomenclature

References

Wet and Dry Scrubbing

Lawrence K. Wang, Jerry R. Taricska, Yung-Tse Hung, James E. Eldridge, and Kathleen Hung Li

1. Introduction

1.1. General Process Descriptions

1.2. Wet Scrubbing or Wet Absorption

1.3. Dry Scrubbing or Dry Absorption

2. Wet Scrubbers

2.1. Wet Absorbents or Solvents

2.2. Wet Scrubbing Systems

2.3. Wet Scrubber Applications

2.4. Packed Tower (Wet Scrubber) Design

2.5. Venturi Wet Scrubber Design

3. Dry Scrubbers

3.1. Dry Absorbents

3.2. Dry Scrubbing Systems

3.3. Dry Scrubbing Applications

3.4. Dry Scrubber Design

4. Practical Examples

Nomenclature

References

Appendix: Listing of Compounds Currently Considered Hazardous

Condensation

Lawrence K. Wang, Clint Williford, and Wei-Yin Chen

1. Introduction

1.1. Process Description

1.2. Types of Condensing Systems

1.3. Range of Effectiveness

2. Pretreatment, Posttreatment, and Engineering Considerations

2.1. Pretreatment of Emission Stream

2.2. Prevention of VOC Emission from Condensers

2.3. Proper Maintenance

2.4. Condenser System Design Variables

3. Engineering Design

3.1. General Design Information

3.2. Estimating Condensation Temperature

3.3. Condenser Heat Load

3.4. Condenser Size

3.5. Coolant Selection and Coolant Flow Rate

3.6. Refrigeration Capacity

3.7. Recovered Product

4. Management

4.1. Permit Review and Application

4.2. Capital and Annual Costs of Condensers

5. Environmental Applications

6. Design Examples

Nomenclature

References

Appendix: Average Specific Heats of Vapors

Flare Process

Lawrence K. Wang, Clint Williford, and Wei-Yin Chen

1. Introduction

2. Pretreatment and Engineering Considerations

2.1. Supplementary Fuel Requirements

2.2. Flare Gas Flow Rate and Heat Content

2.3. Flare Gas Exit Velocity and Destruction Efficiency

2.4. Steam Requirements

3. Engineering Design

3.1. Design of the Flame Angle

3.2. Design of Flare Height

3.3. Power Requirements of a Fan

4. Management

4.1. Data Required for Permit Application

4.2. Evaluation of Permit Application

4.3. Cost Estimation

5. Design Examples

Nomenclature

References

Thermal Oxidation

Lawrence K. Wang, Wei Lin, and Yung-Tse Hung

1. Introduction

1.1. Process Description

1.2. Range of Effectiveness

1.3. Applicability to Remediation Technologies

2. Pretreatment and Engineering Considerations

2.1. Air Dilution

2.2. Design Variables

3. Supplementary Fuel Requirements

4. Engineering Design and Operation

4.1. Flue Gas Flow Rate

4.2. Combustion Chamber Volume

4.3. System Pressure Drop

5. Management

5.1. Evaluation of Permit Application

5.2. Operations and Manpower Requirements

5.3. Decision for Rebuilding, Purchasing New or Used Incinerators

5.4. Environmental Liabilities

6. Design Examples

Nomenclature

References

Catalytic Oxidation

Lawrence K. Wang, Wei Lin, and Yung-Tse Hung

1. Introduction

1.1. Process Description

1.2. Range of Effectiveness

1.3. Applicability to Remediation Technologies

2. Pretreatment and Engineering Considerations

2.1. Air Dilution Requirements

2.2. Design Variables

3. Supplementary Fuel Requirements

4. Engineering Design and Operation

4.1. Flue Gas Flow Rates

4.2. Catalyst Bed Requirement

4.3. System Pressure Drop

5. Management

5.1. Evaluation of Permit Application

5.2. Operation and Manpower Requirements

5.3. Decision for Rebuilding, Purchasing New or Used Incinerators

5.4. Environmental Liabilities abd Risk-Based Corrective Action

6. Design Examples

Nomenclature

References

Gas-Phase Activated Carbon Adsorption

Lawrence K. Wang, Jerry R. Taricska, Yung-Tse Hung, and Kathleen Hung Li

1. Introduction and Definitions

1.1. Adsorption

1.2. Adsorbents

1.3. Carbon Adsorption and Desorption

2. Adsorption Theory

3. Carbon Adsorption Pretreament

3.1. Cooling

3.2. Dehumidification

3.3. High VOC Reduction

4. Design and Operation

4.1. Design Data Gathering

4.2. Type of Carbon Adsorption Systems

4.3. Design of Fixed Regenerative Bed Carbon Adsorption Systems

4.4. Design of Canister Carbon Adsorption Systems

4.5. Calculation of Pressure Drops

4.6. Summary of Application

4.7. Regeneration and Air Pollution Control of Carbon Adsorption System

4.8. Granular Activated Carbon Versus Activated Carbon Fiber

4.9. Carbon Suppliers, Equipment Suppliers, and Service Providers

5. Design Examples

Nomenclature

References

Gas-Phase Biofiltration

Gregory T. Kleinheinz and Phillip C. Wright

1. Introduction

2. Types of Biological Air Treatment System

2.1. General Descriptions

2.2. Novel or Emerging Designs

3. Operational Considerations

3.1. General Operational Considerations

3.2. Biofilter Media

3.3. Microbiological Considerations

3.4. Chemical Considerations

3.5. Comparison to Competing Technologies

4. Design Considerations/Parameters

4.1. Predesign

4.2. Packing

5. Case Studies

5.1. High-Concentration 2-Propanol and Acetone

5.2. General Odor Control at a Municipal Wastewater-Treatment Facility

6. Process Control and Monitoring

7. Limitations of the Technology

8. Conclusions

Nomenclature

References

Emerging Air Pollution Control Technologies

Lawrence K. Wang, Jerry R. Taricska, Yung-Tse Hung, and Kathleen Hung Li

1. Introduction

2. Process Modification

3. Vehicle Air Pollution and Its Control

3.1. Background

3.2. Standards

3.3. Sources of Loss

3.4. Control Technologies and Alternate Power Plants

4. Mechanical Particulate Collectors

4.1. General

4.2. Gravitational Collectors

4.3. Other Methods

4.4. Use of Chemicals

4.5. Simultaneous Particle-Gas Removal Interactions

5. Entrainment Separation

6. Internal Combustion Engines

6.1. Process Description

6.2. Applications to Air Emission Control

7. Membrane Process

7.1. Process Description

7.2. Application to Air Emission Control

8. Ultraviolet Photolysis

8.1. Process Description

8.2. Application to Air Emission Control

9. High-Efficiency Particulate Air Filters

9.1. Process Description

9.2. Application to Air Emission Control

10. Technical and Economical Feasibility of Selected Emerging Technologies for Air Pollution Control

10.1. General Discussion

10.2. Evaluation of ICEs, Membrane Process, UV Process, and High-Efficiency Particulate Air Filters

10.3. Evaluation of Fuel-Cell-Powered Vehicles for Air Emission Reduction

Nomenclature

References

Index

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