Air Wars: Television Advertising In Election Campaigns, 1952-2008, 5th Edition / Edition 5

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More About This Textbook


Taking into account new data and the 2008 campaigns, every chapter of this fifth edition has been thoroughly revised and updated. Placing the use of advertising and mass media in historical context, West offers significant updates. His coverage includes the following:

ad stills aired during the 2008 elections;

the face-off between Barack Obama and John McCain in the general election;

case studies of ad appeals during presidential and Senate campaigns;

advertising strategies from the dramatic nomination fight between Hillary Clinton and Barack Obama;

advertising in congressional elections; and

material on ad buys, issue-advocacy advertising, and content analyses of campaign ads.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780872897786
  • Publisher: Congressional Quarterly, Inc.
  • Publication date: 3/5/2009
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 187
  • Product dimensions: 6.00 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 0.50 (d)

Table of Contents

Tables and Figures ix

Preface x

Television Advertising in Election Campaigns: A History in Pictures xii

1 Overview of Ads 1

The History of Ads 2

Principles of Advertising 5

How Ads Are Put Together 10

How Ads Are Financed 15

The Impact of Ads on Voters 17

Conclusion 24

2 Buying Air Time 25

The Case of John Connally 25

The Strategies of Ad Buying 26

How Ad Buys Go Wrong 27

The Study of Ad Buys 28

Ad Frequency and Diversification 29

The National-Local Mix and Targeting Strategies 32

Strategic Interactions with the Opposition 35

Early Advertising 38

The Impact on Voters: The Two Cases of Ross Perot 42

Conclusion 44

3 Ad Messages 45

Ad Content 46

Prominent Ads 48

The Paucity of Policy Appeals 49

Shifts over Time 50

The Impact of Campaign Stage 56

Internet Sites and Ads 58

The Rise of Negative Advertising 65

The Objects of Negativity 70

Conclusion 73

4 Media Coverage of Ads 74

The Increasing Coverage of Ads 76

Horse-Race Coverage of Ads 78

Shifts in Ad Coverage over Time 80

"Daisy," "Daisy II," and the "Revolving Door" 82

Swift Boat Veterans and Ads 84

Media Coverage of 2008 Ads 85

Voluntary Efforts 87

Ad Watches 88

Conclusion 95

5 Learning about the Candidates 96

Advertising and the Electoral Context 97

Citizens' Knowledge and Evaluations of Candidates 98

The Impact of the Campaign 102

Ads and the Vote 105

Conclusion 111

6 Setting the Agenda 112

The Media's Role in Agenda Setting 113

Policy and Campaign Components of the Public Agenda 115

Ads and Agenda Setting 116

The Influence of Individual Ads 117

Women and the "Revolving Door" Ad 119

The Strategic Dimensions ofAgenda Control 120

A Fixed Agenda 122

A Fluid Agenda 124

A Varied Agenda 126

A Bifurcated Agenda: Terrorism versus the Economy 127

It's Still the Economy, Stupid! 129

Conclusion 130

7 Priming and Defusing 131

Informational Shortcuts 132

Standards of Evaluation 133

Nixon and the Politics of Inevitability 136

Defusing Potential Problems: Bush in 1988 137

Clinton and the Economy in 1992 138

Clinton in 1996 140

Bush and Gore in 2000 141

Bush and Kerry in 2004 142

McCain and Obama in 2008 143

Conclusion 144

8 Playing the Blame Game 145

Blame Dukakis 145

Blame Bush 146

Blame Forbes 150

Blame Dole 153

Blame Gingrich 154

Don't Blame Me 156

Blame Terrorists 157

Blame Bush and McCain 158

Conclusion 160

9 Ads in Congressional Elections 161

Features of Congressional Campaigns 161

Historical Congressional Ads 162

The Fight for a Democratic House 164

The Fight for the Senate 165

Clinton versus Giuliani and Lazio 166

2004 Senate Campaigns 169

2006 House and Senate Campaigns 170

2008 Senate Campaigns 173

Conclusion 174

10 Advertising and Democratic Elections 175

Democratic Expectations 175

The Risk of Manipulation 178

Different Arenas, Different Threats 181

Slicing and Dicing the Electorate 183

What Can Be Done 184

Conclusion 187

Appendix: Memorable Ads, 1984-2008 189

Notes 197

Index 221

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