Airborne Measurements for Environmental Research

Overview

This first comprehensive review of airborne measurement principles covers all atmospheric components and surface parameters. It describes the common techniques to characterize aerosol particles and cloud/precipitation elements, while also explaining radiation quantities and pertinent hyperspectral and active remote sensing measurement techniques along the way. As a result, the major principles of operation are introduced and exemplified using specific instruments, treating both ...

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Overview

This first comprehensive review of airborne measurement principles covers all atmospheric components and surface parameters. It describes the common techniques to characterize aerosol particles and cloud/precipitation elements, while also explaining radiation quantities and pertinent hyperspectral and active remote sensing measurement techniques along the way. As a result, the major principles of operation are introduced and exemplified using specific instruments, treating both classic and emerging measurement techniques.
The two editors head an international community of eminent scientists, all of them accepted and experienced specialists in their field, who help readers to understand specific problems related to airborne research, such as immanent uncertainties and limitations. They also provide guidance on the suitability of instruments to measure certain parameters and to select the correct type of device.
While primarily intended for climate, geophysical and atmospheric researchers, its relevance to solar system objects makes this work equally appealing to astronomers studying atmospheres of solar system bodies with telescopes and space probes.

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Product Details

Meet the Author

Manfred Wendisch is a full professor and director of the Institute of Meteorology at the University of Leipzig, Germany, and holds a permanent guest professor appointment at the Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing. His teaching expertise includes the fields of atmospheric radiative transfer, cloud physics, atmospheric dynamics, and synoptic meteorology, and he is actively involved in numerous research projects focusing on airborne measurements and impacts of atmospheric clouds and their radiative properties.

Jean-Louis Brenguier joined Météo-France in 1981 as a researcher on aerosol and cloud physics. From 1998 to 2011, he was the head of the Experimental Research Unit of Météo-France. He is now coordinating MET R&D for aviation and also leads the European SESAR project for MET services developments for aviation. Dr. Brenguier is the coordinator of the European Network for Airborne Research EUFAR. Furthermore, he is co-chair of the international committee of the ISPRS for international coordination of airborne activities in environmental research.

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Table of Contents

Preface XVII

A Tribute to Dr. Robert Knollenberg XXI

List of Contributors XXIII

1 Introduction to Airborne Measurements of the Earth Atmosphere and Surface 1
Ulrich Schumann, David W. Fahey, Manfred Wendisch, and Jean-Louis Brenguier

2 Measurement of Aircraft State and Thermodynamic and Dynamic Variables 7
Jens Bange, Marco Esposito, Donald H. Lenschow, Philip R. A. Brown, Volker Dreiling, Andreas Giez, Larry Mahrt, Szymon P. Malinowski, Alfred R. Rodi, Raymond A. Shaw, Holger Siebert, Herman Smit, Martin Zöger

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 Historical 8

2.3 Aircraft State Variables 10

2.4 Static Air Pressure 18

2.5 Static Air Temperature 24

2.6 Water Vapor Measurements 35

2.7 Three-Dimensional Wind Vector 50

2.8 Small-Scale Turbulence 58

2.9 Flux Measurements 68

3 In Situ Trace Gas Measurements 77
Jim McQuaid, Hans Schlager, Maria Dolores Andrés-Hernández, Stephen Ball, Agnés Borbon, Steve S. Brown, Valery Catoire, Piero Di Carlo, Thomas G. Custer, Marc von Hobe, James Hopkins, Klaus Pfeilsticker, Thomas Röckmann, Anke Roiger, Fred Stroh, Jonathan Williams, and Helmut Ziereis

3.1 Introduction 77

3.2 Historical and Rationale 81

3.3 Aircraft Inlets for Trace Gases 83

3.4 Examples of Recent Airborne Missions 84

3.5 Optical In Situ Techniques 86

3.6 Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry 120

3.7 Chemical Conversion Techniques 131

3.8 Whole Air Sampler and Chromatographic Techniques 147

4 In Situ Measurements of Aerosol Particles 157
Andreas Petzold, Paola Formenti, Darrel Baumgardner, Ulrich Bundke, Hugh Coe, Joachim Curtius, Paul J. DeMott, Richard C. Flagan, Markus Fiebig, James G. Hudson, Jim McQuaid, Andreas Minikin, Gregory C. Roberts, and Jian Wang

4.1 Introduction 157

4.2 Aerosol Particle Number Concentration 164

4.3 Aerosol Particle Size Distribution 168

4.4 Chemical Composition of Aerosol Particles 184

4.5 Aerosol Optical Properties 200

4.6 CCN and IN 210

4.7 Challenges and Emerging Techniques 219

5 In Situ Measurements of Cloud and Precipitation Particles 225
Jean-Louis Brenguier, William Bachalo, Patrick Y. Chuang, Biagio M. Esposito, Jacob Fugal, Timothy Garrett, Jean-Francois Gayet, Hermann Gerber, Andy Heymsfield, Alexander Kokhanovsky, Alexei Korolev, R. Paul Lawson, David C. Rogers, Raymond A. Shaw, Walter Strapp, and Manfred Wendisch

5.1 Introduction 225

5.2 Impaction and Replication 236

5.3 Single-Particle Size and Morphology Measurements 239

5.4 Integral Properties of an Ensemble of Particles 266

5.5 Data Analysis 286

5.6 Emerging Technologies 295

Acknowledgments 301

6 Aerosol and Cloud Particle Sampling 303
Martina Krämer, Cynthia Twohy, Markus Hermann, Armin Afchine, Suresh Dhaniyala, and Alexei Korolev

6.1 Introduction 303

6.2 Aircraft Influence 305

6.3 Aerosol Particle Sampling 311

6.4 Cloud Particle Sampling 324

6.5 Summary and Guidelines 340

7 Atmospheric Radiation Measurements 343
Manfred Wendisch, Peter Pilewskie, Birger Bohn, Anthony Bucholtz, Susanne Crewell, Chawn Harlow, Evelyn Jäkel, K. Sebastian Schmidt, Rick Shetter, Jonathan Taylor, David D. Turner, and Martin Zöger

7.1 Motivation 343

7.2 Fundamentals 344

7.3 Airborne Instruments for Solar Radiation 352

7.4 Terrestrial Radiation Measurements from Aircraft 385

8 Hyperspectral Remote Sensing 413
Eyal Ben-Dor, Daniel Schläpfer, Antonio J. Plaza, Tim Malthus

8.1 Introduction 413

8.2 Definition 414

8.3 History 416

8.4 Sensor Principles 417

8.5 HRS Sensors 419

8.6 Potential and Applications 428

8.7 Planning of an HRS Mission 430

8.8 Spectrally Based Information 432

8.9 Data Analysis 439

8.10 Sensor Calibration 451

9 LIDAR and RADAR Observations 457
Jacques Pelon, GaborVali, Gérard Ancellet, Gerhard Ehret, Pierre H. Flamant, Samuel Haimov, Gerald Heymsfield, David Leon, James B. Mead, Andrew L. Pazmany Alain Protat, Zhien Wang, and Mengistu Wolde

9.1 Historical 457

9.2 Introduction 457

9.3 Principles of LIDAR and RADAR Remote Sensing 458

9.4 LIDAR Atmospheric Observations and Related Systems 472

9.5 Cloud and Precipitation Observations with RADAR 491

9.6 Results of Airborne RADAR Observations – Some Examples 517

9.7 Parameters Derived from Combined Use of LIDAR and RADAR 518

9.8 Conclusion and Perspectives 525

Acknowledgments 526

Appendix A: Supplementary Online Material www.wiley-vch.de

A.1 Measuring the Three-Dimensional Wind Vector Using a Five-Hole Probe

A.2 Small-Scale Turbulence

A.3 Laser Doppler Velocimetry: Double Doppler Shift and Beats

A.4 Scattering and Extinction of Electromagnetic Radiation by Particles

A.5 LIDAR and RADAR Observations

A.6 Processing Toolbox

Color Plates 527

List of Abbreviations 539

Constants 549

References 551

Index 641

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