Aircraft Fuel Systems

Aircraft Fuel Systems

by Roy Langton
     
 

With Aircraft Fuel Systems, the editors have provided a unique offering that integrates all aspects of fuel products and systems including fuel handling, quantity gauging and management functions for both commercial (civil) and military applications.

Collates together a wealth of information on fuel system design that is currently disseminated throughout the

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Overview

With Aircraft Fuel Systems, the editors have provided a unique offering that integrates all aspects of fuel products and systems including fuel handling, quantity gauging and management functions for both commercial (civil) and military applications.

Collates together a wealth of information on fuel system design that is currently disseminated throughout the literature.

Authored by leading industry experts from Airbus and Parker Aerospace.

Includes chapters on basic system functions, features and functions unique to military aircraft, fuel handling, fuel quantity gauging and management, fuel systems safety and fuel systems design and development.

Accompanied by a companion website at wiley.com/go/langtonfuel, hosting a MATLAB®/SIMULINK model of a modern aircraft fuel system that allows the user to fly preset missions that demonstrate the effects of equipment failures.

Aircraft Fuel Systems provides a timely and invaluable resource for engineers, project and programme managers in the equipment supply and application communities, as well as for graduate and postgraduate students of mechanical and aerospace engineering. It constitutes an invaluable addition to the established Wiley Aerospace Series.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9781563479632
Publisher:
American Institute of Aeronautics & Astronautics
Publication date:
06/15/2009
Pages:
345
Product dimensions:
6.80(w) x 9.80(h) x 1.00(d)

Table of Contents

Acknowledgements xiii

List of Acronyms xv

Series Preface xix

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Review of Fuel Systems Issues 2

1.1.1 Basic Fuel System Characteristics and Functions 2

1.1.2 Fuel Quantity Measurement 6

1.1.3 Fuel Properties and Environmental Issues 8

1.2 The Fuel System Design and Development Process 11

1.2.1 Program Management 12

1.2.2 Design and Development Support Tools 13

1.2.3 Functional Maturity 14

1.2.4 Testing and Certification 14

1.3 Fuel System Examples and Future Technologies 15

1.4 Terminology 15

2 Fuel System Design Drivers 19

2.1 Design Drivers 21

2.1.1 Intended Aircraft Mission 21

2.1.2 Dispatch Reliability Goals 21

2.1.3 Fuel Tank Boundaries and Tank Location Issues 22

2.1.4 Measurement and Management System Functional Requirements 26

2.1.5 Electrical Power Management Architecture and Capacity 26

2.2 Identification and Mitigation of Safety Risks 27

2.2.1 Fuel System Risks 28

3 Fuel Storage 31

3.1 Tank Geometry and Location Issues for Commercial Aircraft 32

3.2 Operational Considerations 36

3.2.1 CG Shift due to Fuel Storage 36

3.2.2 Unusable Fuel 39

3.3 Fuel Tank Venting 41

3.3.1 Vent System Sizing 45

3.4 Military Aircraft Fuel Storage Issues 45

3.4.1 Drop Tanks and Conformal Tanks 48

3.4.2 Closed Vent Systems 48

3.5 Maintenance Considerations 49

3.5.1 Access 49

3.5.2 Contamination 50

4 Fuel System Functions of Commercial Aircraft 53

4.1 Refueling and Defueling 54

4.1.1 Pressure Refueling 54

4.1.2 Defueling 58

4.2 Engine and APU Feed 59

4.2.1 Feed Tank and Engine Location Effects 59

4.2.2 Feed Pumping Systems 60

4.2.3 Feed Tank Scavenging 65

4.2.4 Negative g Considerations65

4.2.5 Crossfeed 66

4.2.6 Integrated Feed System Solution 67

4.2.7 Feed System Design Practices 69

4.3 Fuel Transfer 70

4.3.1 Fuel Burn Scheduling 70

4.3.2 Wing Load Alleviation 72

4.3.3 Fuel Transfer System Design Requirements 72

4.4 Fuel Jettison 73

4.4.1 Jettison System Example 74

4.5 Fuel Quantity Gauging 76

4.5.1 Architectural Considerations 78

4.5.2 Fuel Load Planning 82

4.5.3 Leak Detection 83

4.6 Fuel Management and Control 84

4.6.1 Refuel Distribution 86

4.6.2 In-flight Fuel Management 88

4.6.3 Fuel Management System Architecture Considerations 91

4.6.4 Flight Deck Displays, Warnings and Advisories 91

4.7 Ancillary Systems 93

5 Fuel System Functions of Military Aircraft and Helicopters 97

5.1 Refueling and Defueling 98

5.1.1 Pressure Refueling 98

5.1.2 Defueling 102

5.2 Engine and APU Feed 103

5.3 Fuel Transfer 104

5.4 Aerial Refueling 106

5.4.1 Design and Operational Issues Associated with Aerial Refueling 108

5.4.2 Flying Boom System 109

5.4.3 Probe and Drogue Systems 111

5.5 Fuel Measurement and Management Systems in Military Applications 112

5.5.1 KC-135 Aerial Refueling Tanker Fuel Measurement and Management System 112

5.6 Helicopter Fuel Systems 116

6 Fluid Mechanical Equipment 119

6.1 Ground Refueling and Defueling Equipment 120

6.1.1 Refueling and Defueling Adaptors 120

6.1.2 Refuel Shut-off Valves 121

6.1.3 Fuel Transfer Valves 131

6.2 Fuel Tank Venting and Pressurization Equipment 133

6.3 Aerial Refueling Equipment 137

6.3.1 The Flying Boom System Equipment 137

6.3.2 The Probe and Drogue System Equipment 139

6.4 Equipment Sizing 142

6.4.1 Valve Configuration and Pressure Drop Estimation 142

6.5 Fuel Pumps 143

6.5.1 Ejector Pumps 143

6.5.2 Motor-driven pumps 145

7 Fuel Measurement and Management Equipment 157

7.1 Fuel Gauging Sensor Technology 158

7.1.1 Capacitance Gauging 158

7.1.2 Ultrasonic Gauging 177

7.1.3 Density Sensor Technology 186

7.1.4 Level Sensing 191

7.1.5 Secondary Gauging 193

7.2 Harnesses 195

7.2.1 In-Tank Harnesses 195

7.2.2 Out-Tank Harnesses 197

7.3 Avionics Equipment 197

7.3.1 Requirements 197

7.3.2 Data Concentration 198

7.3.3 Avionics Integration 198

7.3.4 Integration of Fuel Management 199

7.3.5 Fuel Quantity Display 200

8 Fuel Properties 203

8.1 The Refinement Process 203

8.2 Fuel Specification Properties of Interest 205

8.2.1 Distillation Process Limits 205

8.2.2 Flashpoint 205

8.2.3 Vapor Pressure 206

8.2.4 Viscosity 207

8.2.5 Freeze Point 208

8.2.6 Density 208

8.2.7 Thermal Stability 209

8.3 Operational Considerations 209

8.3.1 Fuel Temperature Considerations-Feed and Transfer 209

8.3.2 Fuel Property Issues Associated with Quantity Gauging 210

9 Intrinsic Safety, Electro Magnetics and Electrostatics 215

9.1 Intrinsic Safety 216

9.1.1 Threats from Energy Storage within the Signal Conditioning Avionics 217

9.2 Lightning 217

9.2.1 Threats from Induced Transients in Electronic Equipment 218

9.2.2 Protecting the Signal Conditioning Avionics from Lightning 221

9.3 EMI/HIRF 221

9.3.1 Threats from HIRE Energy Transfer 221

9.3.2 Protecting the Signal Conditioning Avionics from HIRF 222

9.3.3 Electrostatics 222

10 Fuel Tank Inerting 225

10.1 Early Military Inerting Systems 225

10.2 Current Technology Inerting Systems 229

10.2.1 Military Aircraft Inerting Systems 229

10.2.2 Commercial Aircraft Inerting Systems 231

10.3 Design Considerations for Open Vent Systems 235

10.4 Operational Issues with Permeable Membrane Inerting Systems 236

10.4.1 Fiber In-service Performance 236

10.4.2 Separator Performance Measurement 237

10.4.3 NEA Distribution 237

11 Design Development and Certification 239

11.1 Evolution of the Design and Development Process 239

11.2 System Design and Development - a Disciplined Methodology 243

11.2.1 The 'V' Diagram 245

11.2.2 Software Development 246

11.3 Program Management 248

11.3.1 Supplier Team Organization 249

11.3.2 Risk Management 250

11.3.3 Management Activities 252

11.4 Maturity Management 254

11.5 Installation Considerations 256

11.6 Modeling and Simulation 259

11.7 Certification 263

11.7.1 Certification of Commercial Aircraft Fuel Systems 263

11.7.2 Flight Test Considerations 264

11.7.3 Certification of Military Aircraft Fuel Systems 266

11.8 Fuel System Icing Tests 268

11.8.1 Icing Test Rigs 269

11.8.2 Fuel Conditioning 269

12 Fuel System Design Examples 271

12.1 The Bombardier Global ExpressTM 272

12.1.1 Fuel Storage 273

12.1.2 Fluid Mechanical System Design 275

12.1.3 Fuel Measurement and Management 277

12.1.4 Flight Deck Equipment 278

12.1.5 Operational Considerations 278

12.2 Embraer 170/190 Regional Jet 280

12.2.1 Fuel Storage and Venting 280

12.2.2 The Refuel and Defuel System 282

12.2.3 In-flight Operation 283

12.2.4 System Architecture 284

12.2.5 Fuel Quantity Gauging 286

12.2.6 In-service Maturity 287

12.3 The Boeing 777 Wide-Bodied Airliner 288

12.3.1 Fuel Storage 289

12.3.2 Fluid-Mechanical System 292

12.3.3 Fuel Measurement and Management 296

12.4 The Airbus A380 Wide-Bodied Airliner 301

12.4.1 Fuel Storage 302

12.4.2 Fluid-Mechanical System 303

12.4.3 Fuel Measurement and Management System (FMMS) 309

12.5 The Anglo-French Concorde 315

12.5.1 Fuel System Operational and Thermal Design Issues 316

12.5.2 Refuel System 317

12.5.3 Fuel Transfer and Jettison 317

12.5.4 Fuel Feed 321

12.5.5 Vent System 324

13 New and Future Technologies 327

13.1 Fuel Measurement and Management 327

13.1.1 Fuel Measurement 327

13.1.2 Fuel Management 329

13.2 Fluid Mechanical Equipment Technology 331

13.2.1 Fuel Valve Technology 331

13.2.2 Revolutionary Fuel Pump and Valve Technology 333

13.3 Aerial Refueling Operations 338

References 339

Index 341

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