Aircraft Systems: Mechanical, Electrical and Avionics Subsystems Integration / Edition 3

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This third edition of Aircraft Systems represents a timely update of the Aerospace Series’ successful and widely acclaimed flagship title. Moir and Seabridge present an in-depth study of the general systems of an aircraft – electronics, hydraulics, pneumatics, emergency systems and flight control to name but a few - that transform an aircraft shell into a living, functioning and communicating flying machine. Advances in systems technology continue to alloy systems and avionics, with aircraft support and flight systems increasingly controlled and monitored by electronics; the authors handle the complexities of these overlaps and interactions in a straightforward and accessible manner that also enhances synergy with the book’s two sister volumes, Civil Avionics Systems and Military Avionics Systems.

Aircraft Systems, 3rd Edition is thoroughly revised and expanded from the last edition in 2001, reflecting the significant technological and procedural changes that have occurred in the interim – new aircraft types, increased electronic implementation, developing   markets, increased environmental pressures and the emergence of UAVs. Every chapter is updated, and the latest technologies depicted. It offers an essential reference tool for aerospace industry researchers and practitioners such as aircraft designers, fuel specialists, engine specialists, and ground crew maintenance providers, as well as a textbook for senior undergraduate and postgraduate students in systems engineering, aerospace and engineering avionics.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
"The book provides excellent coverage of the complete range of aircraft systems and is thus aimed at the professional aerospace design engineer who may have in-depth knowledge of a specialised area but who would really benefit from a broader appreciation of the workings and constraints applicable to all other aircraft systems." (Aerospace Professional, January 2009)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470059968
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 6/23/2008
  • Series: Aerospace Series
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 3
  • Pages: 546
  • Sales rank: 773,995
  • Product dimensions: 6.80 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Meet the Author

Lan Moir After 20 years in the royal Air Force as an engineering officer, Ian went on to Smiths Industries in the UK where he was involved in a number of advanced projects. Since retiring from Smiths he is now in demand as a highly respected consultant. Ian has a brad and detailed experience working in aircraft avionics systems in both military and civil aircraft. From the RAF Tornado and Apache helicopter to the Boeing 777, Ian's work has kept him at the forefront of new system developments and integrated systems in the areas of more-electric technology and systems implementations. He has a special interest in fostering training and education in aerospace engineering.

Allan Seabridge was until recently the Chief Flight Systems Engineer at BAE Systems at Warton in Lancashire in the UK. In over 30 years in the aerospace industry his work has latterly included the avionics systems on the Nimrod MRA 4 and Lockheed Martin Lightning II (Joint Strike Fighter) as well as a the development of a range of flight and avionics systems on a wide range of fast jets, training aircraft and ground and maritime surveillance projects. Spending much of his time between Europe and the US, Allan is fully aware of systems developments worldwide. he is also keen to encourage a further understanding of integrated engineering systems. An interest in engineering education continues with the design and delivery of systems and engineering courses at a number of UK universities at undergraduate and postgraduate level.

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Table of Contents


Series Preface.

About the Authors.


List of Abbreviations.


Systems Integration.

Systems Interaction.

1 Flight Control Systems.

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Principles of Flight Control.

1.3 Flight Control Surfaces.

1.4 Primary Flight Control.

1.5 Secondary Flight Control.

1.6 Commercial Aircraft.

1.6.1 Primary Flight Control.

1.6.2 Secondary Flight Control.

1.7 Flight Control Linkage Systems.

1.7.1 Push-Pull Control Rod System.

1.7.2 Cable and Pulley System.

1.8 High Lift Control Systems.

1.9 Trim and Feel.

1.9.1 Trim.

1.9.2 Feel.

1.10 Flight Control Actuation.

1.10.1 Simple Mechanical/Hydraulic Actuation.

1.10.2 Mechanical Actuation with Electrical Signalling.

1.10.3 Multiple Redundancy Actuation.

1.10.4 Mechanical Screwjack Actuator.

1.10.5 Integrated Actuator Package (IAP).

1.10.6 Advanced Actuation Implementations.

1.11 Civil System Implementations.

1.11.1 Top-Level Comparison.

1.11.2 Airbus Implementation.

1.12 Fly-By-Wire Control Laws.

1.13 A380 Flight Control Actuation.

1.14 Boeing 777 Implementation.

1.15 Interrelationship of Flight Control, Guidance and Flight Management.

2 Engine Control Systems.

2.1 Introduction.

2.1.1 Engine/Airframe Interfaces.

2.2 Engine Technology and Principles of Operation.

2.3 The Control Problem.

2.3.1 Fuel Flow Control.

2.3.2 Air Flow Control.

2.3.3 Control Systems.

2.3.4 Control System Parameters.

2.3.5 Input Signals.

2.3.6 Output Signals.

2.4 Example Systems.

2.5 Design Criteria.

2.6 Engine Starting.

2.6.1 Fuel Control.

2.6.2 Ignition Control.

2.6.3 Engine Rotation.

2.6.4 Throttle Levers.

2.6.5 Starting Sequence.

2.7 Engine Indications.

2.8 Engine Oil Systems.

2.9 Engine Offtakes.

2.10 Reverse Thrust.

2.11 Engine Control on Modern Civil Aircraft.

3 Fuel Systems.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Characteristics of Fuel Systems.

3.3 Description of Fuel System Components.

3.3.1 Fuel Transfer Pumps.

3.3.2 Fuel Booster Pumps.

3.3.3 Fuel Transfer Valves.

3.3.4 Non-Return Valves (NRVs).

3.4 Fuel Quantity Measurement.

3.4.1 Level Sensors.

3.4.2 Fuel Gauging Probes.

3.4.3 Fuel Quantity Measurement Basics.

3.4.4 Tank Shapes.

3.4.5 Fuel Properties.

3.4.6 Fuel Quantity Measurement Systems.

3.4.7 Fokker F50/F100 System.

3.4.8 Airbus A320 System.

3.4.9 ‘Smart' Probes.

3.4.10 Ultrasonic Probes.

3.5 Fuel System Operating Modes.

3.5.1 Pressurisation.

3.5.2 Engine Feed.

3.5.3 Fuel Transfer.

3.5.4 Refuel/Defuel.

3.5.5 Vent Systems.

3.5.6 Use of Fuel as a Heat Sink.

3.5.7 External Fuel Tanks.

3.5.8 Fuel Jettison.

3.5.9 In-Flight Refuelling.

3.6 Integrated Civil Aircraft Systems.

3.6.1 Bombardier Global Express.

3.6.2 Boeing 777.

3.6.3 A340-500/600 Fuel System.

3.7 Fuel Tank Safety.

3.7.1 Principles of Fuel Inerting.

3.7.2 Air Separation Technology.

3.7.3 Typical Fuel Inerting System.

3.8 Polar Operations – Cold Fuel Management.

3.8.1 Minimum Equipment List (MEL).

3.8.2 Cold Fuel Characteristics.

3.8.3 Fuel Temperature Indication.

4 Hydraulic Systems.

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Hydraulic Circuit Design.

4.3 Hydraulic Actuation.

4.4 Hydraulic Fluid.

4.5 Fluid Pressure.

4.6 Fluid Temperature.

4.7 Fluid Flow Rate.

4.8 Hydraulic Piping.

4.9 Hydraulic Pumps.

4.10 Fluid Conditioning.

4.11 Hydraulic Reservoir.

4.12 Warnings and Status.

4.13 Emergency Power Sources.

4.14 Proof of Design.

4.15 Aircraft System Applications.

4.15.1 The Avro RJ Hydraulic System.

4.15.2 The BAE SYSTEMS Hawk 200 Hydraulic System.

4.15.3 Tornado Hydraulic System.

4.16 Civil Transport Comparison.

4.16.1 Airbus A320.

4.16.2 Boeing 767.

4.17 Landing Gear Systems.

4.17.1 Nose Gear.

4.17.2 Main Gear.

4.17.3 Braking Anti-Skid and Steering.

4.17.4 Electronic Control.

4.17.5 Automatic Braking.

4.17.6 Multi-Wheel Systems.

4.17.7 Brake Parachute.

5 Electrical Systems.

5.1 Introduction.

5.1.1 Electrical Power Evolution.

5.2 Aircraft Electrical System.

5.3 Power Generation.

5.3.1 DC Power Generation.

5.3.2 AC Power Generation.

5.3.3 Power Generation Control.

5.4 Primary Power Distribution.

5.5 Power Conversion and Energy Storage.

5.5.1 Inverters.

5.5.2 Transformer Rectifier Units (TRUs).

5.5.3 Auto-Transformers.

5.5.4 Battery Chargers.

5.5.5 Batteries.

5.6 Secondary Power Distribution.

5.6.1 Power Switching.

5.6.2 Load Protection.

5.7 Typical Aircraft DC System.

5.8 Typical Civil Transport Electrical System.

5.9 Electrical Loads.

5.9.1 Motors and Actuation.

5.9.2 DC Motors.

5.9.3 AC Motors.

5.9.4 Lighting.

5.9.5 Heating.

5.9.6 Subsystem Controllers and Avionics Systems.

5.9.7 Ground Power.

5.10 Emergency Power Generation.

5.10.1 Ram Air Turbine.

5.10.2 Backup Power Converters.

5.10.3 Permanent Magnet Generators (PMGs).

5.11 Recent Systems Developments.

5.11.1 Electrical Load Management System (ELMS).

5.11.2 Variable Speed Constant Frequency (VSCF).

5.11.3 270 VDC Systems.

5.11.4 More-Electric Aircraft (MEA).

5.12 Recent Electrical System Developments.

5.12.1 Airbus A380 Electrical System Overview.

5.12.2 A400M.

5.12.3 B787 Electrical Overview.

5.13 Electrical Systems Displays.

6 Pneumatic Systems.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Use of Bleed Air.

6.3 Engine Bleed Air Control.

6.4 Bleed Air System Indications.

6.5 Bleed Air System Users.

6.5.1 Wing and Engine Anti-Ice.

6.5.2 Engine Start.

6.5.3 Thrust Reversers.

6.5.4 Hydraulic Systems.

6.6 Pitot Static Systems.

6.6.1 Innovative Methods of Pitot-Static Measurement.

7 Environmental Control Systems.

7.1 Introduction.

7.2 The Need for a Controlled Environment.

7.2.1 Kinetic Heating.

7.2.2 Solar Heating.

7.2.3 Avionics Heat Loads.

7.2.4 Airframe System Heat Loads.

7.2.5 The Need for Cabin Conditioning.

7.2.6 The Need for Avionics Conditioning.

7.3 The International Standard Atmosphere (ISA).

7.4 Environmental Control System Design.

7.4.1 Ram Air Cooling.

7.4.2 Fuel Cooling.

7.4.3 Engine Bleed.

7.4.4 Bleed Flow and Temperature Control.

7.5 Cooling Systems.

7.5.1 Air Cycle Refrigeration Systems.

7.5.2 Turbofan System.

7.5.3 Bootstrap System.

7.5.4 Reversed Bootstrap.

7.5.5 Ram Powered Reverse Bootstrap.

7.5.6 Vapour Cycle Systems.

7.5.7 Liquid Cooled Systems.

7.5.8 Expendable Heat Sinks.

7.6 Humidity Control.

7.7 The Inefficiency of Present Systems.

7.8 Air Distribution Systems.

7.8.1 Avionics Cooling.

7.8.2 Unconditioned Bays.

7.8.3 Conditioned Bays.

7.8.4 Conditioned Bay Equipment Racking.

7.8.5 Ground Cooling.

7.8.6 Cabin Distribution Systems.

7.9 Cabin Noise.

7.10 Cabin Pressurisation.

7.11 Hypoxia.

7.12 Molecular Sieve Oxygen Concentrators.

7.13 g Tolerance.

7.14 Rain Dispersal.

7.15 Anti-Misting and De-Misting.

7.16 Aircraft Icing.

8 Emergency Systems.

8.1 Introduction.

8.2 Warning Systems.

8.3 Fire Detection and Suppression.

8.4 Emergency Power Sources.

8.5 Explosion Suppression.

8.6 Emergency Oxygen.

8.7 Passenger Evacuation.

8.8 Crew Escape.

8.9 Computer-Controlled Seats.

8.10 Ejection System Timing.

8.11 High Speed Escape.

8.12 Crash Recorder.

8.13 Crash Switch.

8.14 Emergency Landing.

8.15 Emergency System Testing.

9 Rotary Wing Systems.

9.1 Introduction.

9.2 Special Requirements of Helicopters.

9.3 Principles of Helicopter Flight.

9.4 Helicopter Flight Control.

9.5 Primary Flight Control Actuation.

9.5.1 Manual Control.

9.5.2 Auto-Stabilisation.

9.5.3 Autopilot Modes.

9.6 Key Helicopter Systems.

9.6.1 Engine and Transmission System.

9.6.2 Hydraulic Systems.

9.6.3 Electrical System.

9.6.4 Health Monitoring System.

9.6.5 Specialised Helicopter Systems.

9.7 Helicopter Auto-Flight Control.

9.7.1 EH 101 Flight Control System.

9.7.2 NOTAR Method of Yaw Control.

9.8 Active Control Technology.

9.9 Advanced Battlefield Helicopter.

9.9.1 Target Acquisition and Designator System (TADS)/Pilots Night Vision System (PNVS).

9.9.2 AH-64 C/D Longbow Apache.

9.10 Tilt Rotor Systems.

9.10.1 Tilt Rotor Concept and Development.

9.10.2 V-22 OSPREY.

9.10.3 Civil Tilt Rotor.

10 Advanced Systems.

10.1 Introduction.

10.1.1 STOL Manoeuvre Technology Demonstrator (SMTD).

10.1.2 Vehicle Management Systems (VMS).

10.1.3 More-Electric Aircraft.

10.1.4 More-Electric Engine.

10.2 Stealth.

10.2.1 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF).

10.3 Integrated Flight and Propulsion Control (IFPC).

10.4 Vehicle Management System.

10.5 More-Electric Aircraft.

10.5.1 Engine Power Offtakes.

10.5.2 Boeing 787 (More-Electric) Electrical System.

10.5.3 More-Electric Hydraulic System.

10.5.4 More-Electric Environmental Control System.

10.6 More-Electric Actuation.

10.6.1 Electro-Hydrostatic Actuators (EHA).

10.6.2 Electro-Mechanical Actuators (EMA).

10.6.3 Electric Braking.

10.7 More-Electric Engine.

10.7.1 Conventional Engine Characteristics.

10.7.2 More-Electric Engine Characteristics.

10.8 Impact of Stealth Design.

10.8.1 Lockheed F-117A Nighthawk.

10.8.2 Northrop B-2 Spirit.

10.8.3 Joint Strike Fighter – F-35 Lightning II.

10.9 Technology Developments/Demonstrators.

10.9.1 Fault Tolerant 270VDC Electrical Power Generation System.

10.9.2 Thermal and Energy Management Module.

10.9.3 AFTI F-16 Flight Demonstration.

11 System Design and Development.

11.1 Introduction.

11.1.1 Systems Design.

11.1.2 Development Processes.

11.2 System Design.

11.2.1 Key Agencies and Documentation.

11.2.2 Design Guidelines and Certification Techniques.

11.2.3 Key Elements of the Development Process.

11.3 Major Safety Processes.

11.3.1 Functional Hazard Analysis (FHA).

11.3.2 Preliminary System Safety Analysis (PSSA).

11.3.3 System Safety Analysis (SSA).

11.3.4 Common Cause Analysis (CCA).

11.4 Requirements Capture.

11.4.1 Top-Down Approach.

11.4.2 Bottom-Up Approach.

11.4.3 Requirements Capture Example.

11.5 Fault Tree Analysis (FTA).

11.6 Dependency Diagram.

11.7 Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA).

11.8 Component Reliability.

11.8.1 Analytical Methods.

11.8.2 In-Service Data.

11.9 Dispatch Reliability.

11.10 Markov Analysis.

11.11 Development Processes.

11.11.1 The Product Life Cycle.

11.11.2 Concept Phase.

11.11.3 Definition Phase.

11.11.4 Design Phase.

11.11.5 Build Phase.

11.11.6 Test Phase (Qualification Phase).

11.11.7 Operate Phase.

11.11.8 Disposal or Refurbish.

11.11.9 Development Programme.

11.11.10 ‘V' Diagram.

11.12 Extended Operations (ETOPS).

12 Avionics Technology.

12.1 Introduction.

12.2 The Nature of Microelectronic Devices.

12.2.1 Processors.

12.2.2 Memory Devices.

12.2.3 Digital Data Buses.

12.2.4 A 429 Data Bus.

12.2.5 MIL-STD-1553B.

12.2.6 ARINC 629 Data Bus.

12.2.7 COTS Data Buses.

12.3 Data Bus Integration of Aircraft Systems.

12.3.1 Experimental Aircraft Programme (EAP).

12.3.2 Airbus A330/340.

12.3.3 Boeing 777.

12.3.4 Regional Aircraft/Business Jets.

12.3.5 A380 Avionics Architecture.

12.3.6 Boeing 787 Avionics Architecture.

12.3.7 COTS Data Buses – IEEE 1394.

12.4 Fibre Optic Buses.

12.5 Avionics Packaging Standards.

12.5.1 Air Transport Radio (ATR).

12.5.2 Modular Concept Unit (MCU).

12.6 Typical LRU Architecture.

12.7 Integrated Modular Avionics.

13 Environmental Conditions.

13.1 Introduction.

13.2 Environmental Factors.

13.2.1 Altitude.

13.2.2 Temperature.

13.2.3 Contamination by Fluids.

13.2.4 Solar Radiation.

13.2.5 Rain, Humidity, Moisture.

13.2.6 Fungus.

13.2.7 Salt Fog/Salt Mist.

13.2.8 Sand and Dust.

13.2.9 Explosive Atmosphere.

13.2.10 Acceleration.

13.2.11 Immersion.

13.2.12 Vibration.

13.2.13 Acoustic Noise.

13.2.14 Shock.

13.2.15 Pyroshock.

13.2.16 Acidic Atmosphere.

13.2.17 Temperature, Humidity, Vibration, Altitude.

13.2.18 Icing/Freezing Rain.

13.2.19 Vibro-Acoustic, Temperature.

13.2.20 RF Radiation.

13.2.21 Lightning.

13.2.22 Nuclear, Biological and Chemical.

13.3 Testing and Validation Process.


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