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Within days of Madeleine Albright's confirmation as U.S. ambassador to the United Nations in 1993, she instructed David Scheffer to spearhead the historic mission to create a war crimes tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. As senior adviser to Albright and then as President Clinton's ambassador-at-large for war crimes issues, Scheffer was at the forefront of the efforts that led to criminal tribunals for the Balkans, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, and Cambodia, and that resulted in the creation of the permanent International Criminal Court. All the Missing Souls is Scheffer's gripping insider's account of the international gamble to prosecute those responsible for genocide, war crimes, and crimes against humanity, and to redress some of the bloodiest human rights atrocities in our time.
Scheffer reveals the truth behind Washington's failures during the 1994 Rwandan genocide and the 1995 Srebrenica massacre, the anemic hunt for notorious war criminals, how American exceptionalism undercut his diplomacy, and the perilous quests for accountability in Kosovo and Cambodia. He takes readers from the killing fields of Sierra Leone to the political back rooms of the U.N. Security Council, providing candid portraits of major figures such as Madeleine Albright, Anthony Lake, Richard Goldstone, Louise Arbour, Samuel "Sandy" Berger, Richard Holbrooke, and Wesley Clark, among others.
A stirring personal account of an important historical chapter, All the Missing Souls provides new insights into the continuing struggle for international justice.
"Scheffer's general observations and recommendations are grounded in a wealth of detail on the diplomatic ins and outs of the pursuit of international criminal justice during his tenure."--Richard B. Bilder, American Journal of International Law
"On behalf of the world's most powerful nation in the 1990s, Scheffer was pivotal throughout the formative decade of international criminal justice. No historian or scholar of international criminal law can afford to miss his newly published All the Missing Souls: A Personal History of the War Crimes Tribunals. . . . The role of a talented and committed diplomat and lawyer, in the service of the world's most powerful nation and of his own pathway to redemption, can be invaluable. In the end, we are all indebted to Scheffer for his personal contributions to the cause."--Doug Cassel, American Journal of International Law
INTRODUCTION: Ambassador to Hell 1
CHAPTER ONE: An Echo of Nuremberg 15
CHAPTER TWO: It's Genocide, Stupid 45
CHAPTER THREE: Credible Justice for Rwanda 69
CHAPTER FOUR: Abandoned at Srebrenica 87
CHAPTER FIVE: The Pastor from Mugonero 108
CHAPTER SIX: Unbearable Timidity 124
CHAPTER SEVEN: The Siren of Exceptionalism 163
CHAPTER EIGHT: Futile Endgame 199
CHAPTER NINE: Rome's Aftermath 227
CHAPTER TEN: Crime Scene Kosovo 251
CHAPTER ELEVEN: Freetown Is Burning 296
CHAPTER TWELVE: The Toughest Cockfi ght 341
CHAPTER THIRTEEN: No Turning Back 409
CHAPTER FOURTEEN: Postscript on Law, Crimes, and Impunity 421
Appendix: Comparison of Modern War Crimes Tribunals 444
Further Reading 501
List of Illustrations 511