I. THINKING CRITICALLY.
1. Critical Thinking and Reading.
ACTIVE CRITICAL HABITS OF MIND.
Active, Critical Thinkers Search for and Question Similarities and Differences.
Active, Critical Thinkers Challenge and Are Challenged by Sources.
Active, Critical Thinkers Set Issues in a Broader Context.
Active, Critical Thinkers Will Form and Support Opinions.
COMPONENTS OF A CLOSE, CRITICAL READING.
Critical Reading (1): Reading to Understand.
Critical Reading (2): Reading to Respond.
Critical Reading (3): Reading to Evaluate.
Critical Reading (4): Reading to Synthesize.
2. Critical Thinking and Writing.
Writing a Summary.
Writing an Evaluation.
Writing an Analysis (An Application Paper).
Writing a Synthesis.
II. WRITING AS A PROCESS.
3. Planning, Developing, and Writing a Draft.
Discovering Your Topic, Purpose, and Audience.
Generating Ideas and Information.
Reviewing and Categorizing Ideas and Information.
Writing a Thesis and Sketching Your Paper.
Writing a Draft.
Student Paper: Rough Draft.
4. The Process of Revision.
Early Revision: Rediscovering Your Main Idea.
Later Revision: Bringing Your Main Idea Into Focus.
Responding to Editorial Advice from Peers or Professors.
Sample Paper: A Final Draft.
5. The Paragraph and the Paper.
The Relationship of Single Paragraphs to a Whole Paper.
The Paragraph: Essential Features.
Writing and Revising to Achieve Paragraph Unity.
Writing andRevising to Achieve Paragraph Coherence.
Writing and Revising to Achieve Well-Developed Paragraphs.
Writing and Revising Paragraphs of Introduction and Conclusion.
Determining Paragraph Length.
6. Writing and Evaluating Arguments.
An Overview of Argument.
Making a Claim (or Argumentative Thesis).
Developing Support for Your Claim.
Preparing to Write an Argument.
Evaluating Arguments and Avoiding Common Errors.
III. UNDERSTANDING GRAMMAR.
7. Constructing Sentences.
Understanding Sentence Parts.
Understanding Basic Sentence Patterns.
Expanding Sentences with Single-Word Modifiers.
Modifying and Expanding Sentences with Phrases.
Modifying and Expanding Sentences with Dependent Clauses.
8. Case in Nouns and Pronouns.
Using Pronouns as Subjects.
Using Pronouns as Objects.
Using Nouns and Pronouns in the Possessive Case.
In a Compound Construction, Use Pronouns in the Objective or Subjective Form According to Their Function in the Sentence.
Pronouns Paired with a Noun Take the Same Case as the Noun.
Choose the Appropriate Form of the Pronouns Whose, Who, Whom, Whoever, and Whomever Depending on the Pronoun's Function.
Choose the Case of a Pronoun in the Second Part of a Comparison Depending on the Meaning Intended.
Using the Principal Parts of Regular Verbs Consistently.
Learning the Forms of Irregular Verbs.
Using Auxiliary Verbs.
Using Transitive and Intransitive Verbs.
Understanding the Use of Verb Tenses.
Sequencing Verb Tenses.
Using the Active and Passive Voices.
Understanding the Uses of Mood.
Make a Third-Person Subject Agree in Number with Its Verb.
Pronouns and Their Antecedents Should Agree in Number.
Rename Indefinite Antecedents with Gender-Appropriate Pronouns.
11. Adjectives and Adverbs.
Distinguishing between Adjectives and Adverbs.
Use an Adverb (not an Adjective) to Modify Verbs as Well as Verbals.
Use an Adverb (not an Adjective) to Modify Another Adverb or an Adjective.
Use an Adjective (not an Adverb) after Linking Verb to Describe a Subject.
Using Comparative and Superlative Forms of Adjectives and Adverbs.
Avoid Double Comparisons, Double Superlatives, and Double Negatives.
Avoid Overusing Nouns as Modifiers.
IV. WRITING CORRECT SENTENCES.
12. Sentence Fragments.
Check for Completeness of Sentences.
Eliminate Fragments: Revise Dependent Clauses Set Off as Sentences.
Eliminate Fragments: Revise Phrases Set Off as Sentences.
Eliminate Fragments: Revise Repeating Structures or Compound Predicates Set off as Sentences.
Use Fragments Intentionally on Rare Occasions.
13. Comma Splices and Fused Sentences.
Identify Fused Sentences and Comma Splices.
Correct Fused Sentences and Comma Splices in One of Five Ways.
14. Pronoun Reference.
Make Pronouns Refer Clearly to Their Antecedents.
Keep Pronouns Close to Their Antecedents.
State a Pronoun's Antecedent Clearly.
Avoid Mixing Uses of the Pronoun It.
Use the Relative Pronouns Who, Which, and That Appropriately.
15. Misplaced and Dangling Modifiers.
Position Modifiers So That They Refer Clearly to the Words They Should Modify.
Positioning Limiting Modifiers with Care.
Reposition Modifiers That Describe Two Elements Simultaneously.
Reposition a Lengthy Modifier That Splits a Subject and Its Verb.
Reposition a Modifier That Splits a Verb and Its Object or a Verb and Its Complement.
Reposition a Modifier That Splits the Parts of an Infinitive.
Reposition a Lengthy Modifier That Splits a Verb Phrase.
Identify and Revise Dangling Modifiers.
16. Shifts and Mixed Constructions.
Revise Shifts in Person and Number.
Revise Shifts in Tense, Mood, and Voice.
Revise for Shifts in Tone.
Maintain Consistent Use of Direct or Indirect Discourse.
Establish Clear, Grammatical Relations between Sentence Parts.
Establish Consistent Relations between Subject and Predicates.
INCOMPLETE SENTENCES OR ILLOGICAL SENTENCES.
Edit Elliptical Constructions to Avoid Confusion.
Make Comparisons Consistent, Complete, and Clear.
V. WRITING EFFECTIVE SENTENCES.
17. Being Concise, Clear, and Direct.
Revise to Eliminate Wordiness.
Use Strong Verbs.
18. Maintaining Sentence Parallelism.
Use Parallel Words, Phrases, and Clauses with Coordinating Conjunctions.
Use Parallelism with Correlative Conjunctions.
Use Parallelism in Sentences with Compared and Contrasted Elements.
Use Parallelism among Sentences to Enhance Paragraph Coherence.
Use Parallel Entries When Writing Lists or Outlines.
19. Building Emphasis with Coordination and Subordination.
Use Coordinate Structures to Emphasize Equal Ideas.
Use Subordinate Structures to Emphasize a Main Idea.
OTHER DEVICES FOR ACHIEVING EMPHASIS.
Use Special Techniques to Achieve Emphasis.
20. Controlling Length and Rhythm.
Monitoring Sentence Length.
Strategies for Varying Sentence Length.
Strategies for Controlling Sentence Rhythm.
VI. USING EFFECTIVE WORDS.
21. Choosing the Right Word.
Understanding Denotation and Connotation.
Revising Awkward Diction.
Using General and Specific Language.
Using Abstract and Concrete Language.
Using Formal English as an Academic Standard.
Using Figures of Speech with Care.
Eliminating Biased, Dehumanizing Language.
Avoiding Euphemistic and Pretentious Language.
22. Dictionaries and Vocabulary.
Exploring Dictionaries of the English Language.
Choosing a Dictionary.
Using Specialized Dictionaries of English.
Learning Root Words, Prefixes, and Suffixes.
Strategies for Building a Vocabulary.
Overcoming Spelling/Pronunciation Misconnections.
Learn Basic Spelling Rules for ie/ei.
Learn Rules for Using Prefixes.
Learn Rules for Using Suffixes.
Learn Rules for Forming Plurals.
VII. USING PUNCTUATION.
24. End Punctuation.
Using the Period.
THE QUESTION MARK.
Using the Question Mark.
THE EXCLAMATION POINT.
Using the Exclamation Point.
Using Commas with Introductory and Concluding Expressions.
Using a Comma before a Coordinating Conjunction to Join Two Independent Clauses.
Using Commas between Items in a Series.
Using Commas to Set off Nonessential Elements.
Using Commas to Acknowledge Conventions of Quoting, Naming, and Various Forms of Separation.
Editing to Avoid Misuse or Overuse of Commas.
Use a Semicolon, Not a Comma, to Join Independent Clauses That Are Intended to Be Closely Related.
Use a Semicolon, Not a Comma, to Join Two Independent Clauses That Are Closely Linked by a Conjunctive Adverb.
Join Independent Clauses with a Semicolon Before a Coordinating Conjunction When One or Both Clauses Contain a Comma or Other Internal Punctuation.
Use a Semicolon to Separate Items in a Series When Each Item Is Long or When One or More Items Contain a Comma.
Place Semicolons Outside of End Quotation Marks.
Edit to Avoid Common Errors.
Using Apostrophes to Show Possession with Single Nouns.
Using Apostrophes to Show Possession with Multiple Nouns.
Using Apostrophes in Contractions to Mark the Omission of Letters and Numbers.
Using Apostrophes to Mark Plural Forms.
28. Quotation Marks.
Quoting Poetry, Dialogue, and Other Material.
Eliminating Misused or Overused Quotation Marks.
29. Other Marks.
Using the Colon.
Using Dashes for Emphasis.
Using Parentheses to Set off Nonessential Information.
Using Brackets for Editorial Clarification.
Using Ellipses to Indicate a Break in Continuity.
Using the Slash.
VIII. USING MECHANICS.
30. Capitals and Italics.
Capitalize the First Letter of the First Word in Every Sentence.
Capitalize Words of Significance in a Title.
Capitalize the First Word in Every Line of Poetry.
Capitalize Proper NounsPeople, Places, Objects; Proper Adjectives; and Ranks of Distinction.
Underline or Italicize Words if They Need a Specific Emphasis.
Underline or Italicize Words, Letters, and Numbers to Be Defined or Identified.
Use Underlining or Italics for Titles of Book-Length Works Separately Published or Broadcast, as Well as for Individually Named Transport Craft.
31. Abbreviations and Numbers.
Abbreviating Titles of Rank Both Before and after Proper Names.
Abbreviating Specific Dates and Numbers.
Using Acronyms, Uppercase Abbreviations, and Corporate Abbreviations.
Using Abbreviations for Parenthetical References.
Revise to Eliminate All but Conventional Abbreviations from Sentences.
Write out Numbers That Begin Sentences and Numbers That Can Be Expressed in One or Two Words.
Use Figures in Sentences According to Convention.
Edit to Eliminate Numbers and Figures Mixed Together in One Sentence, Unless These Have Different References.
Using Hyphens to Make Compound Words.
Using Hyphens to Divide a Word at the End of a Line.
IX. WRITING THE RESEARCH PAPER.
33. Understanding the Research Process.
Making Your Research Worthwhile.
Determining the Scope of Your Paper and Identifying a Research Question.
Generating Ideas for the Paper.
Developing a Strategy for Preliminary Research.
Devising a Working Thesis.
Doing Preliminary Research and Reading.
Focused Research: Print Sources and Interviews.
34. Using Electronic Resources.
Finding the Right Online Resources.
Constructing Effective Internet Searches.
Evaluating Internet Sources.
URLs for Researchers.
35. Using Sources.
Finding Sources for Authoritative Opinions, Facts, and Examples.
Classifying Sources: Primary and Secondary.
Reading Sources Critically.
Creating a Working Bibliography.
Taking Notes: Summarizing and Paraphrasing.
Weaving Summaries, Paraphrases, and Quotations into Your Paragraphs.
36. Writing the Research Paper.
Refining the Thesis.
Developing a Plan.
Drawing on Your Sources to Support Your Idea.
Determining Your Voice.
Writing a Draft.
Revising and Editing.
Understanding the Elements of Documentation.
A Sample Paper: "What Do We Want at the Mall?"
37. Documenting Research.
Using the MLA System of Documentation.
Using the APA System of Documentation.
Using the CMS Style of Documentation.
Using the CBE Systems of Documentation.
X. WRITING AND READING IN THE DISCIPLINES.
38. Writing and Reading in the Humanities.
Writing in the Humanities.
Reading in the Humanities.
Types of Writing Assignments in the Humanities.
Writing about Literature.
Kate Chopin, A Shameful Affair.
Sample Student Paper, The Role of Color in Kate Chopin's "A Shameful Affair."
Reference Materials in the Humanities.
39. Writing and Reading in the Social Sciences.
Writing in the Social Sciences.
Reading in the Social Sciences.
Types of Writing Assignments in the Social Sciences.
Sample Student Paper, Women Alcoholics: A Conspiracy of Silence.
Reference Materials in the Social Sciences.
40. Writing and Reading in the Sciences.
Writing in the Sciences.
Reading in the Sciences.
Types of Writing Assignments in the Sciences.
Sample Student Paper, Comparison of Two Strains of Wine-Producing Yeasts.
Reference Materials in the Sciences.
XI. WRITING FOR SPECIAL OCCASIONS.
41. Writing for the Web.
Planning and Writing a Document for the Web.
Images, Page Design, and Launching on the Web.
42. The Visual Design of Documents.
Design Elements and the Audiences for Your Documents.
Effective Headings and Typography Emphasize Content.
Graphic Material in Reports, Presentations, or Proposals.
43. Writing in a Business Environment.
Standard Formats, Spacing, and Information in a Business Letter.
Letters of Inquiry.
Letters of Complaint.
Letters of Application.
44. Writing Essay Exams.
A Strategy for Taking Essay Exams.
The Importance of Verbs in an Essay Question.
XII. ESL REFERENCE GUIDE.
45. Using English Nouns, Pronouns, and Articles.
Using the Different Classes of English Nouns.
Using Articles with Nouns.
Using Nouns with Prepositions.
46. Using English Verbs.
Distinguishing Different Types of Verbs and Verb Constructions.
Changing Verb Forms.
Changing Word Order with Verbs.
Using the Helping Verbs: Auxiliaries and Modal Auxiliaries.
Choosing Gerunds and Infinitives with Verbs.
Using Two- and Three-Word Verbs, or Phrasal Verbs, with Particles.
47. Using Modifiers and Connectors in English Sentences.
Using Single-Word Adjectives and Nouns as Modifiers of Nouns.
Using Adjectival Modifiers with Linking Verbs and Prepositions.
Positioning Adverbial Modifiers.
Using Phrases and Clauses to Modify Nouns and Pronouns.
Combining Phrases and Clauses with Connecting Words.
Arranging Cumulative Modifiers.
Appendix A: Manuscript Form and Preparation.
Paper and Binding.
Punctuation and Spacing.
Appendix B: Glossary of Usage.
Appendix C: Glossary of Terms: Grammar and Composition.
References and Works Cited.