Alternative Schooling and School Choice


Education of America’s school children always has been and always will be a hot-button issue. From what should be taught to how to pay for education to how to keep kids safe in schools, impassioned debates emerge and mushroom, both within the scholarly community and among the general public. This volume in the point/counterpoint Debating Issues in American Education reference series tackles the topic of alternative schooling and school choice. Fifteen to twenty chapters explore such varied issues as charter ...
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Education of America’s school children always has been and always will be a hot-button issue. From what should be taught to how to pay for education to how to keep kids safe in schools, impassioned debates emerge and mushroom, both within the scholarly community and among the general public. This volume in the point/counterpoint Debating Issues in American Education reference series tackles the topic of alternative schooling and school choice. Fifteen to twenty chapters explore such varied issues as charter schools, for-profit schools, faith-based schools, magnet schools, vouchers, and more. Each chapter opens with an introductory essay by the volume editor, followed by point/counterpoint articles written and signed by invited experts, and concludes with Further Readings and Resources, thus providing readers with views on multiple sides of alternative schooling and school choice issues and pointing them toward more in-depth resources for further exploration.
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Meet the Author

Allan G. Osborne, Jr. is the retired principal of the Snug Harbor Community School in Quincy, Massachusetts, a nationally recognized Blue Ribbon School of Excellence. During his 34 years in public education, he served as a special education teacher, a director of special education, an assistant principal, and a principal. He has also served as an adjunct professor of special education and education law at several colleges, including Bridgewater State University and American International University.

Osborne earned an EdD in educational leadership from Boston College and an MEd in special education from Fitchburg State College (now Fitchburg State University) in Massachusetts. He received a BA in psychology from the University of Massachusetts.

Osborne has authored or coauthored numerous peer-reviewed journal articles, book chapters, monographs, and textbooks on legal issues in education, along with textbooks on other aspects of education. Although he writes and presents in several areas of educational law, he specializes in legal and policy issues in special education. He is the coauthor, with Charles J. Russo, of five texts published by Corwin, a SAGE company.

A past president of the Education Law Association (ELA), Osborne has been an attendee and presenter at most ELA conferences since 1991. He has also written a chapter now titled "Students With Disabilities" for the Yearbook of Education Law, published by ELA, since 1990. He is on the editorial advisory committee of West’s Education Law Reporter and is coeditor of the "Education Law Into Practice" section of that journal, which is sponsored by ELA. He is also on the editorial boards of several other education journals.

In recognition of his contributions to the field of education law, Osborne was presented with the McGhehey Award by ELA in 2008, the highest award given by the organization. He is also the recipient of the City of Quincy Human Rights Award, the Financial Executives Institute of Massachusetts Principals Award, the Junior Achievement of Massachusetts Principals Award, and several community service awards.

Charles J. Russo, JD, EdD, is the Joseph Panzer Chair in Education in the School of Education and Allied Professions and adjunct professor in the School of Law at the University of Dayton. He was the 1998–1999 president of the Education Law Association and 2002 recipient of its McGhehey (Achievement) Award. He has authored or coauthored more than 200 articles in peer-reviewed journals; has authored, coauthored, edited, or coedited 40 books; and has in excess of 800 publications. Russo also speaks extensively on issues in education law in the United States and abroad.

Along with having spoken in 33 states and 25 nations on 6 continents, Russo has taught summer courses in England, Spain, and Thailand; he also has served as a visiting professor at Queensland University of Technology in Brisbane and the University of Newcastle, Australia; the University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina; South East European University, Macedonia; the Potchefstroom Campus of North-West University in Potchefstroom, South Africa; the University of Malaya in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; and the University of São Paulo, Brazil. He regularly serves as a visiting professor at the Potchefstroom Campus of North-West University.

Before joining the faculty at the University of Dayton as professor and chair of the Department of Educational Administration in July 1996, Russo taught at the University of Kentucky in Lexington from August 1992 to July 1996 and at Fordham University in his native New York City from September 1989 to July 1992. He taught high school for 8½ years before and after graduation from law school. He received a BA (classical civilization) in 1972, a JD in 1983, and an EdD (educational administration and supervision) in 1989 from St. John’s University in New York City. He also received a master of divinity degree from the Seminary of the Immaculate Conception in Huntington, New York, in 1978, as well as a PhD Honoris Causa from the Potchefstroom Campus of North-West University, South Africa, in May 2004 for his contributions to the field of education law.

Gerald M. Cattaro is a professor of educational administration at Fordham University Graduate School of Education in New York City. Since 2005, he has served as chair of the Division of Educational Leadership Administration and Policy. For the past 20 years Cattaro has headed The Center for Catholic School Leadership & Faith-Based Education as executive director. He is active on three journal boards, reflecting his research interests in urban education, international education, and faith-based education. He serves on numerous national and international commissions of education. His writing appears in books, peer-reviewed journals, monographs, and chapters. Cattaro has worked as a practitioner in the role of teacher, chair, assistant principal, principal, and district-level administration in all levels of K–12 education.

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Table of Contents

About the Editors-in-Chief ix

About the Volume Editors xi

About the Contributors xii

Introduction xvi

1 Are Charter Schools a Viable Educational Model as an Alternative to Public Education? 1

Overview Gerald M. Cattaro 1

Point Eric S. Hall 4

Counterpoint Zorka Karanxha 11

2 Do Ethnocentric Charter Schools Unconstitutionally Discriminate on the Basis of Race and/or National Origin? 19

Overview Suzanne E. Eckes 19

Point Ralph D. Mawdsley 22

Counterpoint Alex S. Hall 27

3 Should Faith-Based Charter Schools Survive Constitutional Scrutiny? 35

Overview Allan G. Osborne 35

Point Bruce S. Cooper 38

Counterpoint Janet Mulvey 45

4 Are Culturally Specific Charter Schools an Appropriate Means of Preserving Muslim Identity? 54

Overview Gerald M. Cattaro 54

Point Letitia Basford 57

Counterpoint Martha Bigelow 63

5 Is There Any Benefit to Proprietary For-Profit Schools? 72

Overview Allan G. Osborne 72

Point Lesley McCue 75

Counterpoint Mary I. Grilliot 82

6 Are Publicly Funded Programs That Afford Parents the Option of Where to Educate Their Children the Most Appropriate Ways to Promote Educational Choice? 92

Overview Allan G. Osborne 92

Point Ralph D. Mawdsley 95

Counterpoint Timothy J. Ilg 101

7 Should Homeschooling Be Subject to Greater State Regulation in Such Areas as Teacher Qualifications and Curricular Content? 109

Overview Allan G. Osborne Charles J. Russo 109

Point James L. Mawdsley 112

Counterpoint Ralph D. Mawdsley 117

8 Should the Jewish Community in the United States Provide Jewish Day Schools for All Jewish Children as a Means of Preserving Their Jewish Identity? 125

Overview Charles J. Russo Allan G. Osborne 125

Point Marc N. Kramer 128

Counterpoint Bruce S. Cooper 136

9 Do Private, Nonsectarian Schools Enhance Student Achievement? 145

Overview Allan G. Osborne 145

Point William Jeynes 148

Counterpoint Mark Littleton 155

10 Do Magnet Schools Enhance Student Achievement? 162

Overview Allan G. Osborne 162

Point Timothy J. Ilg 165

Counterpoint David Dolph 171

11 Do Single-Sex Classes and/or Schools Better Address the Needs of Elementary and/or Secondary School Students? 180

Overview Allan G. Osborne 180

Point Vivian Hopp Gordon 183

Counterpoint Jyllian Rosa Guerriero 189

12 Is Head Start Worth Preserving? 197

Overview Allan G. Osborne 197

Point Carolyn Talbert-Johnson 200

Counterpoint Tamela J. Dixon 207

13 Are Vocational Education and Apprenticeship Programs Valuable? 216

Overview Michael J. Jernigan 216

Point Dan Schroer 219

Counterpoint Paul J. Waller 227

14 Are Year-Round Schools an Appropriate Way to Improve Student Outcomes? 236

Overview Allan G. Osborne 236

Point Carolyn Talbert-Johnson 239

Counterpoint Aaron Cooley 246

15 Are Native American Schools a Viable Means of Enhancing Student Achievement? 254

Overview Allan G. Osborne 254

Point Carolyn A. Brown 257

Counterpoint Rachel Trimble 262

Index 271

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