America and Its Peoples, Fourth Edition presents American history in an exciting way, with a spirited narrative, vivid character sketches, and colorful anecdotes. The book highlights the rich ethnic diversity of the American people. Social history-with an emphasis on sports, leisure, and popular culture-is integrated with more traditional coverage of military history, politics, and diplomacy.MARKET Appropriate for anyone with an interest in American history.
Recaptures the excitement of American history through vivid character sketches, colorful anecdotes, a strong narrative pulse, and a perspective that examines such subjects as crime, disease, the family and sexuality, and sports. Underscores the role that ethnicity, race, and religion have played in the nation's social, cultural, and political development. Excerpts from primary sources introduce students to critical documents in American history. Includes color and b&w photos and illustrations, plus a comparative chronology. Martin is affiliated with the University of Houston. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
(Each Chapter concludes with a "Conclusion," "Chronology of Key Events," "Review Questions," "Key Terms," and "Suggestions for Further Reading."). 1. The Peopling And Unpeopling of America.
"A special instrument sent of God".
The First Discovery of America.
A Diversity of Cultures.
The Myth of the "Virgin" Land.
Eastern Indians on the Eve of Contact.
Preparing Europe for Westward Expansion.
Changing Population Pressures.
Crusades, Commerce, and the New Learning.
Nation-States Support the First Explorations.
Explorers, Conquerors, and the Making of New Spain.
Conquistadores Overrun Native Americans.
Constructing the Spanish Empire.
Success Breeds Envy and Contempt.
Challengers for North America: France and England.
The Protestant Reformation Stirs Deep Tensions.
Defying the Supremacy of Spain.
England Prepares for Westward Expansion.
Joining in the Invasion of America.
The Roanoke Disaster.
Merchant Capitalists Sponsor the Founding of Virginia.
Struggling Jamestown Survives.
Dutch and French Adventurers.
Internet Resources. The American Mosaic: Indian Scalping and European War Dogs. The People Speak: Powhatan Pleads for Peace and Harmony (1609).
2. Plantations and Cities Upon A Hill, 1620-1700.
From Settlements to Societies in the South.
Searching for Laborers.
To Be Like English Subjects at Home.
Crushing Powhatan's Confederacy.
A Model for Other Royal Colonies.
Proprietary Maryland and the Carolinas.
Religious Dissenters Colonize New England.
The Rise of Puritan Dissenters at Home.
Godly Mission to New England.
Testing the Limits of Toleration.
"Hivings Out" Provoke Bloody Indian Relations.
Families, Individuals, and Communities: Surviving in Early America.
Life and Death, North and South.
Roles for Men, Women, and Children.
Commercial Values and the Rise of Chattel Slavery.
Declension in New England.
Stabilizing Life in the Chesapeake Region.
The Beginnings of American Slavery.
Shifting to Slavery in Maryland and Virginia.
The World the Slaves Made.
Internet Resources. The American Mosaic: Childbirth in Early America. The People Speak: William Bradford's History of Plymouth Plantation.
3. Provincial America in Upheaval, 1660-1760.
Designing England's North American Empire.
To Benefit the Parent State.
Seizing Dutch New Netherland.
Proprietary Difficulties in New York and New Jersey.
Planting William Penn's "Holy Experiment".
Defying the Imperial Will: Provincial Convulsions and Rebellions.
Bacon's Bloody Rebellion in Virginia.
The Glorious Revolution Spills into America.
New England's Witchcraft Hysteria.
Settling Anglo-American Differences.
Maturing Colonial Societies in Unsettled Times.
An Exploding Population Base.
The "Europeanizing" of America.
Intellectual and Religious Awakening.
International Wars Beset America.
Showdown: The Great War for. the Empire.
Allies as Enemies: Making War on the Cherokees.
Internet Resources. The American Mosaic: Colonial Pastimes. The People Speak: Olaudah Equiano on His Ship Passage as a Slave to America.
4. Breaking the Bonds of Empire, 1760-1775.
Samuel Adams: Truly the Man of the Revolution.
Provoking an Imperial Crisis.
A Legacy of War-Related Problems.
Getting Tough with the Americans.
Parliament Endorses Direct Taxes.
"Liberty, Property, and No Stamps".
Emerging Patterns of Resistance.
Protest Takes a Violent Turn.
Resistance Spreads Across the Landscape.
A Second Crisis: The Townshend Duties.
Formulating a New Taxation Scheme.
Mustering Further American Resistance.
A "Bloody Massacre" in Boston.
Parliament Backs Down Again.
The Rupturing of Imperial Relations.
The Necessity of Vigilance.
The Tea Crisis of 1773.
Parliament Adopts the Coercive Acts.
Hurling Back the Challenge: The First Continental Congress.
Internet Resources. The American Mosaic: Those Hated Customs Informers. The People Speak: Dr. Joseph Warren's Boston Massacre Oration (1772).
5. The Times That Tried Many Souls, 1775-1783.
Joseph Plumb Martin: A Continental Soldier's Forlorn Existence.
Reconciliation or Independence.
The Shooting War Starts.
Moderates Versus Radicals in Congress.
The Expanding Martial Conflict.
Lord Dunmore's Proclamation of Emancipation.
Resolving the Independence Question.
Without Visible Allies: The War in the North.
Britain's Massive Military Buildup.
The Campaign for New York.
Saving the Cause at Trenton.
The Real Continentals.
Rescuing the Patriots: Toward Global Conflict.
France Offers Covert Assistance.
The British Seize Philadelphia.
Capturing Burgoyne's Army at Saratoga.
The World Turned Upside Down.
Revamping British Strategy.
The Tide of War Turns at Last.
Franco-American Triumph at Yorktown.
A Most Generous Peace Settlement.
Internet Resources. The American Mosaic: The Battle of Bunker Hill. The People Speak: Thomas Paine's American Crisis I (December 1776). Map Essay: Lexington and Concord: The Shot Heard 'Round the World.
6. Securing the Republic and Its Ideals, 1776-1789.
Nancy Shippen and Phillis Wheatley: Searching for Personal Freedom in Revolutionary Times.
Establishing New Republican Governments.
People Victorious: The New State Governments.
The Articles of Confederation.
Crises of the Confederation.
Struggle to Ratify the Articles.
Turmoil over Financing the War.
Threatened Military Coup: The Newburgh Conspiracy.
Drifting Toward Disunion.
Daniel Shays's Rebellion.
Human Rights and Social Change.
In Pursuit of Religious Freedom.
The Propertyless Poor and the West.
Women Appeal for Fundamental Liberties.
The Dilemma of Race and Racism.
Second New Beginning, New National Government.
The Framers of the Constitution.
A Document Constructed by Compromises.
The Ratification Struggle.
Internet Resources. The American Mosaic: Birth Control in the Early Republic. The People Speak: Abigail and John Adams, Letters.
7. The Formative Decade, 1790-1800.
An "Outrageous and Wretched Scandalmonger".
The Roots of American Economic Growth.
Implementing the Constitution.
Establishing the Machinery of Government.
Defining the Presidency.
Alexander Hamilton's Financial Program.
The Birth of Political Parties.
World Events and Political Polarization.
1793 and 1974: Years of Crisis.
A New President and New Challenges.
The Presidency of John Adams.
A New National Capital.
The Quasi War with France.
The Alien and Sedition Acts.
The Revolution of 1800.
Internet Resources. The American Mosaic: Yellow Fever in Philadelphia: Pills and Politics. The People Speak: Gabriel's Revolt.
8. The Jeffersonians in Power, 1800-1815.
"A Dangerous Man".
Jefferson Takes Command.
Who Was Thomas Jefferson?
Jefferson's Goal: To Restore Republican Government.
Reforming the Federal Government.
War on the Judiciary.
The American Eagle Challenges the French Tiger and the British Shark.
A Second War of Independence.
The Tide Turns.
The War's Significance.
Internet Resources. The American Mosaic: The Shawnee Prophet Tenskwatawa and His Warrior Brother Tecumseh. The People Speak: Religion in the Early Republic.
9. Nationalism, Economic Growth, and the Roots of Sectional Conflict, 1815-1824.
No Smoking, Drinking, or Swearing.
The Growth of American Nationalism.
Strengthening American Finances.
Protecting American Industry.
Defending American Interests in Foreign Affairs.
The Growth of the American Economy.
Transforming American Law.
Resistance to Technological Innovation.
The Growth of Cities.
The Growth of Political Factionalism and Sectionalism.
The Panic of 1819.
The Missouri Crisis.
Internet Resources. The American Mosaic: Denmark Vesey and the Slave Conspiracy of 1822. The People Speak: Growing Up Female in the Early Republic.
10. Power and Politics in Jackson's America.
The "People's" Candidate.
The Expansion of Voting Rights.
Popular Attacks on Privilege.
The Rebirth of Parties.
Birth of the Second Party System.
The Presidency of John Quincy Adams.
The "American System" and the "Tariff of Abominations".
The Election of 1828.
Andrew Jackson: The Politics of Egalitarianism.
Expanding the Powers of the Presidency.
Clearing the Land of Indians.
Sectional Disputes over Public Lands and Nullification.
The Bank War.
The Jacksonian Court.
Rise of a Political Opposition.
A Party Formed by Coalition.
Who Were the Whigs?
Internet Resources. The American Mosaic: The Cholera Epidemic of 1832: Sinners and Saints. The People Speak: The Cherokee Nation Protests Against Jackson's Removal Policy (1836).
11. America's First Age of Reform.
"Ar'nt I a Woman?"
Sources of the Reform Impulse.
Social Problems on the Rise.
A New Moral Sensibility.
The Second Great Awakening.
The Problem of Crime in a Free Society.
The Struggle for Public Schools.
Asylums for Society's Outcasts.
Early Antislavery Efforts.
The Rise of Abolitionist Sentiment in the North.
Abolitionist Arguments and Public Reaction.
Division Within the Antislavery Movement.
The Birth of Feminism.
Catalyst for Women's Rights.
Artistic and Cultural Ferment.
A Literary Renaissance.
American Popular Culture.
The Popular Novel.
Forms of Popular Entertainment.
Internet Resources. The American Mosaic: Gouging Fights and Backcountry Honor. The People Speak: Women's Rights: Seneca Falls Declaration and Resolutions (1848).
12. The Divided North, the Divided South.
Eli Whitney's Flawed Legacy.
A Divided Culture.
The Emergence of a New Industrial Order in the North.
The Transformation of the Rural Countryside.
The Disruption of the Artisan System of Labor.
The Introduction of the Factory System.
The Movement for a Ten-hour Day.
The Laboring Poor.
The Divided North.
The Plantation Legend.
The Old South: Images and Realities.
Impact of Slavery on the Southern Economy.
Growth of a Distinctive Southern Identity.
The Decline of Antislavery Sentiment in the South.
"Reforming" Slavery from Within.
The Legal Status of Slaves.
Material Conditions of Slave Life.
Slave Family Life.
Slave Cultural Expression.
Free African Americans.
Internet Resources. The American Mosaic: Policing the Pre-Civil War City. The People Speak: Slave Resistance.
13. Cultures Collide in the Far West.
"Vampires in the Guise of Men".
The Hispanic and Native American West.
The Mission System.
Impact of Mexican Independence.
Impact of Contact.
The Surge Westward.
Opening the West.
Settling the Far West.
Life on the Trail.
Gone to Texas.
The Texas Question.
The Mormon Frontier.
War with Mexico.
War Fever and Antiwar Protests.
The Fate of Mexican Americans.
The War's Significance.
Political Crisis of the 1840s.
The Gold Rush.
Internet Resources. The American Mosaic: Tejanos at the Alamo. The People Speak: Mexican Americans Defend Their Land and Rights (1859).
14. The House Divided.
The Slave Power Conspiracy.
The Crisis of 1850.
The South's Dilemma.
The Compromise of 1850: The Illusion of Sectional Peace.
The Fugitive Slave Law.
Disintegration of the Party System.
The Know Nothings.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Revival of the Slavery Issue.
The Gathering Storm.
"Bleeding Kansas" and "Bleeding Sumner".
The Election of 1856.
The Supreme Court Speaks.
The Lecompton Constitution: "A Swindle and a Fraud".
Crisis of the Union.
The Lincoln-Douglas Debates.
Internet Resources. The American Mosaic: Physicians and Planters, Prescription for Slave Medical Care. The People Speak: John Brown Defends His Raid on Harpers Ferry (1859).
15. A Nation Shattered by Civil War, 1860-1865.
Thomas Rush and Alvin Flint, Jr.: Casualties at Antietam.
From Secession to Full-scale War.
Electing a New President.
Secession Rends the Union.
Lincoln Takes Command.
An Accounting of Resources.
"Forward to Richmond!" and "On to Washington!".
Planning the Union Offensive.
Yankee Reverses and Rebel Victories in the East.
Federal Breakthrough in the West.
To and From Emancipation: The War on the Home Front.
An Abundance of Confederate Shortages.
Directing the Northern War Effort.
Issuing the Emancipation Proclamation.
Emancipation Tests Northern Resolve.
Breaking Confederate Resistance, 1863-1865.
The Tide Turns: Gettysburg and Vicksburg.
Crushing Blows from Grant and Sherman.
Total War Forces Surrender.
Internet Resources. The American Mosaic: Pickett's Charge at Gettysburg. The People Speak: Frederick Douglass Calls upon African Americans to Take Up Arms Against the Confederacy (1863). Map Essay: Antietam: "We Will Make Our Stand".
16. The Nation Reconstructed: North, South, and the West, 1865-1877.
"I'd like to see any man put me outer dis house".
Postwar Conditions and Issues.
The War's Impact on Individuals.
Black Codes in the South.
Reconstruction in the South.
Carpetbaggers, Scalawags, and Black Republicans.
Character of Republican Rule.
Black and White Economic and Social Adaptation.
Violent White Resistance.
Reconstruction in the North and West.
Northern Shifts in Attitudes.
Western Expansion, Racism, and Native Americans.
Final Retreat from Reconstruction.
Internet Resources. The American Mosaic: Day of Jubilo: Slaves Confront Emancipation. The People Speak: Testimony Against the Klan.