American Consuls in the Holy Land, 1832-1914

Overview

This volume deals with an eventful period in the modern history of Palestine. It provides new insights into the role of the US consuls in the Ottoman Middle East in the special context of the Holy Land. The motivations and functioning of the American consuls in Jerusalem, and of the consular agents in Jaffa and Haifa, are analyzed as part of the US diplomatic and consular activity throughout the world, and of Western involvement in the Ottoman Empire and in Palestine during the century preceding WWI. The ...

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This volume provides new insights into the role of U.S. consuls in the Ottoman Middle East in the special context of the Holy Land. The motivations and functioning of the American ... consuls in Jerusalem, and of the consular agents in Jaffa and Haifa, are analyzed as part of the US diplomatic and consular activity throughout the world, and of Western involvement in the Ottoman Empire and in Palestine during the century preceding World War I. The processes of cultural, demographic, economic, environmental, and settlement change and the contribution of the US consuls and American settlers to development of and modernization of Palestine are discussed. Based on primary archival sources such facets as the role of consuls regarding the use of extraterritorial privileges, Western religious and cultural penetration, control of land and land purchase, non-Muslim settlement, judicial systems, and technological innovations are considered from American, Ottoman, and local viewpoints. Read more Show Less

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Overview

This volume deals with an eventful period in the modern history of Palestine. It provides new insights into the role of the US consuls in the Ottoman Middle East in the special context of the Holy Land. The motivations and functioning of the American consuls in Jerusalem, and of the consular agents in Jaffa and Haifa, are analyzed as part of the US diplomatic and consular activity throughout the world, and of Western involvement in the Ottoman Empire and in Palestine during the century preceding WWI. The processes of cultural, demographic, economic, environmental and settlement change – sometimes at the expense of the local population – and the contribution of the US consuls and American settlers, both Christian and Jewish, to development and modernization of Palestine are discussed.

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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
Kark examines the work and influence of the US consular service in the years 1832-1914 within the framework of Ottoman Middle East policies in the specific context of the Holy Land. The motivations and functioning of the American consuls in Jerusalem, and of the consular agents in Jaffa and Haifa, are analyzed as part of the US diplomatic and consular activity throughout the world, and of Western involvement in the Ottoman Empire and in Palestine during the century preceding WWI. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780814325230
  • Publisher: The Hebrew University Magnes Press
  • Publication date: 1/1/1994
  • Series: American Holy Land Series
  • Edition description: NORTH AMER
  • Pages: 388
  • Product dimensions: 6.50 (w) x 9.49 (h) x 1.26 (d)

Meet the Author

Ruth Kark of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem has written and edited books and numerous articles on the historical geography of Palestine and Israel. Her research interests include the study of concepts of land, land use, patterns if land ownership in Palestine in the 19th and 20th centuries, urban and rural settlement processes, and western influence on the Holy Land.

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Table of Contents

Abbreviation of Archives 11
Preface 13
Introduction 19
Ch. 1 Consuls and Capitulations 41
The Consular Function in History 41
The Foreign Service of the United States 46
Consulates and Capitulations in the Ottoman Empire from the Granting of Capitulations to Their Abrogation 55
Ch. 2 America and the Ottoman Empire 68
Commercial, Political, and Consular Ties 68
Periodization of United States Consular Activity in the Ottoman Empire 79
Foundation of the Consulate in Constantinople 79
Ch. 3 The United States Consulate and Consular Agencies in the Holy Land 93
Establishment of Consulates by the European Powers in the Holy Land 93
Establishment of American Consular Agencies 99
Establishment of the United States Consulate in Jerusalem 125
The Consular Hierarchy and Spatial Jurisdiction 129
Interaction and Communications 141
Ch. 4 United States Consuls in Jerusalem 154
Appointments and Conditions of Employment 154
Administrative Structure and Consular Staffs 174
Extraneous Activities 188
Ch. 5 Work of the Consulate and Consular Agencies 197
Functions and Obligations 197
Civil Services to Locally Resident American Citizens 199
Services to Local Jewish Proteges 231
Services to Transient Americans 235
Ch. 6 Legal and Economic Aid and Consular Reporting 243
Legal Services 243
Real Estate (Land and Property) 259
Serving American Business and Private Interests Abroad 274
Reporting to Regional and State Department Superiors 282
Conclusions 294
Appendix I - Biographies of the American Consuls in Jerusalem, 1844-1919 307
Appendix II - Lists of Staff 335
Glossary 350
Bibliography 354
Index 373
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