The American Direct Primary: Party Institutionalization and Transformation in the North

The American Direct Primary: Party Institutionalization and Transformation in the North

by Alan Ware
     
 

ISBN-10: 0521814928

ISBN-13: 9780521814928

Pub. Date: 10/14/2002

Publisher: Cambridge University Press

This book rejects conventional accounts of how, and why, American political parties differ form those in other democracies. It focuses on the introduction of that most distinctive of American party devices, the direct primary, and argues that primaries resulted from a process of party institutionalization initiated by party elites. Thus, it overturns the widely…  See more details below

Overview

This book rejects conventional accounts of how, and why, American political parties differ form those in other democracies. It focuses on the introduction of that most distinctive of American party devices, the direct primary, and argues that primaries resulted from a process of party institutionalization initiated by party elites. Thus, it overturns the widely accepted view that, between 1902 and 1915, direct primaries were imposed on the parties by antiparty reformers intent on weakening them. An examination of particular northern states shows that often the direct primary was not controversial, and only occasionally did it involve confrontation between party "regulars" and their opponents. Rather, the impetus for direct nominations initially came from attempts within the parties to subject previously informal procedures to formal rules. However, it proved impossible to reform the older caucus-convention system effectively, and party elites then turned to the direct primary - a device that already had become more common in rural counties in the late nineteenth century.

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Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780521814928
Publisher:
Cambridge University Press
Publication date:
10/14/2002
Pages:
286
Product dimensions:
5.98(w) x 8.98(h) x 0.83(d)
Lexile:
1560L (what's this?)

Table of Contents

Tables
Abbreviations
Preface and Acknowledgments
1Introduction1
1Patterns of Social Division and/or Political Ideology2
2Political Culture5
3Governmental Decentralization12
4Explaining the Rise of the Direct Primary15
5North and South18
6Institutionalization of the Parties20
7Organization of the Book25
2The Catalytic Effect of Ballot Reform31
1The Adoption of the Australian Ballot31
2Informal Procedures and the Problems of Scale32
3Reformers' Promotion of the Australian Ballot39
4Variants of the Australian Ballot in the United States41
5The Positions of Reformers and Parties in Relation to the Type of Ballot Used43
6The Weakness of Opposition to the Australian Ballot45
7Success and Failure for Antiparty Reformers47
8Ballot Reform and Interparty Competition51
3Legal Control of Party Activity57
1Candidate Selection in the Nineteenth Century57
2The Problems with the Caucus-Convention System63
3The Impact of the Australian Ballot77
4The 1898 National Conference81
5Why Legal Controls over Parties were Introduced84
6Did Legal Control Turn Parties into Public Utilities?90
4The Spread of Direct Nominations95
1The Rising Popularity of the Crawford County System97
2The Rural and Midwestern Base of Direct Elections100
3The Impact of the Southern Experience102
4Direct Nominations Move to the City: Cleveland105
5Statewide Legislation and the Direct Primary: Kentucky108
6The Legally Mandated Direct Primary in Minneapolis, 1899110
7The States Convert to Direct Primaries, 1903-1915117
8Insurgency and Party Reform in Wisconsin124
5Reformers versus Urban Machines?131
1Massachusetts132
2Pennsylvania138
3Missouri145
4Illinois150
5New York154
6The Impact of Party Competition162
1Competition in the United States before the Mid-1890s163
2Party Competition after the Mid-1890s168
3Why the Democrats were Disadvantaged176
4Changes in Party Competition and the Rise of the Direct Primary178
5Competition as a Stimulant to Nomination Reform180
6Party Competition and Political Exclusion: Southern New England183
7Political Reform and the Direct Primary in Connecticut189
7Explaining an "Irrational" Reform196
1The Constraint Imposed by Public Opinion199
2Reformers and the Invention of a "Solution"203
3Consensus over the Direct Primary: The Case of New Jersey211
4Could the Parties Have Done More to Protect Themselves?214
8Reaction and Aftermath227
1Reaction Against the Direct Primary227
2The State of the Parties in 1930231
3The Delayed Impact of the Direct Primary242
4Changes in the Direct Primary Since the 1920s246
5The Direct Primary and the Presidential Primary248
9Conclusions255
Index265

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