American Dynasty: Aristocracy, Fortune, and the Politics of Deceit in the House of Bush

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The Bushes are the family nobody really knows, says Kevin Phillips. This popular lack of acquaintance—nurtured by gauzy imagery of Maine summer cottages, gray-haired national grandmothers, July Fourth sparklers, and cowboy boots—has let national politics create a dynasticized presidency that would have horrified America's founding fathers. They, after all, had led a revolution against a succession of royal Georges.

In this devastating book, onetime Republican strategist Phillips...

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Overview

The Bushes are the family nobody really knows, says Kevin Phillips. This popular lack of acquaintance—nurtured by gauzy imagery of Maine summer cottages, gray-haired national grandmothers, July Fourth sparklers, and cowboy boots—has let national politics create a dynasticized presidency that would have horrified America's founding fathers. They, after all, had led a revolution against a succession of royal Georges.

In this devastating book, onetime Republican strategist Phillips reveals how four generations of Bushes have ascended the ladder of national power since World War One, becoming entrenched within the American establishment—Yale, Wall Street, the Senate, the CIA, the vice presidency, and the presidency—through a recurrent flair for old-boy networking, national security involvement, and political deception. By uncovering relationships and connecting facts with new clarity, Phillips comes to a stunning conclusion: The Bush family has systematically used its financial and social empire—its "aristocracy"—to gain the White House, thereby subverting the very core of American democracy. In their ambition, the Bushes ultimately reinvented themselves with brilliant timing, twisting and turning from silver spoon Yankees to born-again evangelical Texans. As America—and the world—holds its breath for the 2004 presidential election, American Dynasty explains how it happened and what it all means.

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Editorial Reviews

The Washington Post
Tracing the family lineage through four generations -- beginning with the president's great-grandfathers, George Herbert Walker and Samuel Prescott Bush, moving along to his grandfather, Prescott Bush, then to his father and himself -- Phillips paints a portrait that can only be deeply disturbing to anyone concerned about how power is now gained and maintained in this country … American Dynasty is an important, troubling book that should be read everywhere with care, nowhere more so than in this city. — Jonathan Yardley
The New York Times
Mr. Phillips is eloquent on the continuing fallout of American decisions, beginning in the 70's, to pour huge amounts of armaments into the tinderbox of the Persian Gulf and Middle East, into countries "menaced by religious and resource conflicts." He also raises disturbing conflict-of-interest questions about the Bush family's intertwining political and business relationships around the world, relationships embodied by Bush Senior's post-presidential affiliation with the Carlyle Group, a merchant bank with military-sector investments. — Michiko Kakutani
Publishers Weekly
Political and economics commentator Phillips (The Politics of Rich and Poor, etc.) believes we are facing an ominous time: "As 2004 began, [a] Machiavellian moment was at hand. U.S. president George W. Bush... was a dynast whose family heritage included secrecy and calculated deception." Phillips perceives a dangerous, counterdemocratic trend toward dynasties in American politics-he cites the growing number of sons and wives of senators elected to the Senate as an example. Perhaps less convincingly, he compares the "restoration" of the Bushes to the White House after an absence of eight years to the royal restorations of the Stuarts in England in 1660 and the Bourbons in France in 1814. To underscore the dangers of inherited wealth and power, Phillips delineates a complex case involving a network of moneyed influence going back generations, as well as the Bushes' long-time canny involvement in oil and foreign policy (read: CIA) and, he says, bald-faced appeasement of the nativist/fundamentalist wing that, according to Phillips, is now "dangerously" dominating the GOP. Casting a critical eye at the entire Bush clan serves the useful function of consolidating a wealth of information, especially about forebears George Herbert Walker and Prescott Bush. Phillips's own status as a former Republican (now turned independent) boosts the force of his argument substantially. Not all readers will share Phillips's alarmist response to the Bush "dynasty," but his book offers an important historical context in which to understand the rise of George W. (On sale Jan. 5) Copyright 2003 Reed Business Information.
Foreign Affairs
Phillips' latest book is a bitter disappointment, largely because it cannot decide whether it wants to be a philippic against the shortcomings of George W. Bush and his antecedents or a sweeping history of American power in the twentieth century. The result is an unsatisfying mess. The wide scope and broad range of ideas blur the single-minded focus necessary for a satisfying screed, but the larger themes can never quite emerge amid the accusation, insinuation, and invective. Still, Phillips' central idea is interesting and important. The twentieth century, he argues, saw a fusion of three major interests: the energy industry, Wall Street, and the defense industry. Four generations of Bushes have participated in and furthered the emergence of this finance-security-hydrocarbon complex, and the domestic and foreign policies of the second Bush administration emerge from this background. Phillips could have written a magisterial history of the age. Instead, we have a sloppy, confusing mess that his many admirers will do their best to forget.
Library Journal
A former Republican strategist critiques the Bush family's dynasty-building. Copyright 2003 Reed Business Information.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780670032648
  • Publisher: Viking Penguin
  • Publication date: 1/5/2004
  • Pages: 416
  • Product dimensions: 6.38 (w) x 9.34 (h) x 1.34 (d)

Meet the Author

Kevin Phillips

Kevin Phillips has been a political and economic commentator for more than three decades. A former White House strategist, he is a regular contributor to the Los Angeles Times and NPR and writes for Harper’s and Time. His books include New York Times bestsellers The Politics of Rich and Poor and Wealth and Democracy.

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Read an Excerpt

PREFACE

This book has changed a lot—in length, indignation, and its hitherto unpublished information—since I began writing it in December 2002. My original ambition was to identify and explain the Bush-related transformation of the U.S. presidency into an increasingly dynastic office, a change with profound consequences for the American Republic, given the factors of family bias, domestic special interests, and foreign grudges that the Bushes, father and son, brought into the White House.

Unfortunately, in examining two Bush presidencies and the family's four-generation pursuit of national prominence and power—and in doing so through a lens that highlighted elite associations, dynastic ambitions, and recurring financial and business practices—I found a greater basis for dismay and disillusionment than I had imagined. The result is an unusual and unflattering portrait of a great family (great in power, not morality) that has built a base over the course of the twentieth century in the back corridors of the new military-industrial complex and in close association with the growing intelligence and national security establishments. In doing so, the Bushes have threaded their way through damning political, banking, and armanents scandals and, since the 1980s, controversies like the October Surprise, Iran-Contra, and Iraqgate imbroglios, which in another climate or a different time might have led to impeachment.

I am not talking about ordinary lack of business ethics or financial corruption. During the late twentieth century, several other presidents and their families displayed these shortcomings, and the public has become understandably blasé. Four generations of building toward dynasty, however, have infused the Bush family's hunger for power and practices of crony capitalism with a moral arrogance and backstage disregard of the democratic and republican traditions of the U.S. government. As we will see, four generations of involvement with clandestine arms deals and European and Middle Eastern rogue banks will do that.

American Dynasty is on the one hand a book about economics, history, and politics in the era that covers the two Bush presidencies. But it is also a portrait of four Bush (and Walker) generations—their ambitions, financial practices, scandals, and wars. It brings into focus many circumstances and relationships that have not previously been examined together and seriously discussed, for reasons that are both unusual and unfortunate. During the late 1970s and 1980s, the Bush clan in a sense flew under the radar of critical biography and investigation. The first two published biographies of George H. W. Bush— George Bush: A Biography (1980) by Nicholas King, a former Bush press secretary, and George Bush: An Intimate Portrait (1989) by Fitzhugh Green, a CIA-connected Bush social chum—were friendly treatments that had no room for warts. Neither did the 1991 Flight of the Avenger sequence of books lionizing his record in World War II. Unfortunately, this puffery managed to preempt more serious book-length exploration.

The first major objective study, Marching in Place (1992), by Time reporters Dan Goodgame and Michael Duffy, dwelt critically on his 1989-92 presidential record but came out too late to affect the political climate that defeated Bush in 1992, and it got little attention. George Bush: The Unauthorized Biography, published in 1992 by allies of Bush-hating Lyndon LaRouche, tended to submerge its massive, and often revelatory, research in snowdrifts of paranoia, and no serious readers or reviewers gave it much credence.

By 2000, naturally, biographies of the younger Bush, even critical ones, devoted little attention to anything other than his own career. Thus the first three generations of the family escaped multidimensional and skeptical scrutiny, save for a professional, but essentially friendly, biography by historian Herbert Parmet entitled George Bush: The Life of a Lone Star Yankee (1997). Now that the Bushes have become a presidential dynasty, for however long, they will command more probing attention, but the national interest would have been better served had that occurred in the 1970s.

Few have looked at the facts of the family's rise, but just as important, commentators have neglected the thread—not the mere occasion—of special interests, biases, scandals (especially those related to arms dealing), and blatant business cronyism. The evidence that accrues over four generations is extraordinarily damning. This is especially true of the Bushes' ties to the Wall Street financial world and the military-industrial complex.

But considering an additional relationship may explain even more. After four generations of connection to foreign intrigue and the intelligence community, plus three generations of immersion in the culture of secrecy (dating back to the Yale years of several men in the family), deceit and disinformation have become Bush political hallmarks. The Middle Eastern financial ties of both Bush presidents exemplify this lack of candor, as do the origins and machinations of both Bush wars with Iraq. Appendix B in this volume reviews the family's penchant for secrecy and for cleaning and locking up government records.

It doesn't help that the major media have tended to use kid gloves with the family. In 1999, longtime reporter Robert Sherrill, writing in the Texas Observer, contrasted this treatment of the Bushes with how when Richard Nixon's brother Donald—my poor, damn dumb brother, Nixon called him—used his name to pry a loan of $205,000 from billionaire Howard Hughes, the mainstream press raised a stink that lasted years. The Bushes have also benefited from the Democrats' apparent reluctance to investigate the connections, misdeeds, and malfeasances of a popular president such as George W. Bush. Others have made the point that if a Clinton-era special counsel was necessary for Whitewater, why not a Bush-era special counsel for Enron?

As a former longtime Republican who came of political age during the Nixon years, I take the point about double standards. My own distaste since the 1960s for what George H. W. Bush seemed to represent—a career built on support from a vague elite rather than merit or democratic selection—had a Republican genesis. It drew on views prominently, although not decisively, voiced within the GOP. Dwight D. Eisenhower had warned—in words quoted in this volume's opening pages—about the future threat that might come from the military-industrial complex. Richard Nixon's dislike of Bush's elitist economics leaped out in an endorsement Nixon made of my 1990 book, The Politics of Rich and Poor. Ronald Reagan had personal qualms about his running mate that some say he never lost. Fellow Texans John Connally and H. Ross Perot were both disdainful of Bush. John McCain kept this tradition alive in his 2000 view of the younger Bush.

Few prominent Republicans voiced similar qualms as the campaign for the election of 2004 began. Moreover, inasmuch as the elder Bush turned me into a political independent, I have to admit that I can no longer attribute my own unhappiness with the dynastic, economic, religious, and war politics of George W. Bush to my earlier Republican molding alone.

I must also acknowledge that the party of my youth and middle age has changed enormously. For fifteen years after I published The Emerging Republican Majority in 1969, I supported the GOP campaign argument that public policy had gone too far in trying to squeeze religion out of American life. Now the voter backlash against that early squeeze has so reversed the national discussion that the opposite threat is crystallizing: there is a Republican Party dangerously dominated by southern fundamentalist and evangelical constituencies, willing to blend biblical theology into U.S. Middle Eastern policy and attach faith healers to the advisory structure of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The research I did on politics and religion in writing chapter 7 was a revelation to me, as I hope it will be to readers.

That the Bushes have many qualities to commend them as a private family—community involvement, generosity to those who work for them—is not really the point. They are not a private family. They are a public family, and one that is writing a new definition of the presidency. They are bending public policy toward family grudges and interests. What matters is their policy and conduct in that emerging role. The further evidence, since 9/11, of the United States' becoming an embattled imperium, even showing faint specklings of garrison state thinking, only doubles the stakes.

True, the dynastic trend in the United States goes deeper than the Bushes. If Hillary Clinton runs for president in 2008, the failings and lingering grudges of her family's own would-be dynasty will be fair game. And thus we may learn—for better or worse—more about the transformation and perils of American politics. This book, however, is about the dynasty we already have and what it stands for. This is the direction in which national politics and national discussion must turn first.

Introduction

Concern about a U.S. dynastic presidency first emerged in 2000, prompted by skeptics of the Bush succession, as well as by amateur historians unnerved by analogies to the seventeenth-century English Stuart and nineteenth-century French Bourbon restorations. The topic gained force and more widespread credibility when the 2002 elections confirmed George W. Bush's popularity and when the war of early spring 2003 displayed his personal commitment to resuming his father's unfinished combat with Iraq's Saddam Hussein. Controversial wars and geopolitical ambitions, after all, have frequently originated as dynastic ambitions.

Other institutional aspects of a family-based presidency warrant national attention. Dynasties tend to show continuities of policy and interest-group bias—in the case of the Bushes, favoritism toward the energy sector, defense industries, the Pentagon, and the CIA, as well as insistence on tax breaks for the investor class and upper-income groups. By inauguration day of 2001, Houston-based Enron had a relationship with the Bush clan going back a decade and a half. Families restored to power also have a history of seeking revenge against old foes as well as recalling longtime loyalists and retainers. George W. Bush's record has included retiring such taunters of his father as Texas governor Ann Richards (in 1994) and House Speaker Newt Gingrich (Bush helped to force him out after the 1998 elections) and appointing former officials dating back not just to his father's term but to the Ford administration of 1974-76, a virtual incubator of the Republican Party's Bush faction.

This dynasticism was hardly a phenomenon unique to the United States. In the first few years of the twenty-first century, the restoration of old European royal houses was discussed in Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, and Italy. As in the United States, the principals were political conservatives.

Another questionable aspect of dynastic control is the effect of biological inheritance. History is all too familiar with hereditary traits like the Hapsburg chin and the Tudor temper. Some pundits have queried whether heredity might likewise explain certain behaviors shared by the two Bush presidents—frenetic activity, scrambled speech, the hint of dyslexic arrangements of thought. Although the press has been reticent to pursue such matters, they do have a genuine relevance. Three, perhaps four, generations of Bushes have displayed great capacities for remembering names, faces, and statistics. Dallas News reporter Bill Minutaglio, a biographer of the younger Bush, discovered that George H. W. Bush went so far as to tell his spokesman Marlin Fitzwater to gather together the photographs of the Washington press corps so he could memorize all their names; the Bush men were always startlingly better than anyone else at memorizing names. At the same time, both father and son have shown little talent for conceptualization or abstraction. Is it a coincidence? Dynasty, with its subordination of individual achievement to gene pools and bloodlines, always involves a gamble on the nuances of heredity.

In the United States, as we will see, the twentieth-century rise of the Bush family was built on the five pillars of American global sway: the international reach of U.S. investment banking, the emerging giantism of the military-industrial complex, the ballooning of the CIA and kindred intelligence operations, the drive for U.S. control of global oil supplies, and a close alliance with Britain and the English-speaking community. This century of upward momentum brought a sequence of controversies, albeit ones that never gained critical mass—such as the exposure in 1942 of Prescott Bush's corporate directorship links to wartime Germany, which harked back to overambitious 1920s investment banking; the Bush family's longtime involvement with global armaments and the military-industrial complex; and a web of close connections to the CIA, which began decades before George Bush's brief CIA directorship in 1976. Threads like these may not weigh heavily on individual presidencies; they are many times more troubling when they run through several generations of a dynasty.

We must be cautious here not to transmute commercial relationships into a latter-day conspiracy theory, a transformation that epitomizes what historian Richard Hofstadter years ago called the paranoid streak in American politics. (Try a Google Internet search for George Bush and Hitler, for example.) On the other hand, worries about conspiracy thinking should not inhibit inquiries in a way that blocks sober examination, which often more properly identifies some kind of elite behavior familiar to sociologists and political scientists alike.

The particular evolution of elites within nations that became leading world economic powers over the last four centuries is a subject I have discussed in several previous books, especially Wealth and Democracy (2002). The rise of a nation's establishment to its zenith is invariably an accretive process, not a successfully executed sequence of plots. Still, old-boy networks or their equivalents usually play a significant role in maintaining a group in power.

Treating the Bush presidencies as growing out of a four-generation interaction with the so-called U.S. establishment is, in a word, essential. Likewise, dealing separately with the administrations of George H. W. and George W.—or worse, ignoring commonalities of behavior in office—is like considering individual planets while ignoring their place within the solar system.

Four examples are illustrative. One is the repeated use of family influence in arranging or smoothing over difficulties in the military service of three generations of Bushes: Prescott, George H. W., and George W. Similarly, the involvement of four Walker and Bush generations with finance—in several cases, the investment side of the petroleum business—helps to explain their recurrent preoccupation with investments, capital gains, and tax shelters. George W. Bush's 2003 commitment to ending taxation of dividends was simply an extension of his father's frequent calls for reducing capital gains tax rates as the solution to any weakness in the national economy. Third, the family's ties to oil date back to Ohio steelmaker Samuel Bush's relationship to Standard Oil a century ago, while its ultimately dynastic connection to Enron spanned the first national Bush administration, the six years of George W. Bush's governorship of Texas, and the first year of his Washington incumbency. No other presidential family has made such prolonged efforts on behalf of a single corporation. Finally, there is no previous parallel to the relationships between the Bushes and the CIA and its predecessor organizations, which began in the invisible-ink and Ashenden, Secret Agent days of George Herbert Walker and Prescott Bush. Quite simply, analyzing separately the two Bush presidencies risks losing sight of such essential and revealing leitmotifs.

Arguably, a clan lacking such continuity of interests and relationships probably could not have succeeded in establishing a dynastic presidency. It would not have developed the requisite links to the establishment. It should be noted that the term dynastic is used here to describe a fact, not a theory: namely, the succession of 2000, in which the eldest son of a defeated president was eight years later chosen by his father's party and inaugurated as the next president. Such inheritance has no American precedent; it trespasses, at least spiritually, on the governance framed by Washington, Franklin, Jefferson, and Madison. Hereditary rulers were to be feared, the founders knew, even when, like the fifteenth-century Medicis of Florence, they initially chose to keep the framework of the Republic in place.

While the election of 2000 became an obvious pivot by marking a full-fledged family restoration, the election of 1994 must be considered a secondary milestone, for it served to anoint formally eldest son George W. Bush, already the most logical choice to follow in his father's footsteps. Winning the Texas governorship that year established him as the family political heir over his younger brother, who lost a statehouse bid in Florida. Sharing his father's name, looking eerily like him, and having a similar electoral base in Texas, George W. was able to embody a much more resonant promise of restoration among voters than could have been managed by his younger brother Jeb. Also to the point, the 1994 elections suggested the motivational potential for a restoration: namely, the moral anger of a large portion of the American electorate—pollster Gallup came to call them the repulsed—with the new president, Bill Clinton. Not a few voters felt apologetic, survey takers found, for having turned the elder Bush out of office in 1992.

Were history to posit a Bush era, lasting from George H. W. Bush's triumph in 1988 through 2008, the two family presidencies might well define the entire two decades, turning the Clinton years into the political equivalent of sandwich filler. On the other hand, were Senator Hillary Clinton to achieve in 2008 a second restoration, this one Clintonian, public perception might well lurch toward some American equivalent of the fifteenth-century Wars of the Roses, during which the English Crown was contested by the houses of York and Lancaster.

National politics, in short, has begun to take on the aura of a great family arena. Of the four wives of the major-party presidential nominees in 1996 and 2000, two quickly gained U.S. Senate seats: Hillary Clinton in 2000 and Elizabeth Dole in 2002. A third, Tipper Gore, decided not to make a Senate bid in Tennessee. Other seats in the U.S. Senate, in the meantime, began to pass more like membership in Britain's House of Lords.

Regionally, the prime example of family continuity in national government has been New England. In Rhode Island, Republican Lincoln Chafee took the Senate seat of his father, John Chafee, when the latter died in 1999. Next door, Edward Kennedy occupies the Massachusetts Senate seat vacated by his brother when he became president, and just to the west in Connecticut, Senator Christopher Dodd sits where his father sat from 1958 to 1970. Parenthetically, both senators from New Hampshire are the sons of former governors. One of those from Maine is the wife of a former governor.

Dynasticism, then, is clearly not just a peculiarity of the Bush presidency. Yet there was a vital catalyst in the 1996-98 jelling among Republicans of a commitment, backstopped by favorable national polls, to running the Bush family's eldest heir for the presidency. It helped to legitimize a larger trend, broadening its momentum.

In this context, religion furnished another critical engine for a Bush triumph. To many Republicans and independents, the Bush family appeal was renewed in 1993-94 by ongoing revelations of Clinton's moral turpitude and his eventual impeachment. Perhaps because of how this tide of moral outrage had come to arouse southern fundamentalist constituencies, George W. Bush began to emphasize and display unusual personal religiosity. He cast himself as the prodigal son, brought back to God after waywardness and crisis. From 1994 to 2000, he repeatedly used such biblically inflected language about good and evil that one could almost hear the words of Daniel and Jeremiah. So close did he draw to evangelical and fundamentalist Protestant leaders that in 2001, the Washington Post suggested that the new president had virtually replaced evangelist Pat Robertson as the leader of the U.S. Religious Right. To have suggested any similar role being assumed by his father would have been laughable.

In contrast to the sophisticated 1990s dialogue saluting globalization, Internet democracy, and the supposed end of history, much of the world's population, especially its poor and dispossessed, was participating in a quite dissimilar expression—a swell of fundamentalist and evangelical religion, often with a strong admixture of nationalism. While a few nations were actively seeking restorations and the resumption of power by kings, this larger trend, affecting Protestants, Catholics, Eastern Orthodox Christians, Jews, Muslims, Hindus, and Buddhists alike, dwelled instead on prophets and pharaohs, awaited or feared ones (red calves, Mahdis, and Antichrists), holy cities, and desecrating unbelievers, along with more ominous events like jihads, end times, raptures, and ultimate Armageddon.

Well might embattled Americans, weary of warfare in the Holy Land, yearn for the simple family issues propounded in the cultural politics of the 1980s and 1990s—most of which were used in a calculated courtship directed at low- and middle-income voters stressed by two-earner households, lengthened work hours, and day-care and tax pressures. Unfortunately, by the time these day-to-day issues were overshadowed by stock market crashes, terrorism, and war in the early 2000s, little net economic progress had been made. If anything, the stress on ordinary families was now even greater.

Thus the irony: The dominant family-related trend taking the United States into the twenty-first century turned out to be a form of classic reaction. In economics, it favored aristocracies of both capital and skills, from Wall Street to major-league baseball. Family values were brandished to save multimillionaires from the federal inheritance tax. In politics, family bred dynasties and elite entrenchment. Even more broadly, amid the fear of additional barbarian attacks in the 9/11 vein, Americans slid toward another historical reversal: allowing the eighteenth-century republic to be reconceptualized as an embattled twenty-first-century imperium, threatened by dangers and strains not unlike those that plagued third- and fourth-century Rome.

The central purpose of this book is to interweave several strands of analysis and thought that need to be considered together if we're truly to understand the perilous state of the American political system. One is the political and religious fundamentalism that has gained strength as the new century has unfolded. A second is the ever-changing importance within the United States of different economic sectors and elites— from investment banking and oil to the military-industrial complex. The third is the twentieth- and early- twenty-first-century emergence of the Bush family, which this volume seeks to track along a trajectory of American wealth and power through the heydays of Wall Street investment banking, Ivy League clubdom, and Texas petropolitics and into the post-World War II emergence of the CIA and rise of the national security state.

Until now, our political history has embodied a different, midcentury-flavored saga centered on careers of men like Dean Acheson, Robert A. Lovett, and W. Averell Harriman, who played their starring national roles from the late 1940s to the early 1960s. Now a new dynasty warrants a different national story. The Bushes and their initially more influential Walker family in-laws were also present at the creation, to use Acheson's term, but in secondary capacities. The family stepped into public visibility only in 1952, when Prescott Bush, managing partner at Brown Brothers Harriman, for many years the nation's biggest private investment bank, won election to the U.S. Senate from Connecticut. He also became a favorite golf partner of President Eisenhower, also impressing the then vice president, Richard Nixon.

When Nixon, in turn, won the presidency in 1968, he would treat George H. W. Bush, a first-term congressman, as befit the son of Prescott Bush. The younger Bush had also been commended to Nixon by former Republican presidential nominee Thomas E. Dewey, probably the one man most responsible for convincing Dwight Eisenhower to take Nixon as his running mate back in 1952. Thus did the Nixon administration become the all-important career elevator for the little-known U.S. representative from Houston.

Eastern patricians, even the oil-stained variety, were rare in the Nixon entourage—and for that matter, rare in national Republican elective politics. Nixon wore them as badges of social acceptance; he had taken one, former U.S. senator Henry Cabot Lodge of Massachusetts, as his vice presidential running mate in 1960. Eight years later, he let the name of George H. W. Bush make the vice presidential rumor mills, less because of any possible appeal Bush might have in Texas than for the socioeconomic reassurance he would offer to New York and Connecticut Republican donors and Ivy League clubland.

Appointments to the United Nations (1970) and the Republican National Committee (1973) brought Bush cabinet and Nixon-inner-circle status, maintaining the Washington visibility critical to his future. Nixon valued Bush's family connections, gung ho spirit, personal likability, and social outreach. Similar considerations helped to guide President Ford's 1975 selection of him to head the CIA, a famous repository of Yale alumni. Bush wanted to be—and perhaps was—taken as qualified for the cabinet in the unelected, bred-to-it manner of a Curzon, Cecil, or Lansdowne in Edwardian England.

This, to be sure, is getting ahead of our story. What made it possible to consider Bush for vice president in 1968, almost out of the blue, was that some fifty years earlier, his two grandfathers—George Herbert Walker, a well-connected St. Louis financier, and Samuel Prescott Bush, a wealthy Ohio railroad equipment manufacturer—had managed to implant themselves and their descendants in the eastern establishment. This helped Prescott Bush get ahead, much as later connections helped George H. W. and George W.

To tell their tale, American Dynasty unfolds like this: Chapter 1 introduces the Bushes as our not-quite-royal family. I'm not being facetious here. The Bush royal connections documented in Burke's Peerage and elsewhere have nourished the self-image of both chief executives. However, the real founding father of the Bush clan was not a Bush, but a Walker—George H. Walker, for whom both the forty-first and forty-third presidents are named.

If Samuel P. Bush made money and connections in World War I, which he did, Walker made more of each. Afterward, he was wooed in 1919 by Averell Harriman to run an ambitious set of investments about to be cobbled together in the postwar political maelstrom of 1920s Germany and Russia. Over two decades, father-in-law Walker helped steer Prescott Bush to the top of what became the Brown Brothers Harriman of midcentury—rich, full of Yale Skull and Bonesmen, London-linked, politically influential, and intimately wired through several of its top partners to the postwar birthing of the CIA. During the first half of the twentieth century, the United States had evolved its own version of permanent government akin to the British model. Although this establishment peaked from the 1920s through the 1950s, its influence lingered, to George H. W. Bush's critical advantage.

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Table of Contents

CONTENTS

preface ix

Introduction 1

Part I: Family, Dynasty, and Restoration Chapter 1: The Not-Quite-Royal Family 15
Chapter 2: The Dynastization of America 51
Chapter 3: The First American Restoration 73

Part II: Crony Capitalism, Covert Operations, and Compassionate Conservatism Chapter 4: Texanomics and Compassionate Conservatism 111
Chapter 5: The Enron-Halliburton Administration 149
Chapter 6: Armaments and Men: The Bush Dynasty and the National Security State 178

Part III: Religion, Oil, Armaments, and War Chapter 7: The American Presidency and the Rise of the Religious Right 211
Chapter 8: Indiana Bush and the Axis of Evil 245
Chapter 9: The Wars of the Texas Succession 278

Afterword: Machiavelli and the American Dynastic Moment 320
acknowledgments 333
appendix a: Armaments and the Walker-Bush Family, 1914ñ40 335
appendix b: Deception, Dissimulation, and Disinformation 343
notes 349
index 373

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Interviews & Essays

An Interview with Kevin Phillips

Barnes & Noble.com: American Dynasty is subtitled "Aristocracy, Fortune, and the Politics of Deceit in the House of Bush." Is the Bush family a throwback to the political dynasties of old?

Kevin Phillips: The Bush dynasty -- manifestly a dynasty because the eldest son of a president became president himself through the same party and factions, just eight years after his father left the White House -- is not like the royal dynasties found in medieval and modern Europe. Having taken shape in an erstwhile republic, the Bush succession in the U.S. has a different connotation, somewhat akin to the emergence of hereditary rulers in the end years of the Roman and Florentine republics. The parallel is not one to be applauded.

B&N.com: Do you think Americans really want a political dynasty?

KP: While Americans would not approve an overt shift to hereditary rulers, there is evidence of related cultural moods. One would be the emergence since the 1980s of "aristophilia" in terms of the upper-middle- and upper-class taste for Ralph Lauren–type gentrified styles and magazines like Architectural Digest and Wine Spectator. A second would be the trend -- in everything from Hollywood to finance and politics -- for success to become entrenched and inherited.

B&N.com: Are most people aware of how far back in time the Bush "dynasty" goes?

KP: One of the reasons I wrote this book is that very few Americans are aware of how the Bush dynasty -- the family ambitions and the realization of wealth and power -- goes back. It's four generations.

B&N.com: Is George W. Bush a legitimate president, in your opinion?

KP: George W. Bush is legitimate in the sense of being lawfully chosen by a political institution (the U.S. Supreme Court) from which there is no appeal. In other terms, the lack of the integrity of the 2000 Florida election and recount (in a state governed by Bush's brother Jeb) and the fact that Bush is the first president since the late 19th century to have trailed in the national popular vote (by a substantial 530,000 votes), does give logic to the 38 percent of Americans who keep telling pollsters that Bush is not a legitimately elected president.

B&N.com: How would you say Bush the Younger is doing as president thus far?

KP: I do not think that Bush has done or is doing a good job as president. His economic policies are biased towards oil, investment, and major political contributors, his foreign policy is simplistic and conjoined to the viewpoints of religious fundamentalists, and his war policies have become a recruiting poster for anti-Americanism and Islamic terrorists from North Africa to the South China Sea.

B&N.com: One of your chapters is titled "The Enron-Halliburton Administration." How was it that Bush and Cheney were (seemingly) able to skate past all the corporate malfeasance allegations against them?

KP: I would give three reasons for Bush's ability to sidestep most of the fallout from the Enron mess. First, that the media and public let themselves be drawn off by the Iraqi drumbeat and the White House desire to make preemptive war a trump. Second, that the culpability of the Bushes over Enron only becomes fully sized and repellent when it is set out over 20-odd years of Bushes as vice president, president, governor of Texas, and then president again. Finally, as readers of my book will see, a good case can be made that there were elements of official Enron cover-up, not least governmental dawdling that allowed evidence to be destroyed or lost.

B&N.com: How important is military power in the history of the Bush "dynasty?"

KP: The involvement of the Bushes with wartime government and the arms business also goes back four generations. Two of the current president's great-grandfathers -- Samuel Bush and George H. Walker -- were up to their eyeballs in World War I–related opportunities and the origins of the U.S. military-industrial complex.

B&N.com: You spend a lot of time discussing the purported 1980 "October Surprise" (a negotiated, deliberate delay in releasing the Iranian hostages) that may have helped Ronald Reagan and George H. W. Bush assume power. Do you believe the October Surprise happened?

KP: The odds are very high that the "October Surprise" -- collusion between the 1980 Reagan-Bush campaign and a rogue element of the CIA to convince Iran not to release its American hostages before the November elections -- did take place in some form. More evidence keeps dribbling out about the "Surprise" and George H. W. Bush's alleged role. After the 1992 election, supporting information come from both France and Russia, and a 1999 book, Gideon's Spies: The Secret History of the Mossad, lent more credence to the parallel charges by Israeli agent Ari Ben-Menache.

B&N.com: Is Jeb Bush next in line in the Bush family procession?

KP: You have to assume that Jeb Bush could be the 2008 GOP nominee if the family strengthens its hold on the White House and the Republican Party with a victory in 2004. He is the next-oldest son and the governor of Florida, whereas the third son, Neil, has been a joke since his front-page role in the late 1980s Silverado scandal.

B&N.com: Do you think the Bush family ties to the Saudis and Middle East oil will hurt George W.'s reelection chances?

KP: The Bush clan's ties to the Middle East, which deepened steadily in the 1960s and 1970s even before the family's 16 years in the vice presidency and the presidency, deserve an election-year spotlight. They include business relationships with the bin Laden family, the Saudi royal family, the Carlyle Group, and various corrupt banks and sheikhs. Some believe these ties will turn out to have been part of the explanation for 9/11 and how it came to pass.

B&N.com: What is it between the Bushes and Saddam Hussein?

KP: Taken together, the two U.S. attacks on Iraq have had a major component of both Bush blundering and a family grudge against Saddam Hussein.

During the 1980s, George Bush Sr., as vice president and then president, played a major in a covert U.S. effort to build up Saddam Hussein and Iraq as a counterweight to Iran. Biological agents and nuclear-related capacity were part of that. In 1990, the Bush State Department kept signaling Saddam that it would be okay for him to seize a small part of Kuwait, but he got greedy. Then Bush Sr. had to fight, but he botched the job and Saddam survived. Saddam's survival and the "Iraqgate" arms scandal were two reasons, among others, why Bush Sr. lost the 1992 election. Bush the Younger, as well as the Cheney Defense Department types left over from the first Bush administration, had getting Saddam as a top priority once they got back in power in 2001.

B&N.com: Do Texas presidents naturally tend to be "warriors?"

KP: The trouble with Texas presidents is that they have grown up hearing about the Alamo and playing gunslinger from age four. Since the 1960s, the United States has had three Texan presidents and three botched wars.

Chapter 9 of my book explores four decades of Texas presidents who've talked especially tough -- LBJ, Bush Sr., Bush Jr. -- but haven't had the simultaneous smarts to plan ahead, identify clear goals, and then achieve them politically and militarily.

As of early December [2003], George W. Bush is looking like the most inept.

B&N.com: What's your prediction on the 2004 election?

KP: Right now, most polls show that a narrow plurality of Americans would like to replace George W. Bush with a Democrat. However, when they are given the names of the individual Democrats, Bush wins against each. As 2003 gives way to 2004, I think that roughly sums up the early-stage problem and the early-stage prospect.

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See All Sort by: Showing 1 – 20 of 21 Customer Reviews
  • Anonymous

    Posted January 9, 2004

    Only Idiots Ignore the Facts

    If you are seeking knowledge about this book before you buy, I suggest you either check it out of the library and read it for yourself or consult a rational friend who has read it. The reviews on this page are not going to help; already, the page is studded with rants from people who obviously haven't read the book. I am stunned at the ignorance of their comments. First of all, Kevin Phillips is not a 'liberal.' He is a conservative who campaigned for Richard Nixon and voted for Reagan twice. But this sort of thing is consistent with the practice, more and more apparent on this and other book pages, of smearing the character of the authors of books one thinks are 'bad' without having read these books or even bothered to find anything out about the author. Unlike the accusations in Mr. Phillips' book, which are copiously documented so that the reader can check on their veracity for him/herself, the blatherings of these morons are not accompanied by any specific evidence. Instead, they simply seek to defame the author. This sort of lazy bullying is an insult to the people who actually use these pages for their intended purpose. I can't tell you how many times I've consulted reader reviews only to see a a historical or biographical book labelled 'trash' without any evidence that the book contains inaccuracies. For the record, I found this book a fascinating tale, well documented, with appropriate generalizations made about forces in American politics that extend beyond the narrow subject of the Bushes. But please don't take my word for it, or the word of any reader review. Too many of these reviews are written by volunteer activists with no knowledge of the books on which they are commenting and nothing better to do with their time. No, check it out for yourself. Then decide for yourself.

    1 out of 1 people found this review helpful.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 14, 2008

    Important must read

    If all Americans had read this book prior to the election it would have changed history. This is one of the most complete books I have read on the EVIL Bu$h family. Their quest for power has no bounds. This book should keep any Bu$h family member from ever 'winning' another election. I will hand my copy down to my grandchildren so they will understand the failure of our democracy.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted June 30, 2004

    Superb account of creeping corporatism

    This is an outstandingly useful study, not just of the Bush family, but of a brutal and rapacious ruling class. Its power bases are Wall Street, the Pentagon, the CIA, the Texas-based oil business and the British alliance. Its corporatist fascism is destroying America¿s democratic and republican traditions. CIA director Bush Senior thwarted Carter¿s efforts to get the US hostages out of Iran, helping to get Reagan elected. After becoming vice-president in 1981, Bush arranged the arming of the mujehadin and Saddam. Bush illegally sold arms to Iran and used the funds to back the Contra terrorists. In August 1990, Thatcher encouraged Bush¿s attack on Iraq: ¿George, I was about to be defeated in England when the Falkland conflict happened. I stayed in office for eight years after that.¿ Leading the religious Right, Bush junior portrays America as a new Rome beset by barbarians, and Iraq as Babylon. These fundamentalists use the Bible to justify pre-emptive war (Esther 8:11); Jeremiah 50:8-20 promises that Israel will gain `from the destruction of Babylon¿. The Bushes look after their own: the richest 1% has doubled their share of US income since 1980. The ratio of executive pay to factory workers¿ pay went from 42:1 to 419:1. The USA and Britain now have the least social mobility in the developed world. Texas capitalists oppose immigration control because they want cheap labour. ¿In addition to laws inimical to unions, the proven solution for keeping costs down has been Mexican laborers ¿ either illegal immigrants or temporary guest workers ¿ Their presence in the Texas labor market also applied downward pressure on other wages.¿ The Republican Party and the Labour Party have common policies: imperialism and warmongering, fraud and corruption, government support for religion (faith schools), a class hatred of trade unions, support for freedom of capital (which equals slavery for workers) and for offshore tax havens, a rhetoric of compassion and inclusiveness but a policy of secrecy, deceit and lies. Capitalism in absolute decline generates this kind of politics: the EU and Russia are going the same way too.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted June 18, 2004

    What A Mess

    After reading the other reviews, I am curious if I read the same book. I found Mr. Phillips book to be convoluted at best. His ramblings were difficult to follow and if you have any common sense, you realize that his arguments are not logical. This is one of the worst books I have ever read.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted July 20, 2004

    All you need to learn about the Faux NeoCons & Bush family

    I have been buying copies for friends and family in the hardcopy and will now purchase the paperback for others. This lists lots of the books over the years that have warned liberals and conservatives about the Bush bunch.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted March 2, 2004

    Lots of information, mediocre analysis

    The book obviously contains a great deal of information about the Bushes, however, it suffers (as many political biographies frequently do) in several areas. The author too often subsitutes his own conclusions for fact. I was often left wondering about the true context of events and statements cited by the author (seems there are things that might have been left out because they weaken the author's argument). Any discerning reader should have a handful of salt available when reading this book.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted March 8, 2004

    An Important Read

    I think this book is an important read for anyone who wants to understand the decisions made by George W. Bush and his government. But my guess is that it will go unnoticed by most readers of history. While the story has a depth of research behind it, the analysis seems a bit thin in places. As I was reading this fascinating story, I felt short-changed on the analytical part of the story. That said, with its wealth of references at the end of the book, one could easily find more information on any particular part of Phillips's book, by visiting the library. For me, having followed recent American History with a skeptical eye, Phillips's book does what others do not: an historical perspective. There's no question in my mind that the Bush government has been operating under its own rules of engagement. Bush Dynasty proves it. What Phillips's book does is put every event since the year 2000, into the historical context people need in order to understand the decisions the Bush administration makes. I hope my American cousins read it and pay heed to its importance in this election year.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 19, 2004

    The Truth From a Conservative

    When a Republicsan strategist reveals what the liberals have been saying, intelligent people must pause and think. If Phillips has no motive other than to tell the truth, so be it.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 13, 2004

    Knowledge

    The TRUTH remains the TRUTH and the TRUTH should never be ignored no what the source.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 7, 2004

    Another partisan 'revelation'

    Kevin Phillips, Michael Moore, Molly Ivens, and anyone else that can get a book published by a liberal press are all determined to tear this county apart for the sake of whatever party they are currently a member of. This book was written only as an effort to influence the 2004 election, not for any true historical purpose. A waste of time.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 7, 2004

    Do the publishers read their own reviews?

    '....create a dynasticized presidency that would have horrified America's founding fathers.' Excuse me, but am I the only Political Scientist who actually read the assigned readings? Anyone recall a family named Adams? Didn't Adams the elder help write a famous document....as a Founding Father, no less?

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 26, 2004

    Some Disquieting Possibilities

    Kevin Phillips is a Republican political analyst whose previous writings have proven remarkably prescient. His 1969 book,The Emerging Republican Majority, accurately predicted the major electoral shift favoring conservative thought and Republic dominance.His more recent concerns, as reflected in The Politics of Rich and Poor and Wealth and Democracy, have centered on the nation's growing economic inequities. In the latter book, Phillips criticized recent Republican economic policies, which he finds irresponsible and a betrayal of the interests of the majority of working Americans. Republican 'free market theology,' as Phillips describes it, has achieved the status of gospel, universal in application and beyond criticism. American Dynasty reveals his concerns about the dynasticization of national politics, with all the negative consequences the term implies. The Bush family, Phillips contends, has long benefited from connections to energy and defense industries and the intelligence community. Though he frames many of his conclusions as conjecture, he offers a disturbing portrait of a political dynasty that that has been willing to resort to the most cynical means of political manipulation to advance their own interests and those of an elite of wealth and influence, often to the detriment of average Americans. Perhaps the most alarming contention here is that George W. Bush has,for all practical purposes, inherited the leadership of the Christian Right and is, in fact, animated by a disturbing conviction that his rise to the presidency was the result of Divine Providence. Indeed, Phillips' greatest contribution to the debate here may be in his chapter detailing the surprising strength ( and therefore political influence) of American Christian fundamentalism. In G.W. Bush, he argues, the fundamentalists have found the political leader who shares their perspectives and, literally, speaks their language. More ominously, Christian fundamentalist beliefs intersect dangerously with American Middle East policy. One could certainly challenge some of Phillips' contentions, such as his argument that the outlook of the current president is the product of several historical traditions and perspectives peculiar to Texas, but altogether he presents a multitude of issues that deserve further consideration. Phillips offers the hope that the trend towards dynasticization (which he finds elsewhere beyond the Bush family) may be an aberration; if not, the future of American democracy is far less certain. Once again, Phillips has proven himself a master of political analysis.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 7, 2004

    Rehashed Sensationalism

    Phillips' new book simply puts a finer point on his last, 'Wealth and Politics'. The linking of wealth and political power is nothing new, and CERTAINLY not unique to the Bush 'Dynasty'. Nice Try.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 10, 2004

    Make Up Your Own Mind

    I first saw Kevin Phillips on C-Span discussing this book. Phillips is a lawyer and former aide to the Nixon White House, and is hardly a liberal flame-thrower. I was impressed by his level-headedness in reviewing, with a tinge of disappointment and anger, the history of the Bush family and its many years of backroom dealings with the royal family of Saudia Arabia, the oil industry, and, incredibly, the Bin Laden family. (Don't forget, in the days immediately following 9-11, the ONLY commercial flights that were allowed to take off in the US were the planes carrying members of the Bin Laden family out of the country.) This is not a shrill, one-note, Bush-bashing book, and Phillips does not appear to have an agenda or axe to grind. Accordingly, he comes across as exceedingly fair and objective. His history goes back several generations, is detailed and fully supported, and reveals the Bush family's long-standing ability to insinuate itself with, and to do the bidding of, the monied class. As others, including Phillips himself, have mentioned, these are not new revelations - it is all public and available information. What seems to particularly gall Phillips is the mainstream media's laziness and lack of interest in pursuing any aspect of this tale. Neither Al Franken nor Ann Coulter, Phillips is to be commended for this book.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 9, 2004

    not the same old conspiracy theory

    Phillips connects the historical relationships of the Bushes to the policies we see in the headlines today. It is not the ranting of a Michael Moore or an Al Franken, but rather a methodical look at the Bushes and the influences of big money on the White House and foreign policy.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted January 7, 2004

    Money

    This author is making money by praying on the fears of well meaning, but naive, American people. That means you! The Bush family is not an old-world monarchy re-incarnate looking to enslave the masses as the author would have you believe. If they are so powerful, how is it that the father lost his re-election bid to Clinton? How did the current President's oil company fail despite the good ol' boys network? This book is full of biased propaganda, not written by an 'independant' as claimed. I was disappointed.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted January 5, 2004

    A Republican writer gets it right

    Finally, a well-researched, thoughtful, balanced look, written by a Republican, at the how the Bush family turned from moderate aristocrats to extremists controlled by religious zealots and corporate chieftans.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted January 27, 2004

    An independent who voted for Bush

    If you are determined to live in 'Leave it to Beaver' land, then I suggest you NOT read this book. LET FREEDOM RING is a better choice, it will help you to feel all warm and fuzzy inside and then you can top off your day with some FOXNEWSCHANNEL 'fair and balanced' news. As for me, I like my information straight up with no chaser. The chapters on Enron and Halliburton alone make it worth reading. Put down your copy of the latest 'Left Behind' novel and start dealing with reality. To quote a famous scientist: 'The problems that we face will not be solved by those who created them'.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted December 29, 2003

    A Must Read

    All Americans owe it to their country and continued education to read about the 'family' in office. Rather than crying conspiracy, one should consider the source and read with an open mind.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
  • Anonymous

    Posted December 28, 2003

    The Kevin Phillips Masterpiece

    Somebody had to bring them all together--the great-grandfather Samuel, associate of Rockefellers; the grandfather Prescott, investment banker and Senator; the father George H. W., a true believer in high-end tax cuts; and the present incumbent. And George Herbert Walker and the other crony capitalists and spies. Kevin Phillips, building on much knowledge and research, has done this, producing the most engaging, insightful, and solid book of his career. He has moved far from the usual portrait of George W. as Texas cowboy and born-again alcoholic, to place him in a well-established family tradition of oil, avarice, Realpolitik, religiosity, and manipulation. The work is lavishly detailed and often entertaining. It tells us, all too clearly, that we are living in a different America from the one we once thought we were in.

    Was this review helpful? Yes  No   Report this review
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