American Foreign Policy: The Dynamics of Choice in the 21st Century / Edition 4

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Addressing both foreign policy strategy and foreign policy politics, Bruce Jentleson—respected scholar, award-winning teacher, and foreign policy practitioner—offers students the theoretical framework, historical context, and policy analysis essential for understanding American foreign policy in the twenty-first century.

Professor Jentleson focuses on foreign policy strategy and foreign policy politics and employs a four-part framework (the four Ps: Power, Peace, Prosperity, and Principles) through which students can begin to appreciate the problems and choices faced by the United States as it tries to steer a course through world events.

The Fourth Edition of American Foreign Policy has been thoroughly updated with relevant political developments, including foreign policy changes instituted by the Obama administration.

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Editorial Reviews

A primary text for courses on American foreign policy, encompassing both foreign policy strategy and foreign policy politics. Part I provides theory and history for establishing a framework for the dynamics of choice, and Part II applies this framework to the post- Cold War foreign policy agenda and major choices the US now faces. Pedagogical features include boxes on major policy and theoretical debates, and excerpts from speeches and documents. Jentleson is director of the Terry Sanford Institute of Public Policy and professor of public policy and political science at Duke University. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780393933574
  • Publisher: Norton, W. W. & Company, Inc.
  • Publication date: 2/16/2010
  • Edition description: Fourth Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 810
  • Sales rank: 925,153
  • Product dimensions: 6.90 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 1.40 (d)

Meet the Author

Bruce W. Jentleson is Professor of Public Policy and Political Science at Duke University. He is an award-winning teacher of American foreign policy and international relations. His publications include seven books and numerous articles. He has served on the State Department’s policy planning staff, as a foreign policy aide in the U.S. Congress, and as a foreign policy adviser to former vice president Al Gore.
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Table of Contents

Lists of Maps, Boxes, Figures, and Tables     xv
Preface to the Third Edition     xix
The Context of U.S. Foreign Policy: Theory and History     1
The Strategic Context: Foreign Policy Strategy and the Essence of Choice     2
Introduction: Foreign Policy in a Time of Transition     2
The Context of the International System     6
Quasi-anarchy     6
System Structure     6
State Structural Position     7
The National Interest: The 4 Ps Framework     8
Power     9
Peace     11
Prosperity     13
Principles     15
Dilemmas of Foreign Policy Choice: 4 Ps Complementarity, Trade-offs, and Bitter Conflicts     17
4 Ps Complementarity: Optimal, but Infrequent     17
4 Ps Trade-offs: More Frequent, More Problematic     19
4 Ps Dissensus: Bitter Conflicts     21
Summary     22
The Domestic Context: Foreign Policy Politics and the Process of Choice     25
Introduction: Dispelling the "Water's Edge" Myth     25
The President, Congress, and "Pennsylvania Avenue Diplomacy"     27
War Powers     28
Treaties and Other International Commitments     29
Appointments of Foreign Policy Officials     30
"Commerce with Foreign Nations"     31
General Powers     32
The Supreme Court as Referee?     34
Executive-Branch Politics     35
Presidents as Foreign Policy Leaders     36
Roles of Senior Foreign Policy Advisers     38
Bureaucratic Politics and Organizational Dynamics     39
Interest Groups and Their Influence     40
A Typology of Foreign Policy Interest Groups     42
Strategies and Techniques of Influence     44
The Extent of Interest-Group Influence: Analytic and Normative Considerations     46
The Impact of the News Media     49
Role of the Media: Cheerleader or Critic?     49
Modes of Influence     50
Freedom of the Press vs. National Security     51
The Nature and Influence of Public Opinion     53
Ignorant or Sensible? The Nature of Public Opinion about Foreign Policy     53
The Influence of Public Opinion on Foreign Policy     56
Summary     57
The Historical Context: Great Debates in American Foreign Policy, 1789-1945     61
Introduction: "The Past Is Prologue"     61
Great Debates over Foreign Policy Strategy      62
Isolationism vs. Internationalism     62
Power, Peace: How Big a Military, How Much for Defense?     66
Principles: True to American Democratic Ideals?     69
Prosperity: U.S. Imperialism?     73
Key Case: U.S. Relations with Latin America-Good Neighbor or Regional Hegemon?     77
Key Case: The United States as a Pacific Power     80
Great Debates in Foreign Policy Politics     82
Going to War     82
National Security vs. the Bill of Rights     84
Free Trade vs. Protectionism     87
Summary     89
The Cold War Context: Origins and First Stages     92
Introduction: "Present at the Creation"     92
Peace: International Institutionalism and the United Nations     94
The Original Vision of the United Nations     94
The Scaled-Back Reality     95
Power: Nuclear Deterrence and Containment     97
The Formative Period, 1947-50     100
Intensification, 1950s to the Early 1960s     105
Principles: Ideological Bipolarity and the Third World "ABC" Approach     108
Support for "ABC Democrats"     108
CIA Covert Action     110
Prosperity: Creation of the Liberal International Economic Order     111
The Major International Economic Institutions     111
Critiques: Economic Hegemony? Neo-Imperialism?     112
Foreign Policy Politics and the Cold War Consensus     113
Pennsylvania Avenue Diplomacy: A One-Way Street     113
Executive-Branch Politics and the Creation of the "National Security State"     116
Interest Groups, the Media, and Public Opinion: Benefits and Dangers of Consensus     119
Summary     124
The Cold War Context: Lessons and Legacies     128
Introduction: Turbulent Decades     128
The Vietnam War: A Profound Foreign Policy Setback     129
Foreign Policy Strategy: Failure on All Counts     130
Foreign Policy Politics: Shattering the Cold War Consensus     134
The Rise and Fall of Detente: Major Foreign Policy Shifts     138
Nixon, Kissinger, and the Rise of Detente     138
Reasons for the Fall of Detente     145
1970s Economic Shocks     148
The Nixon Shock, 1971     149
The OPEC Shocks, 1973 and 1979     149
The North-South Conflict and Demands for an "NIEO"     150
Trade with Japan and the Rest of the World     151
Reagan, Gorbachev, and the End of the Cold War      155
The 4 Ps under Reagan     155
Confrontational Foreign Policy Politics     161
The End of the Cold War: Why Did the Cold War End, and End Peacefully?     164
Summary     170
The Context of U.S. Foreign Policy     175
Power: The Mainsprings of American Foreign Policy     176
Peace: International Organization and World Order     180
Prosperity: The United States and World Economic Power     185
Principles: The United States and the Global Struggle for Democracy: Early 1990s Perspective     189
The President and Congress: What the Founding Fathers Intended     194
Bureaucratic Politics: Conceptual Models and the Cuban Missile Crisis     199
Public Opinion and Foreign Policy: Challenges to the Almond-Lippmann Consensus     201
Isolationism vs. Internationalism: Franklin D. Roosevelt and the Coming of World War II     209
Imperialism: The American "New Empire"     217
Cold War Revisionist Critique: The American Conception of National Security and the Beginnings of the Cold War, 1945-48     224
Nuclear Deterrence Doctrine: Strategy in the Missile Age     231
Containment: The Sources of Soviet Conduct     237
Vietnam: The System Worked     241
Detente: The Search for a "Constructive Relationship"     245
End of the Cold War: The Unexpected Ronald Reagan     251
End of the Cold War: The Soviet Union's Crucial Role     254
American Foreign Policy in the Twenty-First Century: Choices and Challenges     257
Foreign Policy Strategy and Foreign Policy Politics in a New Era     258
Introduction: 11/9 and 9/11-Crumbling Wall and Crashing Towers     258
Foreign Policy Strategy for a New Era     259
The Unilateralism versus Multilateralism Debate     259
Force and Diplomacy: Striking a Balance     267
The United Nations     273
Security Threats from Nonstate Actors     277
Foreign Policy Politics: Diplomacy Begins at Home     280
Presidential-Congressional Relations: Post-Cold War Pennsylvania Avenue Diplomacy     281
Executive-Branch Politics: Issues of Leadership and Bureaucracy     287
Foreign Policy Interest Groups: Proliferation and Intensification     294
The News Media: New Technologies, Recurring Issues     296
Public Opinion: Currents and Cross-Currents     298
Summary     303
Post-Cold War Geopolitics: U.S. Relations with Major Powers and the Challenges of WMD Proliferation     308
Major Powers Geopolitics     309
Keeping Them Down or Bringing Them In: Primacy vs. Integration     309
Russia     310
China     321
Western Europe     328
The Future of NATO     330
Japan     335
India     337
WMD Proliferation     339
Nuclear Nonproliferation Regime     340
Libya     342
Iran     344
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT)     345
Chemical and Biological Weapons     345
Land Mines and the Regime-Creating Role of NGOs     347
Foreign Policy Politics     348
The China Lobbies     348
Congressional Defeat of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT), 1999     351
Summary     353
9/11, Iraq, and the Middle East     359
September 13, 1993, to September 11, 2001: From Hope to Tragedy     359
Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm: The 1990-91 Persian Gulf War     361
9/11 and the War on Terrorism     363
The Overall Bush Administration Strategy     365
Debate over the Bush Strategy     370
Sources and Nature of Terrorism     372
The Iraq War     374
Rationale for Going to War: Validity? Honesty?      379
Results: Winning the Peace?     381
Ramifications: Iraq and the 4 Ps     384
The Arab-Israeli Conflict     390
Foreign Policy Politics: Terrorism, Homeland Security, and the Iraq War     397
National Security, the Bill of Rights, and the War on Terrorism     398
The Department of Homeland Security and Executive-Branch Politics     404
Domestic Politics of the Iraq War     407
Summary     415
Never Again or Yet Again? Genocide and Humanitarian Intervention     421
Introduction: Success and Failure, Hope and Despair     421
Is the U.S. National Interest at Stake?     426
What Are the Driving Forces of Wars of Identity?     428
What about National Sovereignty?     430
When Should Military Force Be Used?     433
Who Decides on Intervention?     438
How to Intervene Effectively?     440
The 1992-95 Bosnian War     440
The 1999 Kosovo War     442
From Clinton to Bush     442
UN Military Peace Operations     443
Darfur: "Yet Again"     446
Foreign Policy Politics: War Powers, Public Opinion, and Humanitarian Intervention     450
War Powers     450
The Media and the "CNN Curve"     453
Public Opinion and Humanitarian Intervention     454
Summary     455
The Globalization Agenda     461
Introduction: American Foreign Policy in an Era of Globalization     461
The Globalization Debate     462
International Trade     469
The World Trade Organization (WTO)     471
Geo-Economics: Friends as Foes?     474
International Finance     475
1990s Financial Crises     475
Policy Debates over the IMF     477
Global Poverty and Sustainable Development     479
Poverty and the Human Condition     479
U.S Foreign Aid Policy     482
The World Bank     483
Overpopulation and World Hunger     484
Global Public Health     488
Global AIDS     489
Avian Flu and the "DMD" Threat     490
Global Environmental Issues     491
Foreign Policy Politics: The New Politics of Globalization and the Old Politics of Trade     495
NGOs and the Politics of Globalization     496
Making U.S. Trade Policy: Process and Politics     498
Summary     503
The Coming of a Democratic Century?      507
Introduction: Democracy and the U.S. National Interest     507
Global Democracy and Human Rights: Status and Prospects     510
Post-Cold War Democratic Success Stories     510
Limits and Uncertainties     514
Principles and Peace: The Democratic Peace Debate     519
Democratic Peace Theory     520
Critiques and Caveats     523
Principles and Power: Tensions and Trade-Offs     525
From ABC to ABT?     525
Principles as Power: Soft Power's Significance     526
Principles and Prosperity: The Economic Sanctions Debate     531
Key Cases     532
Policy Strategies for Promoting Democracy and Protecting Human Rights     534
Who: Key International Actors     534
How: Key Strategies     536
What: Assessing Effectiveness     544
Foreign Policy Politics: Economic Sanctions and the South Africa Case     547
Summary     550
American Foreign Policy in the Twenty-First Century: Choices and Challenges     555
Unilateralism: The Unipolar Moment Revisited     556
The United Nations: "We the Peoples"     561
America as the World's Government: The Case for Goliath     568
Taming American Power: The Problem of American Power     571
Bush Doctrine on Pre-emption: Pre-Emption and National Security Strategy     573
Bush Doctrine Critique: America's Imperial Ambition     575
A Global Strategy against Terrorism: Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks upon the United States     579
The Responsibility to Protect: The Case for Humanitarian Intervention     582
The Media and Foreign Policy: The Media and U.S. Policies Toward Intervention: A Closer Look at the "CNN Effect     585
The Global AIDS Crisis: 2006 Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic     593
The Planetary Emergency of Global Warming: An Inconvenient Truth     597
NGOs: Transnational Networks in International Politics: An Introduction     600
The Triumph of Democracy: The End of History?     609
Ongoing Threats to Democracy: The Clash of Civilizations?     613
Democratic Peace?: Democratization and the Danger of War     620
Permissions Acknowledgments     A1
Index     A3
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