American Foreign Policy in a New Era / Edition 1

American Foreign Policy in a New Era / Edition 1

by Donald M. Snow, Patrick J. Haney

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ISBN-10: 0205210244

ISBN-13: 9780205210244

Pub. Date: 02/22/2012

Publisher: Pearson

Debuting in its first edition, American Foreign Policy in a New Era takes the contemporary challenges of globalization and hyper-partisanship as its starting point, and surveys how foreign policy is made and to what ends. This brief text is not only a review of theory, history, actors, institutions, and key policies but also an examination of how


Debuting in its first edition, American Foreign Policy in a New Era takes the contemporary challenges of globalization and hyper-partisanship as its starting point, and surveys how foreign policy is made and to what ends. This brief text is not only a review of theory, history, actors, institutions, and key policies but also an examination of how policymakers are affected by domestic and international political factors. Telling a uniquely engaging story of how foreign policy is made, American Foreign Policy in a New Era help readers understand the changing leadership role of the United States and the effect of world politics on the everyday life of Americans.

Product Details

Publication date:
Edition description:
New Edition
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Product dimensions:
5.90(w) x 8.90(h) x 1.10(d)

Table of Contents

Preface xi

Acknowledgments xviii

Chapter 1 A New Foreign Policy Era 1

Foreign Policy Settings 6

The International (Foreign) Environment 7

The Domestic Environment 10

The Intermestic Intersection 15

Thinking About Foreign Policy 18

Foreign Policy Culture 18

Intersections: Is America Still an Island? 19

Individual Inventory 21

Intersections: Neoconservatism 25

Conclusions 27

Chapter 2 Paradigm Lost: The Cold War to the Present 31

The Cold War 34

The Postwar World 34

The Cold War Concept 38

Cold War Evolution 39

Cold War Characteristics 43

The Containment Paradigm 46

Deadlock and the Collapse of the Cold War 48

After the Cold War 53

Intersections: "Horror Scenarios?" 55

Fault Lines 56

Major Dynamic Changes 59

Intersections: The End of the Cold War, Intermestic Politics, and Partisanship? 61

Conclusions 63

Part I Policy Processes 67

Chapter 3 Decision Making and U.S. Foreign Policy 68

Who Makes Decisions and How? 71

Individual Explanations 72

Small-Group Explanations 75

Intersections: "Beliefs and Policy Toward North Korea" 76

The Bureaucratic Politics Paradigm 80

Intersections: The Domestic Politics of Foreign Policy 81

Other Approaches 84

Policy Types 84

Constructivism 86

Conclusions 88

Chapter 4 The President 93

Presidential Powers and Constraints 97

Formal Powers of the President 98

Intersections: The President, the Presidency, Hyperpartisanship, and Foreign Policy 101

Informal (Political) Powers of the Presidency 104

Presidential Constraints 108

Intersections: Partisanship and Start 111

The Human Side: Presidential Personality and Decision Style 112

Typologies of Presidential Personality and Management Style 113

Patterns of Presidential Decision Style 116

The Competitive Model 118

The Formalistic Model 120

The Collegial Model 124

The Barack Obama Model? 127

Conclusions 128

Chapter 5 The Role of Executive Agencies 132

The Interagency Process 136

The National Security Council (NSC) 136

Principals Committee 138

Deputies Committee 139

Interagency Policy Committees 139

The Executive Agencies 140

The State Departmentc 141

Department of Defense 148

Intersections: Guns, Butter, and Military Activism 151

The Intelligence Community 155

Department of Homeland Security 160

Intersections: Evading DHS 163

Economic Agencies 165

Conclusions 168

Chapter 6 Congress and Foreign Policy 172

Congress: Foreign Policy Processes and Structures 177

Organizing Mechanisms 178

Congressional Foreign Policy Powers 180

Lawmaking Power 180

Power of the Purse 183

Confirmation Power 183

Oversight Power 185

War Power 187

Treaty Power 188

Congressional Activism in Foreign Policy 190

Sources of Activism 191

Constraints on Activism 195

Congressional Activism in Action: The Battle Over War Powers 199

Constitutional Ambiguity Concerning War Powers 200

Intersections: The Courts and War Powers 201

Executive Dominance on Matters of War and Peace 203

The Trauma of Vietnam 204

Partisanship and Policy Making 204

The War Powers Act 205

Intersections: Intervention in Libya and the War Powers Act 207

Congressional Powers and Policy Types 209

Conclusions 210

Chapter 7 Interest Groups and Think Tanks 215

Types of Groups 219

Intersections: Ike's Farewell Address 221

Sources of Change 224

Interest Groups 226

Characteristics 227

Interest Group Tactics 227

Types of Interest Groups 231

Intersections: Why Can't I Go to Cuba for Spring Break? 235

Policy Elites and Think Tanks 236

Characteristics 238

Sources of Funding 239

Ideological Leanings 240

Other Forms of Identification 240

Patterns of Function and Activity 241

Conclusions 244

Chapter 8 The Public and the Media 248

Between Theory and Practice 251

Control of the Agenda 252

Secrecy 252

General Public's Lack of Foreign Policy Knowledge 254

The Public 257

The Traditional View: Multiple "Publics" 258

Toward a New View of the Public and Foreign Policy 264

How Presidents See the Public's Role 264

Rallies and Haloes 264

Types of Interventions 266

Intersections: Foreign Policy Presidential Campaign Commercials 267

Other Sources of Change 269

Intersections: The Public and the War in Afghanistan 271

The Media 273

Print Media 273

Electronic Media 274

Traditional View of the Media 275

Impact of the Telecommunications Revolution 280

Conclusions 284

Part II Foreign Policy Outcomes 289

Chapter 9 Traditional Issues in National Security 290

National Security and Foreign Policy 294

Threats and Risks 297

National Interests 297

Threats 300

Risk 302

Nonnuclear (Conventional) Forces and Missions 304

Traditional Forces 304

Military Manpower 307

Intersections: Politics and Manpower 311

Nuclear Forces and Missions 314

Existential Deterrence and Necessary Peace 314

Nuclear Proliferation 317

Intersections: Iran, N + 1, and U.S. Options 318

Arms Control 320

Conclusions 322

Chapter 10 Contemporary Security Problems in an Asymmetrical World 327

Asymmetrical Warfare, Terrorism, and Foreign Policy 330

Asymmetrical Warfare 333

Characteristics of Asymmetrical Warfare 335

Intersections: The Debate Over Nation Building 340

Asymmetrical War, Nation Building, and Foreign Policy 341

Terrorism 344

Terrorism Characteristics 345

Dealing with Terrorism 351

Terrorism as a Foreign Policy Consideration 354

Intersections: Occupations and Terrorism 356

Conclusions 358

Chapter 11 Economics and Foreign Policy 363

International Economics in the American Experience 367

The Road to Bretton Woods 370

The Bretton Woods Institutions 372

Intersections: Shifting Opponents to Free Trade 375

The Changing International Economy and the Bretton Woods System 378

The Decline of Bretton Woods 378

The Transition Period 381

The Globalizing Economy 383

The Impact of High Technology 384

The Return of Free Trade 386

Implementing Globalization and Free Trade 388

Free Trade Mechanisms 389

The Free Trade Debate 391

Intersections: Making Free Trade Fair in a Hyperpartisan World 396

Conclusions 397

Chapter 12 Economic and Political Instruments of Foreign Policy 402

Sources of Power: Hard, Soft, Sticky, and Smart 404

Two-Level Games and Foreign Economic Policy 406

Coordination Mechanisms 408

Congress and Foreign Economic Policy 410

Nonmilitary Strategies for Influence 410

Coercive Diplomacy 410

Public Diplomacy 412

Tools of Influence 413

Foreign Aid 413

Millennium Challenge 416

Military Assistance 426

Sanctions 417

Intersections: The Curious Case of the Cuban Embargo 418

"Smart" Sanctions 420

Examples of Sanctions 422

Intersections: U.S.-India Nuclear Pact 425

Conclusions 426

Chapter 13 Trans-State Issues and American Foreign Policy 430

Range of Concerns 433

Intersections: Fill Up Much? 436

Human Rights and Democracy 439

Describing the Problem 439

Status of Human Rights and Democracy Issues 441

The United States and Human Rights 444

The Environment 448

Describing the Problem 449

Status of Environmental Challenges 449

U.S. Policy and the Environment 452

Intersections: Collapse at Copenhagen 454

Conclusions 455

Credits 460

Index 461

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