American Indian Nations from Termination to Restoration, 1953-2006

Overview

When the U.S. government ended its relationship with dozens of Native American tribes and bands between 1953 and 1966, it was in fact engaging in a massive social experiment. Congress enacted the program, known as termination, in the name of “freeing” the Indians from government restrictions and improving their quality of life. Eliminating the federal status of more than nine dozen tribes across the country, however, plunged many of their nearly thirteen thousand members into even deeper levels of poverty and ...

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Overview

When the U.S. government ended its relationship with dozens of Native American tribes and bands between 1953 and 1966, it was in fact engaging in a massive social experiment. Congress enacted the program, known as termination, in the name of “freeing” the Indians from government restrictions and improving their quality of life. Eliminating the federal status of more than nine dozen tribes across the country, however, plunged many of their nearly thirteen thousand members into even deeper levels of poverty and eroded the tribal people’s sense of Native identity. Beginning in 1973 and extending over a twenty-year period, the terminated tribes, one by one, persuaded Congress to restore their ties to the federal government. Nonetheless, so much damage had been done that even today the restored tribes struggle to overcome the problems created by those terminations more than half a century ago.

Roberta Ulrich provides a concise overview of all the terminations and restorations of Native American tribes from 1953 to 2006 and explores the enduring policy implications for Native peoples. This is the first book to consider all the terminations and restorations in the twentieth century as part of continuing policy while simultaneously detailing some of the individual tribal differences. Drawing from congressional records, interviews with tribal members, and other primary sources, Ulrich examines the causes and effects of termination and restoration from both sides.

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Editorial Reviews

Choice
“Highly recommended”—Choice
AmerIndian Research

"Rich in facts and easy to read, the book details a little noticed chapter of present-day Indian politics of the USA."—AmerIndian Research
Choice
“Highly recommended”—Choice
Western Historical Quarterly

“For the general reader, [this book] provides a good overview of termination and its reversal and demonstrates how these factors influenced Indian identity.”—Western Historical Quarterly

— Heather Ponchetti Daly

Indian Country Today
“Clearly laid out and very readable.”—Indian Country Today
Western Historical Quarterly - Heather Ponchetti Daly

“For the general reader, [this book] provides a good overview of termination and its reversal and demonstrates how these factors influenced Indian identity.”—Western Historical Quarterly
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780803271579
  • Publisher: UNP - Nebraska Paperback
  • Publication date: 1/1/2013
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Pages: 334
  • Sales rank: 975,687
  • Product dimensions: 5.50 (w) x 8.40 (h) x 0.90 (d)

Meet the Author


Roberta Ulrich is a retired newspaper reporter. She is the author of Empty Nets: Indians, Dams, and the Columbia River.
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Table of Contents

List of Illustrations viii

Acknowledgments ix

Prologue: The Experiment xiii

Part 1 Breaking the Ties

1 Policy: Kill the Indians 3

2 Menominees: Ambush 21

3 Klamaths: Disaster 45

4 Western Oregon: Invisible 71

5 Alabama-Coushattas of Texas and Catawbas of South Carolina: Entangled 88

6 Utah Paiute Bands: Helpless 100

7 California: Scattered 111

8 Oklahoma Tribes and Poncas of Nebraska: Afterthoughts 130

Part 2 The Way Back

9 Menominees: Pioneers 143

10 Siletz: Fish 159

11 Oklahoma and Utah: Flood 170

12 Cow Creeks and Grand Rondes: Communities 180

13 Klamaths: Troubles 193

14 Coos and Coquilles: Cooperating 203

15 Alabama-Coushattas and California: Legalities 215

16 Catawbas and Poncas: Last 225

Epilogue: The Results 235

Appendix: Terminated Tribes and Restorations 247

Notes 249

Bibliography 287

Index 295

Illustrations 146

Klamath men's traditional dancers

Grand Ronde cemetery shed

Grand Ronde governance center

Ponca Agency building

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