American Promise, Volume I: To 1877: A History of the United States / Edition 4

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The American Promise appeals to all types of students and provides the right resources and tools to support any classroom environment. A clear political framework supports a vibrant social and cultural story that embraces the voices of hundreds of Americans — from presidents to pipefitters and sharecroppers to suffragettes — who help students connect with history and grasp important concepts. Now in its fifth edition, The American Promise does even more to increase historical analysis skills and facilitate active learning, and its robust array of multimedia supplements make it the perfect choice for traditional face-to-face classrooms, hybrid courses, and distance learning.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780312452926
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
  • Publication date: 1/4/2008
  • Edition description: Fourth Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 544
  • Product dimensions: 8.40 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 3.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Born in Eunice, Louisiana, and raised in the West, James L. Roark received his B.A. from the University of California, Davis, and his Ph.D. from Stanford University. His dissertation won the Allan Nevins Prize. Since 1983, he has taught at Emory University, where he is Samuel Candler Dobbs Professor of American History. In 1993, he received the Emory Williams Distinguished Teaching Award, and in 2001–2002 he was Pitt Professor of American Institutions at Cambridge University. He has written Masters without Slaves: Southern Planters in the Civil War and Reconstruction (1977). With Michael P. Johnson, he is author of Black Masters: A Free Family of Color in the Old South (1984) and editor of No Chariot Let Down: Charleston’s Free People of Color on the Eve of the Civil War (1984).
Born and raised in Ponca City, Oklahoma, Michael P. Johnson studied at Knox College in Galesburg, Illinois, where he received a B.A., and at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, where he earned  his Ph.D.  He is currently professor of history at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. He is the author, co-author, or editor of six books, including Reading the American Past, the documents reader designed to accompany The American Promise.  His research has been honored with fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanties, the American Council of Learned Societies, the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavoral Sciences, and the Huntington Library, and with prizes from the Organization of American Historians and the Omohundro Insttute of Early American History and Culture.  He is also the recipient of university prizes for outstanding undergraduate teaching.
Born in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and raised in Palo Alto, California, Patricia Cline Cohen earned a B.A. at the University of Chicago and a Ph.D. at the University of California, Berkeley. In 1976, she joined the history faculty at the University of California, Santa Barbara. In 2005–2006 she received the university’s Distinguished Teaching Award. Cohen has written A Calculating People: The Spread of Numeracy in Early America (1982; reissued 1999) and The Murder of Helen Jewett: The Life and Death of a Prostitute in Nineteenth-Century New York (1998). She is coauthor of The Flash Press: Sporting Male Weeklies in 1840s New York (2008). In 2001–2002 she was the Distinguished Senior Mellon Fellow at the American Antiquarian Society.
Sarah Stage was born in Davenport, Iowa, and received a B.A. from the University of Iowa and a Ph.D. in American Studies from Yale University. She has taught U.S. history for more than twenty-five years at Williams College and the University of California, Riverside. Currently she is professor of Women’s Studies at Arizona State University at the West campus in Phoenix. Her books include Female Complaints: Lydia Pinkham and the Business of Women’s Medicine (1979) and Rethinking Home Economics: Women and the History of a Profession (1997). She recently returned from China where she had an appointment as visiting scholar at Peking University and Sichuan University.
Susan M. Hartmann received her B.A. from Washington University and her Ph.D. from the University of Missouri. A specialist in modern U.S. history and women’s history, she has published many articles and four books: Truman and the 80th Congress (1971); The Home Front and Beyond: American Women in the 1940s (1982); From Margin to Mainstream: American Women and Politics since 1960 (1989); and The Other Feminists: Activists in the Liberal Establishment (1998). She is currently Arts and Humanities Distinguished Professor of History at Ohio State University and recently was a fellow at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.

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Table of Contents

1. Ancient America, Before 1492

Archaeology and History

The First Americans

   African and Asian Origins

   Paleo-Indian Hunters

Archaic Hunters and Gatherers

   Great Plains Bison Hunters

   Great Basin Cultures

   Pacific Coast Cultures

   Eastern Woodland Cultures

HISTORICAL QUESTION: "Who Were the First Americans?"

Agricultural Settlements and Chiefdoms

   Southwestern Cultures

   Woodland Burial Mounds and Chiefdoms

VISUALIZING HISTORY: "Daily Life in Chaco Canyon"

Native Americans in the 1490s

   Eastern and Great Plains Peoples

   Southwestern and Western Peoples

   Cultural Similarities

The Mexica: A Mesoamerican Culture

Conclusion: The World of Ancient Americans

2. Europeans Encounter the New World, 1492-1600

Europe in the Age of Exploration

   Mediterranean Trade and European Expansion

   A Century of Portuguese Exploration

A Surprising New World in the Western Atlantic

   The Explorations of Columbus

   The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian Exchange

Spanish Exploration and Conquest

   The Conquest of Mexico

   The Search for Other Mexicos

   Spanish Outposts in Florida and New Mexico

   New Spain in the Sixteenth Century

   The Toll of Spanish Conquest and Colonization

VISUALIZING HISTORY: "Weapons of Conquest"


SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "Spreading Christianity in New Spain"

The New World and Sixteenth-Century Europe

   The Protestant Reformation and the Spanish Response

   Europe and The Spanish Example

Conclusion: The promise of the new world for europeans

3. The Southern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century, 1601-1700

An English Colony on Chesapeake Bay

   The Fragile Jamestown Settlement

   Cooperation and Conflict between Natives and Newcomers

   From Private Company to Royal Government

A Tobacco Society

   Tobacco Agriculture

   A Servant Labor System

   The Rigors of Servitude

   Cultivating Land and Faith

BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: "American Tobacco and European Consumers"

SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "The Gamble of Indentured Servitude"

Hierarchy and Inequality in the Chesapeake

   Social and Economic Polarization

   Government Policies and Political Conflict

   Bacon's Rebellion

HISTORICAL QUESTION: "Why Did English Colonists Consider Themselves Superior to Indians and Africans?"

Toward a Slave Labor System

   Religion and Revolt in the Spanish Borderland

   The West Indies: Sugar and Slavery

   Carolina: A West Indian Frontier

   Slave Labor Emerges in the Chesapeake

Conclusion: The Growth of English Colonies Based on Export Crops and Slave Labor

4. The Northern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century, 1601-1700

Puritans and the Settlement of New England

   Puritan Origins: The English Reformation

   The Pilgrims and Plymouth Colony

   The Founding of Massachusetts Bay Colony

The Evolution of New England Society

   Church, Covenant, and Conformity

   Government by Puritans for Puritanism

   The Splintering of Puritanism

   Religious Controversies and Economic Changes


DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "Hunting Witches in Salem, Massachusetts"

The Founding of the Middle Colonies

   From New Netherland to New York

   New Jersey and Pennsylvania

   Toleration and Diversity in Pennsylvania

The Colonies and the English Empire

   Royal Regulation of Colonial Trade

   King Philip's War and the Consolidation of Royal Authority

BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: "New France and the Indians: The English Colonies' Northern Borderlands"

Conclusion: An English Model of Colonization in North America

5. Colonial America in the Eighteenth Century, 1701-1770

A Growing Population and Expanding Economy in British North America

New England: From Puritan Settlers to Yankee Traders

   Natural Increase and Land Distribution

   Farms, Fish, and Atlantic Trade

The Middle Colonies: Immigrants, Wheat, and Work

   German and Scots-Irish Immigrants

   "God Gives All Things to Industry": Urban and Rural Labor

SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "A Sailor's Life in the Eighteenth-Century Atlantic World"

The Southern Colonies: Land of Slavery

   The Atlantic Slave Trade and the Growth of Slavery

   Slave Labor and African American Culture

   Tobacco, Rice, and Prosperity

Unifying Experiences

   Commerce and Consumption

   Religion, Enlightenment, and Revival

   Trade and Conflict in the North American Borderlands

   Colonial Politics in the British Empire

DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "Spanish Priests Report on California Missions"

Conclusion: The Dual Identity of British North American Colonists

6. The British Empire and the Colonial Crisis, 1754-1775

The Seven Years' War, 1754-1763

   French-British Rivalry in the Ohio Country

   The Albany Congress

   The War and Its Consequences

   Pontiac's Rebellion and the Proclamation of 1763

VISUALIZING HISTORY: "Cultural Cross-Dressing in Eighteenth-Century Portraits"

The Sugar and Stamp Acts, 1763-1765

   Grenville's Sugar Act

   The Stamp Act

   Resistance Strategies and Crowd Politics

   Liberty and Property

SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "Pursuing Liberty, Protesting Tyranny"

The Townshend Acts and Economic Retaliation, 1767-1770

   The Townshend Duties

   Nonconsumption and the Daughters of Liberty

   Military Occupation and "Massacre" in Boston

The Destruction of the Tea and the Coercive Acts, 1770-1774

   The Calm before the Storm

   Tea in Boston Harbor

   The Coercive Acts

   Beyond Boston: Rural New England

   The First Continental Congress

Domestic Insurrections, 1774-1775

   Lexington and Concord

   Rebelling against Slavery

Conclusion: The Long Road to Revolution

7. The War for America, 1775-1783

The Second Continental Congress

   Assuming Political and Military Authority

   Pursuing Both War and Peace

   Thomas Paine, Abigail Adams, and the Case for Independence

   The Declaration of Independence

The First Year of War, 1775-1776

   The American Military Forces

   The British Strategy

   Quebec, New York, and New Jersey

The Home Front

   Patriotism at the Local Level

   The Loyalists

   Who Is a Traitor?

   Prisoners of War

   Financial Instability and Corruption

DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "Families Divide over the Revolution"

The Campaigns of 1777-1779: The North and West

   Burgoyne's Army and the Battle of Saratoga

   The War in the West: Indian Country

   The French Alliance

The Southern Strategy and the End of the War

   Georgia and South Carolina

   Treason and Guerrilla Warfare

   Surrender at Yorktown

   The Losers and the Winners

BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: "European Nations and the Peace of Paris, 1783"

Conclusion: Why the British Lost

8. Building a Republic, 1775-1789

The Articles of Confederation

   Congress and Confederation

   The Problem of Western Lands

   Running the New Government

The Sovereign States

   The State Constitutions

   Who Are "the People"?

   Equality and Slavery

SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "A Slave Sues for Her Freedom"

The Confederation's Problems

   The War Debt and the Newburgh Conspiracy

   The Treaty of Fort Stanwix

   Land Ordinances and the Northwest Territory

   The Requisition of 1785 and Shays's Rebellion, 1786-1787

The United States Constitution

   From Annapolis to Philadelphia

   The Virginia and New Jersey Plans

   Democracy versus Republicanism

Ratification of the Constitution

   The Federalists

   The Antifederalists

   The Big Holdouts: Virginia and New York

HISTORICAL QUESTION: "Was the New United States a Christian Country?"

Conclusion: The "Republican Remedy"

9. The New Nation Takes Form, 1789-1800

The Search for Stability

   Washington Inaugurates the Government

   The Bill of Rights

   The Republican Wife and Mother

HISTORICAL QUESTION: "How Did America's First Congress Address the Question of Slavery?"

Hamilton's Economic Policies

   Agriculture, Transportation, and Banking

   The Public Debt and Taxes

   The First Bank of the United States and the Report on Manufactures

   The Whiskey Rebellion

Conflicts on America's Borders and Beyond

   Creeks in the Southwest

   Ohio Indians in the Northwest

   France and Britain

   The Haitian Revolution

BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: "France, Britain, and Woman's Rights in the 1790s"

Federalists and Republicans

   The Election of 1796

   The XYZ Affair

   The Alien and Sedition Acts

DOCUMETING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "The Crisis of 1798: Sedition"

Conclusion: Parties Nonetheless

10. Republicans in Power, 1800-1824

Jefferson's Presidency

   Turbulent Times: Election and Rebellion

   The Jeffersonian Vision of Republican Simplicity

   Dangers Overseas: The Barbary Wars

Opportunities and Challenges in the West

   The Louisiana Purchase

   The Lewis and Clark Expedition

   Osage and Comanche Indians

VISUALIZING HISTORY: "Cultural Exchange on the Lewis and Clark Trail"

Jefferson, the Madisons, and the War of 1812

   Impressment and Embargo

   Dolley Madison and Social Politics

   Tecumseh and Tippecanoe

   The War of 1812

   Washington City Burns: The British Offensive

Women's Status in the Early Republic

   Women and the Law

   Women and Church Governance

   Female Education

SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "One Woman's Quest to Provide Higher Education for Women"

Monroe and Adams

   From Property to Democracy

   The Missouri Compromise

   The Monroe Doctrine

   The Election of 1824

   The Adams Administration

Conclusion: Republican Simplicity Becomes Complex

11. The Expanding Republic, 1815-1840

The Market Revolution

   Improvements in Transportation

   Factories, Workingwomen, and Wage Labor

   Bankers and Lawyers

   Booms and Busts

DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "Mill Girls Stand Up to Factory Owners, 1834"

The Spread of Democracy

   Popular Politics and Partisan Identity

   The Election of 1828 and the Character Issue

   Jackson's Democratic Agenda

Jackson Defines the Democratic Party

   Indian Policy and the Trail of Tears

   The Tariff of Abominations and Nullification

   The Bank War and Economic Boom

Cultural Shifts, Religion, and Reform

   The Family and Separate Spheres

   The Education and Training of Youths

   The Second Great Awakening

   The Temperance Movement and the Campaign for Moral Reform

   Organizing against Slavery

BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: "Transatlantic Abolition"

Van Buren's One-Term Presidency

   The Politics of Slavery

   Elections and Panics

SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "Going Ahead or Gone to Smash: An Entrepreneur Struggles in the 1830s"

Conclusion: The Age of Jackson or the Era of Reform?

12. The New West and the Free North, 1840-1860

Economic and Industrial Evolution

   Agriculture and Land Policy

   Manufacturing and Mechanization

   Railroads: Breaking the Bonds of Nature

Free Labor: Promise and Reality

   The Free-Labor Ideal

   Economic Inequality

   Immigrants and the Free-Labor Ladder

VISUALIZING HISTORY: "The Path of Progress"

BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: "Global Prosperity in the 1850s"

The Westward Movement

   Manifest Destiny

   Oregon and the Overland Trail

   The Mormon Exodus

   The Mexican Borderlands

Expansion and the Mexican-American War

   The Politics of Expansion

   The Mexican-American War, 1846-1848

   Victory in Mexico

   Golden California

Reforming Self and Society

   The Pursuit of Perfection: Transcendentalists and Utopians

   Woman's Rights Activists

   Abolitionists and the American Ideal

Conclusion: Free Labor, Free Men

13. The Slave South, 1820-1860

The Growing Distinctiveness of the South

   Cotton Kingdom, Slave Empire

   The South in Black and White

   The Plantation Economy


Masters and Mistresses in the Big House

   Paternalism and Male Honor

   The Southern Lady and Feminine Virtues

HISTORICAL QUESTION: "How Often Were Slaves Whipped?"

Slaves in the Quarter


   Family and Religion

   Resistance and Rebellion

The Plain Folk

   Plantation Belt Yeomen

   Upcountry Yeomen

   Poor Whites

   The Culture of the Plain Folk

Black and Free: On the Middle Ground

   Precarious Freedom

   Achievement despite Restrictions

The Politics of Slavery

   The Democratization of the Political Arena

   Planter Power

Conclusion: A Slave Society

14. The House Divided, 1846-1861

The Bitter Fruits of War

   The Wilmot Proviso and the Expansion of Slavery

   The Election of 1848

   Debate and Compromise

The Sectional Balance Undone

   The Fugitive Slave Act

   Uncle Tom's Cabin

   The Kansas-Nebraska Act

Realignment of the Party System

   The Old Parties: Whigs and Democrats

   The New Parties: Know-Nothings and Republicans

   The Election of 1856

BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: "Filibusters: The Underside of Manifest Destiny"

Freedom under Siege

   "Bleeding Kansas"

   The Dred Scott Decision

   Prairie Republican: Abraham Lincoln

   The Lincoln-Douglas Debates

SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "A Purse of Her Own: Petitioning for the Right to Own Propert"

The Union Collapses

   The Aftermath of John Brown's Raid

   Republican Victory in 1860

   Secession Winter

Conclusion: Slavery, Free Labor, and the Failure of Political Compromise

15. The Crucible of War, 1861-1865

"And the War Came"

   Attack on Fort Sumter

   The Upper South Chooses Sides

The Combatants

   How They Expected to Win

   Lincoln and Davis Mobilize

Battling It Out, 1861-1862

   Stalemate in the Eastern Theater

   Union Victories in the Western Theater

   The Atlantic Theater

   International Diplomacy

Union and Freedom

   From Slaves to Contraband

   From Contraband to Free People

   The War of Black Liberation

SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "The Right to Fight: Black Soldiers in the Civil War"

The South at War

   Revolution from Above

   Hardship Below

   The Disintegration of Slavery

The North at War

   The Government and the Economy

   Women and Work at Home and at War

   Politics and Dissent

Grinding Out Victory, 1863-1865

   Vicksburg and Gettysburg

   Grant Takes Command

   The Election of 1864

   The Confederacy Collapses

HISTORICAL QUESTION: "Why Did So Many Soldiers Die?"

Conclusion: The Second American Revolution

16. Reconstruction, 1863-1877

Wartime Reconstruction

   "To Bind Up the Nation's Wounds"

   Land and Labor

   The African American Quest for Autonomy


Presidential Reconstruction

   Johnson's Program of Reconciliation

   White Southern Resistance and Black Codes

   Expansion of Federal Authority and Black Rights

Congressional Reconstruction

   The Fourteenth Amendment and Escalating Violence

   Radical Reconstruction and Military Rule

   Impeaching a President

   The Fifteenth Amendment and Women's Demands

The Struggle in the South

   Freedmen, Yankees, and Yeomen

   Republican Rule

   White Landlords, Black Sharecroppers

HISTORICAL QUESTION: "What Did the Ku Klux Klan Really Want?"

VISUALIZING HISTORY: "A Post-Slavery Encounter"

Reconstruction Collapses

   Grant's Troubled Presidency

   Northern Resolve Withers

   White Supremacy Triumphs

   An Election and a Compromise

Conclusion: "A Revolution But Half Accomplished"

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