American Promise, Volume I: To 1877: A History of the United States / Edition 4

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The American Promise appeals to all types of students and provides the right resources and tools to support any classroom environment. A clear political framework supports a vibrant social and cultural story that embraces the voices of hundreds of Americans — from presidents to pipefitters and sharecroppers to suffragettes — who help students connect with history and grasp important concepts. Now in its fifth edition, The American Promise does even more to increase historical analysis skills and facilitate active learning, and its robust array of multimedia supplements make it the perfect choice for traditional face-to-face classrooms, hybrid courses, and distance learning.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780312452926
  • Publisher: Bedford/St. Martin's
  • Publication date: 1/4/2008
  • Edition description: Fourth Edition
  • Edition number: 4
  • Pages: 544
  • Product dimensions: 8.40 (w) x 10.80 (h) x 3.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Born in Eunice, Louisiana, and raised in the West, James L. Roark received his B.A. from the University of California, Davis, and his Ph.D. from Stanford University. His dissertation won the Allan Nevins Prize. Since 1983, he has taught at Emory University, where he is Samuel Candler Dobbs Professor of American History. In 1993, he received the Emory Williams Distinguished Teaching Award, and in 2001–2002 he was Pitt Professor of American Institutions at Cambridge University. He has written Masters without Slaves: Southern Planters in the Civil War and Reconstruction (1977). With Michael P. Johnson, he is author of Black Masters: A Free Family of Color in the Old South (1984) and editor of No Chariot Let Down: Charleston’s Free People of Color on the Eve of the Civil War (1984).
Born and raised in Ponca City, Oklahoma, Michael P. Johnson studied at Knox College in Galesburg, Illinois, where he received a B.A., and at Stanford University in Palo Alto, California, where he earned  his Ph.D.  He is currently professor of history at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. He is the author, co-author, or editor of six books, including Reading the American Past, the documents reader designed to accompany The American Promise.  His research has been honored with fellowships from the National Endowment for the Humanties, the American Council of Learned Societies, the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavoral Sciences, and the Huntington Library, and with prizes from the Organization of American Historians and the Omohundro Insttute of Early American History and Culture.  He is also the recipient of university prizes for outstanding undergraduate teaching.
Born in Ann Arbor, Michigan, and raised in Palo Alto, California, Patricia Cline Cohen earned a B.A. at the University of Chicago and a Ph.D. at the University of California, Berkeley. In 1976, she joined the history faculty at the University of California, Santa Barbara. In 2005–2006 she received the university’s Distinguished Teaching Award. Cohen has written A Calculating People: The Spread of Numeracy in Early America (1982; reissued 1999) and The Murder of Helen Jewett: The Life and Death of a Prostitute in Nineteenth-Century New York (1998). She is coauthor of The Flash Press: Sporting Male Weeklies in 1840s New York (2008). In 2001–2002 she was the Distinguished Senior Mellon Fellow at the American Antiquarian Society.
Sarah Stage was born in Davenport, Iowa, and received a B.A. from the University of Iowa and a Ph.D. in American Studies from Yale University. She has taught U.S. history for more than twenty-five years at Williams College and the University of California, Riverside. Currently she is professor of Women’s Studies at Arizona State University at the West campus in Phoenix. Her books include Female Complaints: Lydia Pinkham and the Business of Women’s Medicine (1979) and Rethinking Home Economics: Women and the History of a Profession (1997). She recently returned from China where she had an appointment as visiting scholar at Peking University and Sichuan University.
Susan M. Hartmann received her B.A. from Washington University and her Ph.D. from the University of Missouri. A specialist in modern U.S. history and women’s history, she has published many articles and four books: Truman and the 80th Congress (1971); The Home Front and Beyond: American Women in the 1940s (1982); From Margin to Mainstream: American Women and Politics since 1960 (1989); and The Other Feminists: Activists in the Liberal Establishment (1998). She is currently Arts and Humanities Distinguished Professor of History at Ohio State University and recently was a fellow at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars.

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Table of Contents

1. Ancient America, Before 1492

Archaeology and History

The First Americans

  African and Asian Origins

  Paleo-Indian Hunters

Archaic Hunters and Gatherers

  Great Plains Bison Hunters

  Great Basin Cultures

  Pacific Coast Cultures

  Eastern Woodland Cultures

HISTORICAL QUESTION: "Who Were the First Americans?"

Agricultural Settlements and Chiefdoms

  Southwestern Cultures

  Woodland Burial Mounds and Chiefdoms

VISUALIZING HISTORY: "Daily Life in Chaco Canyon"

Native Americans in the 1490s

  Eastern and Great Plains Peoples

  Southwestern and Western Peoples

  Cultural Similarities

The Mexica: A Mesoamerican Culture

Conclusion: The World of Ancient Americans

2. Europeans Encounter the New World, 1492-1600

Europe in the Age of Exploration

  Mediterranean Trade and European Expansion

  A Century of Portuguese Exploration

A Surprising New World in the Western Atlantic

  The Explorations of Columbus

  The Geographic Revolution and the Columbian Exchange

Spanish Exploration and Conquest

  The Conquest of Mexico

  The Search for Other Mexicos

  Spanish Outposts in Florida and New Mexico

  New Spain in the Sixteenth Century

  The Toll of Spanish Conquest and Colonization

VISUALIZING HISTORY: "Weapons of Conquest"


SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "Spreading Christianity in New Spain"

The New World and Sixteenth-Century Europe

  The Protestant Reformation and the Spanish Response

  Europe and The Spanish Example

Conclusion: The promise of the new world for europeans

3. The Southern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century, 1601-1700

An English Colony on Chesapeake Bay

  The Fragile Jamestown Settlement

  Cooperation and Conflict between Natives and Newcomers

  From Private Company to Royal Government

A Tobacco Society

  Tobacco Agriculture

  A Servant Labor System

  The Rigors of Servitude

  Cultivating Land and Faith

BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: "American Tobacco and European Consumers"

SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "The Gamble of Indentured Servitude"

Hierarchy and Inequality in the Chesapeake

  Social and Economic Polarization

  Government Policies and Political Conflict

  Bacon's Rebellion

HISTORICAL QUESTION: "Why Did English Colonists Consider Themselves Superior to Indians and Africans?"

Toward a Slave Labor System

  Religion and Revolt in the Spanish Borderland

  The West Indies: Sugar and Slavery

  Carolina: A West Indian Frontier

  Slave Labor Emerges in the Chesapeake

Conclusion: The Growth of English Colonies Based on Export Crops and Slave Labor

4. The Northern Colonies in the Seventeenth Century, 1601-1700

Puritans and the Settlement of New England

  Puritan Origins: The English Reformation

  The Pilgrims and Plymouth Colony

  The Founding of Massachusetts Bay Colony

The Evolution of New England Society

  Church, Covenant, and Conformity

  Government by Puritans for Puritanism

  The Splintering of Puritanism

  Religious Controversies and Economic Changes


DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "Hunting Witches in Salem, Massachusetts"

The Founding of the Middle Colonies

  From New Netherland to New York

  New Jersey and Pennsylvania

  Toleration and Diversity in Pennsylvania

The Colonies and the English Empire

  Royal Regulation of Colonial Trade

  King Philip's War and the Consolidation of Royal Authority

BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: "New France and the Indians: The English Colonies' Northern Borderlands"

Conclusion: An English Model of Colonization in North America

5. Colonial America in the Eighteenth Century, 1701-1770

A Growing Population and Expanding Economy in British North America

New England: From Puritan Settlers to Yankee Traders

  Natural Increase and Land Distribution

  Farms, Fish, and Atlantic Trade

The Middle Colonies: Immigrants, Wheat, and Work

  German and Scots-Irish Immigrants

  "God Gives All Things to Industry": Urban and Rural Labor

SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "A Sailor's Life in the Eighteenth-Century Atlantic World"

The Southern Colonies: Land of Slavery

  The Atlantic Slave Trade and the Growth of Slavery

  Slave Labor and African American Culture

  Tobacco, Rice, and Prosperity

Unifying Experiences

  Commerce and Consumption

  Religion, Enlightenment, and Revival

  Trade and Conflict in the North American Borderlands

  Colonial Politics in the British Empire

DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "Spanish Priests Report on California Missions"

Conclusion: The Dual Identity of British North American Colonists

6. The British Empire and the Colonial Crisis, 1754-1775

The Seven Years' War, 1754-1763

  French-British Rivalry in the Ohio Country

  The Albany Congress

  The War and Its Consequences

  Pontiac's Rebellion and the Proclamation of 1763

VISUALIZING HISTORY: "Cultural Cross-Dressing in Eighteenth-Century Portraits"

The Sugar and Stamp Acts, 1763-1765

  Grenville's Sugar Act

  The Stamp Act

  Resistance Strategies and Crowd Politics

  Liberty and Property

SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "Pursuing Liberty, Protesting Tyranny"

The Townshend Acts and Economic Retaliation, 1767-1770

  The Townshend Duties

  Nonconsumption and the Daughters of Liberty

  Military Occupation and "Massacre" in Boston

The Destruction of the Tea and the Coercive Acts, 1770-1774

  The Calm before the Storm

  Tea in Boston Harbor

  The Coercive Acts

  Beyond Boston: Rural New England

  The First Continental Congress

Domestic Insurrections, 1774-1775

  Lexington and Concord

  Rebelling against Slavery

Conclusion: The Long Road to Revolution

7. The War for America, 1775-1783

The Second Continental Congress

  Assuming Political and Military Authority

  Pursuing Both War and Peace

  Thomas Paine, Abigail Adams, and the Case for Independence

  The Declaration of Independence

The First Year of War, 1775-1776

  The American Military Forces

  The British Strategy

  Quebec, New York, and New Jersey

The Home Front

  Patriotism at the Local Level

  The Loyalists

  Who Is a Traitor?

  Prisoners of War

  Financial Instability and Corruption

DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "Families Divide over the Revolution"

The Campaigns of 1777-1779: The North and West

  Burgoyne's Army and the Battle of Saratoga

  The War in the West: Indian Country

  The French Alliance

The Southern Strategy and the End of the War

  Georgia and South Carolina

  Treason and Guerrilla Warfare

  Surrender at Yorktown

  The Losers and the Winners

BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: "European Nations and the Peace of Paris, 1783"

Conclusion: Why the British Lost

8. Building a Republic, 1775-1789

The Articles of Confederation

  Congress and Confederation

  The Problem of Western Lands

  Running the New Government

The Sovereign States

  The State Constitutions

  Who Are "the People"?

  Equality and Slavery

SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "A Slave Sues for Her Freedom"

The Confederation's Problems

  The War Debt and the Newburgh Conspiracy

  The Treaty of Fort Stanwix

  Land Ordinances and the Northwest Territory

  The Requisition of 1785 and Shays's Rebellion, 1786-1787

The United States Constitution

  From Annapolis to Philadelphia

  The Virginia and New Jersey Plans

  Democracy versus Republicanism

Ratification of the Constitution

  The Federalists

  The Antifederalists

  The Big Holdouts: Virginia and New York

HISTORICAL QUESTION: "Was the New United States a Christian Country?"

Conclusion: The "Republican Remedy"

9. The New Nation Takes Form, 1789-1800

The Search for Stability

  Washington Inaugurates the Government

  The Bill of Rights

  The Republican Wife and Mother

HISTORICAL QUESTION: "How Did America's First Congress Address the Question of Slavery?"

Hamilton's Economic Policies

  Agriculture, Transportation, and Banking

  The Public Debt and Taxes

  The First Bank of the United States and the Report on Manufactures

  The Whiskey Rebellion

Conflicts on America's Borders and Beyond

  Creeks in the Southwest

  Ohio Indians in the Northwest

  France and Britain

  The Haitian Revolution

BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: "France, Britain, and Woman's Rights in the 1790s"

Federalists and Republicans

  The Election of 1796

  The XYZ Affair

  The Alien and Sedition Acts

DOCUMETING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "The Crisis of 1798: Sedition"

Conclusion: Parties Nonetheless

10. Republicans in Power, 1800-1824

Jefferson's Presidency

  Turbulent Times: Election and Rebellion

  The Jeffersonian Vision of Republican Simplicity

  Dangers Overseas: The Barbary Wars

Opportunities and Challenges in the West

  The Louisiana Purchase

  The Lewis and Clark Expedition

  Osage and Comanche Indians

VISUALIZING HISTORY: "Cultural Exchange on the Lewis and Clark Trail"

Jefferson, the Madisons, and the War of 1812

  Impressment and Embargo

  Dolley Madison and Social Politics

  Tecumseh and Tippecanoe

  The War of 1812

  Washington City Burns: The British Offensive

Women's Status in the Early Republic

  Women and the Law

  Women and Church Governance

  Female Education

SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "One Woman's Quest to Provide Higher Education for Women"

Monroe and Adams

  From Property to Democracy

  The Missouri Compromise

  The Monroe Doctrine

  The Election of 1824

  The Adams Administration

Conclusion: Republican Simplicity Becomes Complex

11. The Expanding Republic, 1815-1840

The Market Revolution

  Improvements in Transportation

  Factories, Workingwomen, and Wage Labor

  Bankers and Lawyers

  Booms and Busts

DOCUMENTING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "Mill Girls Stand Up to Factory Owners, 1834"

The Spread of Democracy

  Popular Politics and Partisan Identity

  The Election of 1828 and the Character Issue

  Jackson's Democratic Agenda

Jackson Defines the Democratic Party

  Indian Policy and the Trail of Tears

  The Tariff of Abominations and Nullification

  The Bank War and Economic Boom

Cultural Shifts, Religion, and Reform

  The Family and Separate Spheres

  The Education and Training of Youths

  The Second Great Awakening

  The Temperance Movement and the Campaign for Moral Reform

  Organizing against Slavery

BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: "Transatlantic Abolition"

Van Buren's One-Term Presidency

  The Politics of Slavery

  Elections and Panics

SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "Going Ahead or Gone to Smash: An Entrepreneur Struggles in the 1830s"

Conclusion: The Age of Jackson or the Era of Reform?

12. The New West and the Free North, 1840-1860

Economic and Industrial Evolution

  Agriculture and Land Policy

  Manufacturing and Mechanization

  Railroads: Breaking the Bonds of Nature

Free Labor: Promise and Reality

  The Free-Labor Ideal

  Economic Inequality

  Immigrants and the Free-Labor Ladder

VISUALIZING HISTORY: "The Path of Progress"

BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: "Global Prosperity in the 1850s"

The Westward Movement

  Manifest Destiny

  Oregon and the Overland Trail

  The Mormon Exodus

  The Mexican Borderlands

Expansion and the Mexican-American War

  The Politics of Expansion

  The Mexican-American War, 1846-1848

  Victory in Mexico

  Golden California

Reforming Self and Society

  The Pursuit of Perfection: Transcendentalists and Utopians

  Woman's Rights Activists

  Abolitionists and the American Ideal

Conclusion: Free Labor, Free Men

13. The Slave South, 1820-1860

The Growing Distinctiveness of the South

  Cotton Kingdom, Slave Empire

  The South in Black and White

  The Plantation Economy


Masters and Mistresses in the Big House

  Paternalism and Male Honor

  The Southern Lady and Feminine Virtues

HISTORICAL QUESTION: "How Often Were Slaves Whipped?"

Slaves in the Quarter


  Family and Religion

  Resistance and Rebellion

The Plain Folk

  Plantation Belt Yeomen

  Upcountry Yeomen

  Poor Whites

  The Culture of the Plain Folk

Black and Free: On the Middle Ground

  Precarious Freedom

  Achievement despite Restrictions

The Politics of Slavery

  The Democratization of the Political Arena

  Planter Power

Conclusion: A Slave Society

14. The House Divided, 1846-1861

The Bitter Fruits of War

  The Wilmot Proviso and the Expansion of Slavery

  The Election of 1848

  Debate and Compromise

The Sectional Balance Undone

  The Fugitive Slave Act

  Uncle Tom's Cabin

  The Kansas-Nebraska Act

Realignment of the Party System

  The Old Parties: Whigs and Democrats

  The New Parties: Know-Nothings and Republicans

  The Election of 1856

BEYOND AMERICA'S BORDERS: "Filibusters: The Underside of Manifest Destiny"

Freedom under Siege

  "Bleeding Kansas"

  The Dred Scott Decision

  Prairie Republican: Abraham Lincoln

  The Lincoln-Douglas Debates

SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "A Purse of Her Own: Petitioning for the Right to Own Propert"

The Union Collapses

  The Aftermath of John Brown's Raid

  Republican Victory in 1860

  Secession Winter

Conclusion: Slavery, Free Labor, and the Failure of Political Compromise

15. The Crucible of War, 1861-1865

"And the War Came"

  Attack on Fort Sumter

  The Upper South Chooses Sides

The Combatants

  How They Expected to Win

  Lincoln and Davis Mobilize

Battling It Out, 1861-1862

  Stalemate in the Eastern Theater

  Union Victories in the Western Theater

  The Atlantic Theater

  International Diplomacy

Union and Freedom

  From Slaves to Contraband

  From Contraband to Free People

  The War of Black Liberation

SEEKING THE AMERICAN PROMISE: "The Right to Fight: Black Soldiers in the Civil War"

The South at War

  Revolution from Above

  Hardship Below

  The Disintegration of Slavery

The North at War

  The Government and the Economy

  Women and Work at Home and at War

  Politics and Dissent

Grinding Out Victory, 1863-1865

  Vicksburg and Gettysburg

  Grant Takes Command

  The Election of 1864

  The Confederacy Collapses

HISTORICAL QUESTION: "Why Did So Many Soldiers Die?"

Conclusion: The Second American Revolution

16. Reconstruction, 1863-1877

Wartime Reconstruction

  "To Bind Up the Nation's Wounds"

  Land and Labor

  The African American Quest for Autonomy


Presidential Reconstruction

  Johnson's Program of Reconciliation

  White Southern Resistance and Black Codes

  Expansion of Federal Authority and Black Rights

Congressional Reconstruction

  The Fourteenth Amendment and Escalating Violence

  Radical Reconstruction and Military Rule

  Impeaching a President

  The Fifteenth Amendment and Women's Demands

The Struggle in the South

  Freedmen, Yankees, and Yeomen

  Republican Rule

  White Landlords, Black Sharecroppers

HISTORICAL QUESTION: "What Did the Ku Klux Klan Really Want?"

VISUALIZING HISTORY: "A Post-Slavery Encounter"

Reconstruction Collapses

  Grant's Troubled Presidency

  Northern Resolve Withers

  White Supremacy Triumphs

  An Election and a Compromise

Conclusion: "A Revolution But Half Accomplished"

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