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American Social Welfare Policy: A Pluralist Approach / Edition 4

American Social Welfare Policy: A Pluralist Approach / Edition 4

by Howard Karger, David Stoesz, David Stoesz

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ISBN-10: 0205420737

ISBN-13: 9780205420735

Pub. Date: 07/20/2004

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

Basic Approach

This Research Navigator Edition highlights important questions raised in social welfare policy debates since 2005. This new material, located in the frontmatter, is followed by questions and activities that stimulate critical thinking skills. In addition, access to Research Navigator has been provided so that students may conduct further research


Basic Approach

This Research Navigator Edition highlights important questions raised in social welfare policy debates since 2005. This new material, located in the frontmatter, is followed by questions and activities that stimulate critical thinking skills. In addition, access to Research Navigator has been provided so that students may conduct further research on their own. By engaging with current issues and research, they may become more than an interested observer. They may become active participants.

Highlights of this Research Navigator Edition

• An access code for Research Navigator has been included on the inside front cover.

• This text has been updated with important policy issues that have occurred since 2005.

• A chapter on Religion and Social Welfare Policy examines the religious roots of the welfare state, and how changes in religious thought and expression have been reflected in social welfare polices.

• A discussion on the impact of the Bush tax cuts on social welfare policy has been included.

• A comprehensive companion website that includes practice tests, flashcards, web links and more is available! Please visit: www.ablongman.com/karger5e

What the Reviewers are Saying . . .

“I think one of the hallmarks of each edition of Karger and Stoesz is that it is clear and well-written. This is no exception.”

–Edward Gumz, Loyola University, Chicago

“[American Social Welfare Policy] provides an excellent and important balance between the many different views and approaches to social welfare policy.”

–Thomas McLaughlin, University of New England

Product Details

Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Publication date:
Edition description:
Older Edition
Product dimensions:
7.82(w) x 9.40(h) x 1.07(d)

Table of Contents

Each chapter concludes with “Conclusion,” “Discussion Questions,” and “Notes.”



1. Social Policy and the American Welfare State

Definitions of Social Welfare Policy

Social Problems and Social Welfare Policy

Social Work and Social Policy

Values, Ideology, and Social Welfare Policy

The Political Economy of American Social Welfare

The U.S. Economic Continuum

Keynesian Economics

Conservative or Free Market Economics

Democratic Socialism

The U.S. Political Continuum

Liberalism and Left-of-Center Movements

Classical Conservatives and the Far Right

The Welfare Philosophers and the Neoconservative Think Tanks

2. Social Welfare Policy Research: a Framework for Policy Analysis

A Proposed Model for Policy Analysis

Historical Background of the Policy

Problem(s) That Necessitate the Policy

Policy Description

Policy Analysis

Researching and Analyzing Social Policies

Social Policy Research and the Internet

Journals and Online Research

Online Data Collection

Ethical Concerns Related to Online Research Involving Human Subjects

Finding and Accessing Online Information

Citing and Documenting Information Obtained Online

Evaluating Reliable and Legitimate Internet Sources

Electronic Journals: An Increasingly Popular Venue

Online Publishing

3. Religion and Social Welfare Policy (by Howard Jacob Karger and Peter Kindle).

Religious Antecedents of Welfare Statism

The English Poor Laws

Church, State, and Social Welfare in Colonial America

The Second Great Awakening

The Civil War Era

The Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

The Rise Of Social Work As A Profession

Urban Needs During Industrialization

Charity Organization Societies

Settlement Houses

The Social Casework Agency

The Progressive Movement

Religion and the Post-Industrial Welfare State

The Fundamentalist Controversy and Its Aftermath

The Great Depression and New Deal

Patterns of Religious Change

Religion and the New Media


The Reawakening of a Religious Social Conscience and the Great Society

The Continuing Decline of Mainline Influence

The New Christian Right

4. Discrimination in American Society



The Minority Middle Class

Discrimination against African Americans

The "Diswelfare" of African Americans

Hispanic Americans

The Demography of Hispanic Americans

Hispanic Poverty and Income

Diversity in the Hispanic Population

Native Americans

Asian Americans

Immigrants and Immigration

Women and Society

Violence and Sexism

The Feminization of Poverty

Women and Low-Income Work

Women and Work

Income and Job Disparities between Men and Women

Day Care: A Barrier to Female Employment

Women in Uniform

Other Obstacles Faced by Working Women

Fighting Back: The Equal Rights Amendment and Comparable Worth

Abortion and Women's Rights

Gays and Lesbians: Two Populations at Risk

Violence against Gays and Lesbians

Gay Rights

Gay and Lesbians in the Military

Gay and Lesbian Family Life

AIDS and the Gay Community


The Elderly Poor and Social Programs

Health Care and the Elderly

People with Disabilities

Legal Attempts to Remedy Discrimination

Affirmative Action

5. Poverty in America

Some Theoretical Formulations about Poverty

African Americans and Poverty

The Culture of Poverty

Eugenics and Poverty

The Radical School and Poverty

Who Make Up the Poor?

U.S. Poverty Highlights

Measuring Poverty

Families and Poverty

Child Support Enforcement

Children in Poverty

Poverty and the Elderly

The Urban and Rural Poor

Work and Poverty

A Profile of the Working Poor

Why Are There Working Poor?

Underemployment and Unemployment

Job Training Programs

Dual Labor Markets

The Minimum Wage and Poverty

Strategies Developed to Combat Poverty


Three Approaches to Combat Poverty

The Digital Divide

America’s Fringe Economy

The Unbanked and the Functionally Poor

Credit and the Poor

The Furniture and Appliance Rental Industry

Cash Loans


Car Title Pawns

Payday Loans

Tax Refund Loans (RALs)


Transportation in the Fringe Economy


6. The Voluntary Sector Today

Structural Interests within Social Welfare

Traditional Providers

Welfare Bureaucrats

Clinical Entrepreneurs

Human Service Executives

Marginal Interests

The Forgotten Sector

Advancing Social Justice

Contemporary Nonprofit Human Service Organizations

The United Way

Elite Philanthropy

The Future of the Voluntary Sector


Faith-Based Social Services

Social Entrepreneurship

7. Privatization and Human Service Corporations

Concerns about Privatization

Privatizing Public Welfare

Issues in the Privatization of Health and Human Services


Preferential Selection




The Challenge of Privatization

Unions and the Private Sector

Corporate Welfare

History of the Corporate Sector

Corporate Social Responsibility

Corporate Influence on Social Welfare Policy

The American Enterprise Institute (AEI)

The Heritage Foundation

The Future of Corporate Involvement in Social Welfare

Human Service Corporations

The Scope of Human Service Corporations

Consolidation and Growth in Human Service Markets

Nursing Homes

Hospital Management

Health Maintenance Organizations

Child Care

Home Health Care


Life Care and Continuing Care


8. The Making of Governmental Policy

Technical Aspects of the Policy Process

A Critical Analysis of the Policy Process

The Policy Process

Social Stratification





Non-Decision Making

Social Workers and Social Reform

Social Work and Advocacy Organizations

Advocacy Organizations and the New Policy Institutes

Political Practice

9. Tax Policy and Income Distribution

History of U.S. Tax Policy

Tax Policy and Special Interests

Federal Tax Policy

State Tax Policy and the Poor

The Efficiency of Tax Policy in Reducing Poverty

Tax Expenditures as Poverty Policy

The Antitax Movement

10. Social Insurance Programs

Definition of Social Insurance

The Background of Social Insurance

The Financial Organization of Social Insurance

Key Social Insurance Programs


Unemployment Insurance

Workers' Compensation

The Social Security Dilemma

Arguments against the Current Social Security System

Arguments for the Current Social Security System

Social Security in Trouble

The Long-Term Prospects for Social Security

Proposed Solutions for Social Security

Should We Privatize Social Security?

11. Public Assistance Programs

Some Assumptions That Underlie Public Assistance

Myths about Public Assistance

Aid to Families with Dependent Children

The Evolution of the AFDC Program

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996

State Welfare Reform Waivers

Has the PRWORA Worked?

Proposed Changes in the TANF Program

Supplemental Security Income

General Assistance

Trends and Issues in Public Assistance

Transforming Public Assistance Policy into Labor Policy

Teenage Pregnancy

The Underclass

Welfare Behaviorism

Welfare to Work

The Inadequacy of Public Assistance Benefits

Appendix: Highlights of Selected State Welfare Demonstration Projects, 2000

12. The American Health Care System

The Uninsured

The Organization of Medical Services

Major Public Health Care Programs: Medicare, Medicaid, and S-CHIP



The State Children's Health Insurance Program (S-CHIP)

The Tobacco Settlement

The Health Care Crisis

Overview of U.S. Health Care Expenditures

U.S. Health Care in International Perspective

Explaining the High Cost of U.S. Health Care

Hospital Costs

Physicians' Salaries

The Pharmaceutical Industry

Cutting Health Care Costs

Managed Care

The Underinsured

AIDS and Health Care

Reforming U.S. Health Care

Socialized Medicine

National Health Insurance

Incremental Reform

Comparative Analysis: Health Care in Canada and Britain

The Canadian Health Care System

Britain's National Health Service

13. Mental Health and Substance Abuse Policy

Mental Health Reform

The Community Mental Health Centers Acts


The Revolving Door

CMHCs under Siege

Preventive Commitment

Mental Health Service Delivery

Parity for Mental Health Care

Substance Abuse

History of Substance Abuse

Alcohol Abuse

Drug Abuse

Private Practice and Mental Health Services

Private Practice in Social Work

The Business of Private Practice

The Future of the Private Sector

14. Criminal Justice

History of U.S. Criminal Justice

The Criminal Justice System

Juvenile Justice

The War on Drugs

The Underclass and "Moral Poverty"

Legalization of Drugs

The "New Penology"

The Future of Criminal Justice

15. Child Welfare Policy

History of U.S. Child Welfare Policy

Protective Services for Children

Foster Care for Children


Head Start

Emerging Issues in Child Welfare

Day Care

Maternal and Child Health

Teen Pregnancy

16. Housing Policies

Overview of Housing Legislation

The Federal Government and Low-Income Housing Programs

Issues in Housing Policy

Trends in U.S. Housing

Problems in Home Ownership

Problems in Finding Affordable Rental Housing

Other Factors Affecting Housing


Characteristics of the Homeless Population

Trends in Homelessness

Attempts to Address Homelessness

Housing Reform

17. The Politics of Food Policy and Rural Life

Hunger in the United States

The Face of American Hunger

Governmental Food Programs

A Short History of Food Stamps and a Description of the Program

Food Stamps: Who Is in the Program and What Does It Cost?

Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

Other Food Programs

Have the Food Programs Worked?

Farming in the United States

Governmental Farm Policies

The Face of U.S. Farming


Who Are America's Farmworkers?

Issues in American Farming

The Corporatization of American Farming

Sustainable Agriculture


18. The American Welfare State in International Perspective

Typologies of Welfare States

American Exceptionalism

The Welfare State in Transition

Ranking National Development

The Weighted Index of Social Progress

The Human Development Index

Capability Poverty

International Aid

Global Capital

The Future



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