American Trade Politics, Third Edition / Edition 3

American Trade Politics, Third Edition / Edition 3

by I. M. Destler
     
 

ISBN-10: 0881322156

ISBN-13: 9780881322156

Pub. Date: 05/28/1995

Publisher: Peterson Institute for International Economics

Awarded the American Political Science Association's Gladys Kammerer award for the best book on US national policy, American Trade Politics examines how the US policymaking process has enabled the United States to reduce its own import barriers and lead the world toward a more open trading regime. Since the 1970s, enormous political changes, compounded by

Overview

Awarded the American Political Science Association's Gladys Kammerer award for the best book on US national policy, American Trade Politics examines how the US policymaking process has enabled the United States to reduce its own import barriers and lead the world toward a more open trading regime. Since the 1970s, enormous political changes, compounded by unprecedented US trade deficits, have brought institutional erosion and some backsliding on trade policy.

In this third edition Destler extends his analysis to asses the politics of the extraordinarily contentious debates over NAFTA and the Uruguay Round. He explains how free traders overcame the opposing forces represented by H. Ross Perot, Pat Buchanan, and Ralph Nader to secure congressional approval for the two most important US trade agreements in the postwar period. The liberal trade regime survived these latest challenges, but Destler nevertheless argues that there is a need for reform of the policymaking system in the 1990s to advance US-led free trade negotiations in the Western Hemisphere and the Asia Pacific as well as future rounds of global liberalization.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780881322156
Publisher:
Peterson Institute for International Economics
Publication date:
05/28/1995
Series:
Twentieth Century Fund Books Series
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
337
Product dimensions:
6.04(w) x 9.05(h) x 0.73(d)

Table of Contents

Forewordix
Prefacexiii
IOrigin
1Trade Politics: The Root Problem, the Continuing Crisis3
2The Old System: Protection for Congress11
Protecting Congress from Trade Pressures14
The "Bargaining Tariff"16
The "Bicycle Theory" and "Export Politics"17
The Executive Broker18
"The Rules"21
Deals for "Special Cases"24
Strong Congressional Committees27
Trade as a Nonparty Issue30
The System's Advantages and Limits32
The Contradictions of the System34
The "Bargaining Tariff" as Vanishing Asset34
International Openness Versus Domestic Intervention35
Success as Multiplier of Trade Pressures36
The Dilemma of the Rules37
IIErosion
3A Tougher World: Changes in the Context of Trade Policy41
15 August as Prologue41
The Trade Explosion45
The "Decline" of the United States47
The Rise of New Competitors50
The Erosion of the GATT53
Stagflation54
Floating Exchange Rates and Dollar "Misalignment"57
Economic Tripolarity and the End of the Cold War61
A Tougher World62
4A Less Protected Congress65
Congressional Reform and the Weakening of Ways and Means67
Renewing the Delegation of Power: The "Fast-Track" Procedures71
Industry-Specific Proposals: The Automobile Case77
Committee Competition and Policy Entrepreneurship80
The Trade and Tariff Act of 1984: Pressure Contained84
1985-88: The Years of Trade89
The Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 198892
Mexico and Fast-Track Renewal98
1984 and After: The Leadership Difference103
5An Embattled Executive105
STR's Early Ups and Downs107
Strauss and the MTN: The STR on Center Stage109
The Executive Broker and Its Critics114
The Carter Reorganization117
Reagan I: Commerce Versus USTR118
USTR and Presidential Ambivalence120
Liberal Words, Protectionist Deeds122
Reagan II: An Eight-Month Vacuum123
Reagan II: The Shift to Activism125
Targeting the World: Section 301126
Targeting Japan: From MOSS to Semiconductor Sanctions128
Working the Trade Bill: Damage Limitation131
Carla Hills and Super 301132
Geneva Versus Mexico City?134
Broker in Need of a Breakthrough135
The USTR Enters Its Thirties137
6Changing the Rules: The Rise of Administrative Trade Remedies139
Through the Early 1970s: Little Relief141
The Trade Act of 1974142
The Result: Slightly More Relief145
The Trade Agreements Act of 1979148
The Declining Use of the Escape Clause150
The Decline of Trade Adjustment Assistance152
The Upsurge in "Unfair Trade" Cases154
Forcing Political Solutions157
Steel Wins Comprehensive Protection159
Trade-Remedies Reform: The Gibbons Bill162
The Omnibus Legislation of 1986-88164
Administrative Remedies: A Balance Sheet on the 1980s166
The Limits of Administrative Remedies170
7The National Arena: More Open, More Partisan175
An "Amazing Political Reversal"?176
A Newly Ambivalent Elite181
Challenges to Laissez-Faire Trade Doctrine185
New Patterns of Interest-Group Politics191
Conclusions198
IIISummation and Prescription
8Summing Up: The System Held, But Stay Tuned203
First, Some Good News204
Next, The Bad News208
Looking Ahead214
91992-94: Missions Accomplished?217
From Bush to Clinton218
The NAFTA Debate: Clinton Cedes the Field to the Critics222
Clinton Recovers, and Wins Big224
Japan, China, and APEC229
Brussels and Geneva: Completing the Uruguay Round231
US Business, Human Rights, and the China Market233
Japan: Failure and Modest Success236
Implementing the Uruguay Round: A Slow Start238
Antidumping: Reversing the Round240
The Loss of Future Fast-Track244
The WTO and US "Sovereignty"245
Delaying the Process: Dole, Hollings, and Gingrich247
From Partisan Wrangle to Bipartisan Victory251
Looking to the Future255
10What to Do? A Framework for Future US Trade Policy259
Policy for the Near Term260
A New Agenda?260
More Effective Trade Advocacy261
A Trimmed-Down Fast-Track Process261
Managing Trade Policy: A Basic Prescription264
How Not to Cure Trade Imbalances269
Trade With Japan: Right Problem, Wrong Solution270
Getting Serious About Trade Imbalances276
Education276
Macroeconomic Policy277
Microeconomic Policy: Promoting Adjustment and Productivity Growth280
The Role of Trade Policy285
Can the System Be Salvaged?286
Policy Tools: International Negotiations289
Flexibility on Fast-Track290
Revising the Trade-Remedy Laws290
Keeping Section 301293
Using Section 301: Strategic Trade Policy or Sectoral Reciprocity?294
A Separate Trade Policy Toward Japan?297
A USTR-Based Trade Reorganization298
Policy Tools: New Approaches to Trade Adjustment302
In Defense of Trade Brokering305
Glossary309
Index325
Figures
3.1United States: nominal effective exchange rates, 1980-9358
6.1Escape clause investigations, 1975-94151
6.2Countervailing duty and antidumping investigations, 1979-94151
Tables
3.1United States: merchandise imports, exports, and trade balance, 1960-9445
6.1Antidumping, countervailing duty, and Section 201 investigations initiated, 1979-94166
6.2Antidumping cases and results, 1980-93168

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