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America's Climate Choices

Overview

Climate change is occurring. It is very likely caused by the emission of greenhouse gases from human activities, and poses significant risks for a range of human and natural systems. And these emissions continue to increase, which will result in further change and greater risks.

America's Climate Choices makes the case that the environmental, economic, and humanitarian risks posed by climate change indicate a pressing need for substantial action now to limit the magnitude of ...

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Overview

Climate change is occurring. It is very likely caused by the emission of greenhouse gases from human activities, and poses significant risks for a range of human and natural systems. And these emissions continue to increase, which will result in further change and greater risks.

America's Climate Choices makes the case that the environmental, economic, and humanitarian risks posed by climate change indicate a pressing need for substantial action now to limit the magnitude of climate change and to prepare for adapting to its impacts. Although there is some uncertainty about future risk, acting now will reduce the risks posed by climate change and the pressure to make larger, more rapid, and potentially more expensive reductions later. Most actions taken to reduce vulnerability to climate change impacts are common sense investments that will offer protection against natural climate variations and extreme events. In addition, crucial investment decisions made now about equipment and infrastructure can "lock in" commitments to greenhouse gas emissions for decades to come. Finally, while it may be possible to scale back or reverse many responses to climate change, it is difficult or impossible to "undo" climate change, once manifested.

Current efforts of local, state, and private-sector actors are important, but not likely to yield progress comparable to what could be achieved with the addition of strong federal policies that establish coherent national goals and incentives, and that promote strong U.S. engagement in international-level response efforts. The inherent complexities and uncertainties of climate change are best met by applying an iterative risk management framework and making efforts to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions; prepare for adapting to impacts; invest in scientific research, technology development, and information systems; and facilitate engagement between scientific and technical experts and the many types of stakeholders making America's climate choices.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780309145855
  • Publisher: National Academies Press
  • Publication date: 12/31/2011
  • Pages: 144
  • Product dimensions: 7.00 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 0.40 (d)

Table of Contents

Summary 1

1 The Context for America's Climate Choices 7

Greenhouse Gas Emission Trends 8

The Current Context 11

2 Causes and Consequences of Climate Change 15

Observed Climate Change 15

Future Climate Change 19

3 The Unique Challenges of Climate Change 29

4 A Framework for making America's Climate Choices 39

An Iterative Risk Management Approach to Climate Change 39

Decision Criteria in an Iterative Risk Management Framework 46

5 Key Elements of America's Climate Choices 51

Limiting the Magnitude of Climate Change 51

Reducing Vulnerability to Climate Change Impacts 62

Investing to Expand Options and Improve Choices 67

International Engagement 72

Toward an Integrated National Response 74

Notes and References 81

Appendixes

A America's Climate Choices Membership Lists 93

B Committee on America's Climate Choices Member Biographical Sketches 97

C Additional Information Regarding the Content of the ACC Panel Reports 109

D Agenda from the Summit on America's Climate Choices 113

E Acronyms and Initialisms 117

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