America's Teachers: An Introduction to Education / Edition 5

America's Teachers: An Introduction to Education / Edition 5

by Joseph W. Newman

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ISBN-10: 0205463967

ISBN-13: 9780205463961

Pub. Date: 10/15/2005

Publisher: Pearson

Through clear, accessible writing and the strongest research base and documentation on the market, this edition offers a positive, teacher-centered view of the profession. America’s Teachers: An Introduction to Education, Fifth Edition accurately reflects how teachers themselves feel about their work. With critical and informative material on


Through clear, accessible writing and the strongest research base and documentation on the market, this edition offers a positive, teacher-centered view of the profession. America’s Teachers: An Introduction to Education, Fifth Edition accurately reflects how teachers themselves feel about their work. With critical and informative material on teaching as an occupation, the foundations of education, and emerging issues affecting today’s classrooms, this textbook provides prospective teachers with a realistic look at teaching. This new edition provides a stronger emphasis on cultural diversity in every chapter, particularly in Chapter 8 and thorough integration of No Child Left Behind throughout the text.

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Table of Contents

Each chapter concludes with "Activities," "Recommended Readings," and "Notes."


I. Teaching as an Occupation.

1. Deciding to Teach and Finding a Job. Motives for Teaching.

Perceived Advantages of Teaching

Teachers Who Love, Teachers Who Care

Leaving No Child Behind? Teachers and Culturally Diverse Students

Teaching as Academic Work

Satisfaction with Teaching

Burnouts, Dropouts, and the Promise of School Reform

The Critical Years Ahead

The Teacher Job Market

Baby Boom, Generation X, Generation Y, and Beyond: The Demand for Teachers

A Complex Guessing Game: The Supply of Teachers

The Politics of Teacher Supply and Demand

Bending Standards, Changing Standards, and No Child Left Behind

Connecting with a Teaching Position

2. Earning a Living and Living with Evaluation.

Teacher Salaries, State by State

Qualified Good News

Salaries for New Teachers

Other Factors to Consider

America’s Teachers in 2005: A Demographic Profile

Comparing Salaries in Teaching and Other Occupations

What Do Other People Earn?

How Much Will It Cost You To Be a Teacher?

What Lies Ahead?

Teacher Salary Schedules

A Salary Schedule with "Perverse Incentives"

A Typical Salary Schedule

An Exceptionally Good Salary Schedule

Suspend Disbelief for a Moment

Merit Pay: The Birth of "Sound and Cheap"

Pyramid Building

Bias and Favoritism

Teacher Testing

Tried and Rejected

The Accountability Movement: Merit Pay Comes Back to Life

The Factory Model of Schooling

Accountability-Based Merit Pay on Trial

Value Added Assessment

School Performance Incentives

No Child Left Behind: A Perfect Match for Merit Pay

Behavioral Evaluation of Teachers

How Behavioral Evaluation Works

Teachers Likes and Dislikes

Effects on the Classroom

Portfolios: Multifaceted Teacher Evaluation

"Union of Insufficiencies"

Doing the Job Right

The Latest Versions of Merit Pay

Changing Times

Wright Brothers or Alchemists?

Teacher Career Ladders

Recent Experiments: Still Looking for a Better Way to Pay

3. Learning to Teach and Proving Your Competence.

Teacher Education in the Era of No Child Left Behind

Multiple Routes into Teaching

The Traditional Route: Undergraduate Teaching Education

Liberal Education

The Teaching Field

Professional Education

Master’s-Level Routes into Teaching

The Holmes Partnership and Professional Development Schools

Alternative Master’s Degree Programs

Alternate Routes into Teaching: Quick and Dirty, or Merely Quick?

The New Jersey Shortcut

The Texas Squeeze Play

A Tale of Two Occupations

Raising the Bar in Teacher Education

Nostalgia for a Golden Age of Teaching

Reforming Teacher Education from the Inside: NCATE, INTASC, and NBPTS

Standards and Assessments: Breaking with the Past

Literacy Skills

The Teaching Field

Professional Education

Moving Internal Reform into Place

INTASC Standards

Portfolio Assessment

The Praxis Series of Assessments

National Board Certification for Accomplished Teachers

Teacher Testing and Minority Teachers

A Precarious Situation

A Way Out?

4. Joining a Teacher Organization and Empowering a Profession.


Four Key Differences

Labor, Management, and Gender

What Membership Means

Collective Bargaining

AFT Points the Way

How Bargaining Works

What Bargaining Covers

Teacher Strikes

Political Action


Who Gets Endorsed

Teacher Power and Grassroots Politics

Nonunion Alternatives to the NEA and AFT

A Teaching Profession?

A Unique, Essential Social Service

A Defined, Respected Knowledge Base


Reaching for Professionalism

From Job Control to Quality Control

Professional Standards Boards: A Case Study

The New Unionism in Rochester: A Case Study

Professionalism, Feminism, and Unionism

5. Exercising Your Rights and Fulfilling Your Responsibilities.





Due Process


Injuries to Students

Abused and Neglected Children

The Teacher and AIDS/HIV

Educational Malpractice


Academic Freedom

Right of Public Dissent

Other Forms of Expression

II. Schools and Society.

6. History of American Education.

Looking Forward, Looking Back

Debates and Patterns

Common School Reform in Historical Context

Informal and Formal Education among Native and European Americans

District Schools, Academies, and Other Schools

Enlightenment Ideology, the Republican Spirit, and Early Plans for "Systems of Education"

The Impact of Modernization

Debates over Common School Reform


Morality and Religion

The Triumph of Common Schools

Compulsory Attendance Laws

Public High Schools

Progressive School Reform in Historical Context

Modernization Accelerates

Liberal and Conservative School Reformers

Ordinary People: Students, Parents, Teachers, and Others

Debates over Progressive School Reform

Assimilation for Immigrant Children

The Middle Course of Pluralism

Separation for African American Children

Progressive School Reform in Perspective

Twentieth-Century Patterns of Education

Competition for Control of the Schools

The Local/State/Federal Balance

The Quest for Equal Educational Opportunities

Trends in the Curriculum

7. Theories of Education.

"Why" Questions

Four Theories: An Overview


The Great Books

The Paideia Proposal


Comparing Essentialism and Perennialism

William C. Bagley and the 1930s

The Academic Critics of the 1950s

Back to Basics through Behavioral Essentialism: The 1970s through the Early 2000s

Contemporary Essentialists


John Dewey, School Furniture, and Democracy

Children, Society, and Their Problems

Progressivism in the Classroom

Social Reconstructionism

Life Adjustment

Blame It on Progressivism: Sixties and Seventies Bashing

Where to Find Progressivism: Don’t Spend Time in State Curriculum Guides

Critical Theory

Interrogating the Canon

"Whiteness" and Other Paradigm Shifts

Language, Accessibility, and Barbie Dolls

Taking It to the Masses: Jonathan Kozol

8. Sociology of Education.

Social Class

The American Social Structure

Sorting and Selecting in School

Families, Peer Groups, and Schools

Ability Grouping and Tracking

Creating a Culture of Detracking

Race and Ethnicity

Defining a "Sense of Peoplehood" in a Multicultural Nation

Hispanic American Students

African American Students

Asian American Students

Native American Students

Fifty Years after Brown: Desegregation or Resegregation?

Historical Perspective

De Facto versus De Jure

Academic, Social, and Economic Effects of Desegregation


Magnet Schools

Neo-Plessy Thinking? Effective Schools Research and No Child Left Behind

John Obgu and Bill Cosby: The Black Community Must Take More Responsibility

Afrocentric Schools

Culture Wars over Language and Dialect

Bilingual Education

Nonstandard English: Black English and Other Dialects


Are Schools Still Shortchanging Girls?

Gender-Role Socialization

Gender Bias in Textbooks

Unequal Treatment in the Classroom

Closing the Gender Gaps

What about the Boys?

Cognitive Differences between Females and Males

Toward the Future: Feminism and Education

9. Politics of Education.

Local Politics of Education

Regulations from Above, Pressure from Below

Local Boards and Local Superintendents

Reinventing Local Control: The Changing Politics of School Districts

Local Board Members: Demographics and Representation

Local Board Elections: At Large or by Subdistricts?

State Politics of Education

How States Carry Out Their Educational Responsibilities

State Politicians Discover School Reform

The Politics of More of the Same

Federal Politics of Education

Federal Money and Federal Influence

Cold War, Poverty War, and Other Battles

Ronald Reagan and the New Federalism: Changing the Politics of Education

George H. Bush and National Education Goals

Bill Clinton: An Education Governor but Not Quite an Education President

George W. Bush and No Child Left Behind

Educational Finance

Local Property Taxes: Some School Districts Are More Equal Than Others

State Funds: Reducing the Inequalities

Lawsuits, Equity and Adequacy: Educational Finance in the 2000s

III. Critical Issues for the 2000s.

10. Private Schools Versus Public Schools.

Four Sectors of Private Elementary and Secondary Education

Profiles of Private Schools and Their Students

New Patterns within the Four Sectors

Who Goes to Private School?

Roman Catholic Schools

Academic Achievement and Socioeconomic Background

Are Private Schools Better?

Functional Communities and Value Communities

Human Capital and Social Capital

Fundamentalist Christian Schools

Inside Christian Schools

The Struggle against Secular Humanism

Home Schooling

Government Regulation of Private Education

Educational Choice

Moving Schools into the Marketplace

Choice in Action: Established Options, Controversial Experiments

Magnet Schools, Voluntary Transfers, and Other Early Versions of Public Choice

Open Enrollment and Transfers under No Child Left Behind

Charter Schools

Privately Managed, For-Profit Public Schools: The Wal-Marts of Education?

Private School Vouchers in Milwaukee, Cleveland, and Florida

11. Teachers and the Curriculum.

Back to Basics and Testing, Testing, Testing

Outputs and Inputs

What’s Wrong with the Schools?

Open Season on Teachers

The Measurement-Driven Curriculum: From Minimum Competency Testing to No Child Left Behind

The National Assessment of Educational Progress: Eventually a National Curriculum Driver?

Can Everybody Be above Average? Is Teacher a Cheater?

Curriculum Alignment, Test Teaching, and Data Drilling

Pausing to Reconsider Testing, Testing, Testing

What Do Americans Need to Know?

Essentialists, Progressives, and the Basics

The Great Literacy Debate

Is Literacy Slipping Away?

Cultural Literacy

The Critics Respond: Multicultural Literacy and a Better Future

A Message for Essentialists: Take the Blame along with the Credit

In Closing


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