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“Newman does an excellent job of discussing the growing influence of standardized testing in U.S. public schools.”
—Winfred Pitts, Southeast Missouri State University
With clear and accessible writing and the strongest research base and documentation available, America’s Teachers: An Introduction to Education, Fifth Edition accurately reflects how teachers themselves feel about their work. With critical and informative material on teaching as an occupation, the foundations of education, and emerging issues affecting today’s classrooms, this textbook provides prospective teachers with a realistic look at teaching.
NEW TO THIS EDITION:
See inside cover and visit www.mylabschool.com for more information!
Each chapter concludes with "Activities," "Recommended Readings," and "Notes."
I. Teaching as an Occupation.
1. Deciding to Teach and Finding a Job. Motives for Teaching.
Perceived Advantages of Teaching
Teachers Who Love, Teachers Who Care
Leaving No Child Behind? Teachers and Culturally Diverse Students
Teaching as Academic Work
Satisfaction with Teaching
Burnouts, Dropouts, and the Promise of School Reform
The Critical Years Ahead
The Teacher Job Market
Baby Boom, Generation X, Generation Y, and Beyond: The Demand for Teachers
A Complex Guessing Game: The Supply of Teachers
The Politics of Teacher Supply and Demand
Bending Standards, Changing Standards, and No Child Left Behind
Connecting with a Teaching Position
2. Earning a Living and Living with Evaluation.
Teacher Salaries, State by State
Qualified Good News
Salaries for New Teachers
Other Factors to Consider
America’s Teachers in 2005: A Demographic Profile
Comparing Salaries in Teaching and Other Occupations
What Do Other People Earn?
How Much Will It Cost You To Be a Teacher?
What Lies Ahead?
Teacher Salary Schedules
A Salary Schedule with "Perverse Incentives"
A Typical Salary Schedule
An Exceptionally Good Salary Schedule
Suspend Disbelief for a Moment
Merit Pay: The Birth of "Sound and Cheap"
Bias and Favoritism
Tried and Rejected
The Accountability Movement: Merit Pay Comes Back to Life
The Factory Model of Schooling
Accountability-Based Merit Pay on Trial
Value Added Assessment
School Performance Incentives
No Child Left Behind: A Perfect Match for Merit Pay
Behavioral Evaluation of Teachers
How Behavioral Evaluation Works
Teachers Likes and Dislikes
Effects on the Classroom
Portfolios: Multifaceted Teacher Evaluation
"Union of Insufficiencies"
Doing the Job Right
The Latest Versions of Merit Pay
Wright Brothers or Alchemists?
Teacher Career Ladders
Recent Experiments: Still Looking for a Better Way to Pay
3. Learning to Teach and Proving Your Competence.
Teacher Education in the Era of No Child Left Behind
Multiple Routes into Teaching
The Traditional Route: Undergraduate Teaching Education
The Teaching Field
Master’s-Level Routes into Teaching
The Holmes Partnership and Professional Development Schools
Alternative Master’s Degree Programs
Alternate Routes into Teaching: Quick and Dirty, or Merely Quick?
The New Jersey Shortcut
The Texas Squeeze Play
A Tale of Two Occupations
Raising the Bar in Teacher Education
Nostalgia for a Golden Age of Teaching
Reforming Teacher Education from the Inside: NCATE, INTASC, and NBPTS
Standards and Assessments: Breaking with the Past
The Teaching Field
Moving Internal Reform into Place
The Praxis Series of Assessments
National Board Certification for Accomplished Teachers
Teacher Testing and Minority Teachers
A Precarious Situation
A Way Out?
4. Joining a Teacher Organization and Empowering a Profession.
NEA and AFT
Four Key Differences
Labor, Management, and Gender
What Membership Means
AFT Points the Way
How Bargaining Works
What Bargaining Covers
Who Gets Endorsed
Teacher Power and Grassroots Politics
Nonunion Alternatives to the NEA and AFT
A Teaching Profession?
A Unique, Essential Social Service
A Defined, Respected Knowledge Base
Reaching for Professionalism
From Job Control to Quality Control
Professional Standards Boards: A Case Study
The New Unionism in Rochester: A Case Study
Professionalism, Feminism, and Unionism
5. Exercising Your Rights and Fulfilling Your Responsibilities.
Injuries to Students
Abused and Neglected Children
The Teacher and AIDS/HIV
Right of Public Dissent
Other Forms of Expression
II. Schools and Society.
6. History of American Education.
Looking Forward, Looking Back
Debates and Patterns
Common School Reform in Historical Context
Informal and Formal Education among Native and European Americans
District Schools, Academies, and Other Schools
Enlightenment Ideology, the Republican Spirit, and Early Plans for "Systems of Education"
The Impact of Modernization
Debates over Common School Reform
Morality and Religion
The Triumph of Common Schools
Compulsory Attendance Laws
Public High Schools
Progressive School Reform in Historical Context
Liberal and Conservative School Reformers
Ordinary People: Students, Parents, Teachers, and Others
Debates over Progressive School Reform
Assimilation for Immigrant Children
The Middle Course of Pluralism
Separation for African American Children
Progressive School Reform in Perspective
Twentieth-Century Patterns of Education
Competition for Control of the Schools
The Local/State/Federal Balance
The Quest for Equal Educational Opportunities
Trends in the Curriculum
7. Theories of Education.
Four Theories: An Overview
The Great Books
The Paideia Proposal
Comparing Essentialism and Perennialism
William C. Bagley and the 1930s
The Academic Critics of the 1950s
Back to Basics through Behavioral Essentialism: The 1970s through the Early 2000s
John Dewey, School Furniture, and Democracy
Children, Society, and Their Problems
Progressivism in the Classroom
Blame It on Progressivism: Sixties and Seventies Bashing
Where to Find Progressivism: Don’t Spend Time in State Curriculum Guides
Interrogating the Canon
"Whiteness" and Other Paradigm Shifts
Language, Accessibility, and Barbie Dolls
Taking It to the Masses: Jonathan Kozol
8. Sociology of Education.
The American Social Structure
Sorting and Selecting in School
Families, Peer Groups, and Schools
Ability Grouping and Tracking
Creating a Culture of Detracking
Race and Ethnicity
Defining a "Sense of Peoplehood" in a Multicultural Nation
Hispanic American Students
African American Students
Asian American Students
Native American Students
Fifty Years after Brown: Desegregation or Resegregation?
De Facto versus De Jure
Academic, Social, and Economic Effects of Desegregation
Neo-Plessy Thinking? Effective Schools Research and No Child Left Behind
John Obgu and Bill Cosby: The Black Community Must Take More Responsibility
Culture Wars over Language and Dialect
Nonstandard English: Black English and Other Dialects
Are Schools Still Shortchanging Girls?
Gender Bias in Textbooks
Unequal Treatment in the Classroom
Closing the Gender Gaps
What about the Boys?
Cognitive Differences between Females and Males
Toward the Future: Feminism and Education
9. Politics of Education.
Local Politics of Education
Regulations from Above, Pressure from Below
Local Boards and Local Superintendents
Reinventing Local Control: The Changing Politics of School Districts
Local Board Members: Demographics and Representation
Local Board Elections: At Large or by Subdistricts?
State Politics of Education
How States Carry Out Their Educational Responsibilities
State Politicians Discover School Reform
The Politics of More of the Same
Federal Politics of Education
Federal Money and Federal Influence
Cold War, Poverty War, and Other Battles
Ronald Reagan and the New Federalism: Changing the Politics of Education
George H. Bush and National Education Goals
Bill Clinton: An Education Governor but Not Quite an Education President
George W. Bush and No Child Left Behind
Local Property Taxes: Some School Districts Are More Equal Than Others
State Funds: Reducing the Inequalities
Lawsuits, Equity and Adequacy: Educational Finance in the 2000s
III. Critical Issues for the 2000s.
10. Private Schools Versus Public Schools.
Four Sectors of Private Elementary and Secondary Education
Profiles of Private Schools and Their Students
New Patterns within the Four Sectors
Who Goes to Private School?
Roman Catholic Schools
Academic Achievement and Socioeconomic Background
Are Private Schools Better?
Functional Communities and Value Communities
Human Capital and Social Capital
Fundamentalist Christian Schools
Inside Christian Schools
The Struggle against Secular Humanism
Government Regulation of Private Education
Moving Schools into the Marketplace
Choice in Action: Established Options, Controversial Experiments
Magnet Schools, Voluntary Transfers, and Other Early Versions of Public Choice
Open Enrollment and Transfers under No Child Left Behind
Privately Managed, For-Profit Public Schools: The Wal-Marts of Education?
Private School Vouchers in Milwaukee, Cleveland, and Florida
11. Teachers and the Curriculum.
Back to Basics and Testing, Testing, Testing
Outputs and Inputs
What’s Wrong with the Schools?
Open Season on Teachers
The Measurement-Driven Curriculum: From Minimum Competency Testing to No Child Left Behind
The National Assessment of Educational Progress: Eventually a National Curriculum Driver?
Can Everybody Be above Average? Is Teacher a Cheater?
Curriculum Alignment, Test Teaching, and Data Drilling
Pausing to Reconsider Testing, Testing, Testing
What Do Americans Need to Know?
Essentialists, Progressives, and the Basics
The Great Literacy Debate
Is Literacy Slipping Away?
The Critics Respond: Multicultural Literacy and a Better Future
A Message for Essentialists: Take the Blame along with the Credit