An Easyguide to APA Style

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Written by experienced psychology instructors who are respected members of the APA’s Teaching of Psychology division, this guide provides an easy alternative for anyone struggling with APA style. Written in a clear, conversational, and sometimes humorous style, this book presents easy-to understand explanations of how to write research papers, cite research, and do any work requiring APA format. The authors demystify the process with easy-to-follow advice, tips, and visual representations of how to use APA style.

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Editorial Reviews

Diane F. Halpern
“Finally, a really Easy Guide to APA Style. College faculty and their students will rejoice because the mysterious and onerous task of teaching students how to write in APA style and format just got easier. Schwartz, Landrum, and Gurung provide us with clear rules for murky situations like when to use quotes, when to use italics, and when to rewrite. This will be a well-worn book for everyone who cares about writing well in APA style.”
Randolph A. Smith
“I have worked with the APA Publication Manual since its 2nd edition, when it was half as thick as the current edition. As the manual has evolved, it has gotten more and more complicated, and I believe that student understanding of and adherence to the Manual has done nothing but decrease over time. If you have the same impression, here is a book for your students! Schwartz, Landrum, and Gurung have created an easy-to-understand, entertaining guide to the complexities of APA-style writing. I can’t wait to recommend it to my students. "
Doctor - Marjory Levitt
"This is excellent!! Our students struggle with APA style & this guide is very helpful. "
Doctor - Chriss Foster
"Easier for students to use than the standard APA Manual, and it is affordable... "
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781412991247
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications
  • Publication date: 3/12/2011
  • Format: Spiral Bound
  • Pages: 224
  • Product dimensions: 6.30 (w) x 8.90 (h) x 0.60 (d)

Meet the Author

Beth M. Schwartz is the William E. and Catherine Ehrman Thoresen ’23 Professor of Psychology and Assistant Dean of the College at Randolph College, in Lynch­burg, Virginia. She received a BA at Colby College (Maine) and a Ph D in cognitive psychology at the State University of New York at Buffalo. Her scholarship focuses on two areas of interest: (a) children’s memory development and how this applies to children’s eyewitness reports and (b) the scholarship of teaching and learn­ing/pedagogical research. In addition to numerous professional presentations at conferences, she has published many book chapters and articles in a variety of scholarly journals, including the Journal of Higher Education, Law and Human Behavior, and Applied Developmental Science. She has also edited and coauthored books, including Child Abuse: A Global View (Schwartz, Mc Cauley, & Epstein, 2001), Optimizing Teaching and Learning (Gurung & Schwartz, 2009), and Evidence-Based Teaching for Higher Education (Schwartz & Gurung, 2012). She is a member of the American Psychological Association (APA) and the American Psy­chological Society and is a Fellow of Division 2 of APA (Society for the Teaching of Psychology). She is an award-winning teacher at Randolph College, where she teaches Introduction to Psychology, Research Methods, Cognitive Psychology, and the capstone course. She received the Award for Outstanding Teaching and Mentoring from the American Psych-Law Society, the Gillie A. Larew Award for Distinguished Teaching at Randolph College, and the Distinguished Faculty Achievement Certificate from the State Council of Higher Education for Virginia.

R. Eric Landrum is a professor of psychology at Boise State University, receiving his Ph D in cognitive psychology from Southern Illinois University-Carbondale. His research interests center on the educational conditions that best facilitate student success as well as the use of So TL strategies to advance the efforts of scientist-educators. He has over 300 professional presentations at conferences and published over 20 books/book chapters, and has published over 70 professional articles in scholarly, peer-reviewed journals. He has worked with over 275 undergraduate research assistants and taught over 12,500 students in 21 years at Boise State. During Summer 2008, he led an American Psychological Association working group at the National Conference for Undergraduate Education in Psychology studying the desired results of an undergraduate psychology education.

Eric is the lead author of The Psychology Major: Career Options and Strategies for Success (5th ed., 2013) and has authored Undergraduate Writing in Psychology: Learning to Tell the Scientific Story (2nd ed., 2012) and Finding A Job With a Psychology Bachelor’s Degree: Expert Advice for Launching Your Career (2009). He co-authored The Easy Guide to APA Style (2nd ed., 2013), You’ve Received Your Doctorate in Psychology—Now What? (2012) and is the lead editor for Teaching Ethically—Challenges and Opportunities (2012) and co-editor of Assessing Teaching and Learning in Psychology: Current and Future Perspectives (2013). He served as Vice President for the Rocky Mountain region of Psi Chi (2009–2011). He is a member of the American Psychological Association, a fellow in APA’s Division Two (Society for the Teaching of Psychology or STP), served as STP secretary (2009–2011), and will serve as the 2014 STP President.

Regan A. R. Gurung is the Ben J. and Joyce Rosenberg Professor of Human Development and Psychology at the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay (UWGB). He received a BA at Carleton College (Minnesota) and a Ph D at the University of Washington. He then spent 3 years at the University of California, Los Angeles. He has published articles in a variety of scholarly journals, including Psychological Review and Teaching of Psychology. He has a textbook, Health Psychology: A Cultural Approach (now in its third edition), and has coauthored/edited eight other books, including Exploring Signature Pedagogies: Approaches to Teaching Disciplinary Habits of Mind (Gurung, Chick, & Haynie, 2009); Getting Culture (Gurung & Prieto, 2009); and Optimizing Teaching and Learning (Gurung & Schwartz, 2009). He is a Fellow of the American Psychological Association, the American Psychological Society, and the Midwestern Psychological Association, and a winner of the Founder’s Award for Excellence in Teaching as well as of the Founder’s Award for Scholarship at UWGB. He was also the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching’s Wisconsin Professor of the Year (2009) and the UW System Regents’ Teaching Excellence Award Winner. He is past president of the Society for the Teaching of Psychology.

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Table of Contents

Preface xi

Our Reader-Friendly Approach xi

Acknowledgments xiii

About the Authors xv

Section I Overview

1 Style Versus Format: Why It Matters to Your Audience and Why It Should Matter to You 3

What Is the Difference Between APA Style and APA Format? 4

Why APA Style Anyway? Wasn't MLA Good Enough? 6

In the Long Run, Attention to Detail Matters (Including APA Style and Format) 7

Write for Your Specific Audience: Term Papers Versus Formal Research Papers 8

2 Your Visual Table of Contents QuickFinder 10

The Sample Paper With Content and Page Numbers 12

Section II Writing with (APA) Style: Big Picture Items

3 Bare-Bones Fundamentals: General Writing Tips Specific to APA Style 27

Clear and Succinct Writing 27

Commonly Confused Words in Psychology 28

Subject-Verb Agreement 30

Active Voice Versus Passive Voice in APA Style 31

4 A Quick Grammar Summary for APA-Style Writing 34

Parts of a Sentence 35

Parts of Speech 36

Common Grammar Mistakes to Avoid 38

5 Thou Shalt Not Steal (or Be Lazy): Plagiarism and How to Avoid It 44

But I Didn't Know … 44

It Sounds Like a Bad Word 45

Quoting: More Than Just a Copy and Paste 46

Paraphrasing: In Your Own Words 48

An Author's License (Yours): Modifying Source Material 48

But I Can Freely Use My Own Work, Right? 49

How About This for a Plagiarism Awareness Exercise? 49

6 Avoiding Biased Language 50

The Fundamental Lesson: View People as Individuals First 50

Specifie Recommendations for Reducing Bias: Nonsexist Language and Other Areas 51

Sexual Orientation 51

Racial and Ethnic Identity 52

Disabilities 53

Occupations 53

Gender and Pronouns: With an Indefinite Recommendation 54

Section III Writing with (APA) Style: Getting Down to Business

7 Whodunnit (or Said It)? Citing References in Text 59

A Good Rule of Thumb 59

Ready, Cite, GO 60

In-Text Citation Basics 61

A Variation on the Theme 62

What Do I Do When I Need to Cite More Than One Article in the Same Spot? 63

What If I Have Two or More Articles by the same Author and Some Are the Same Year? 64

What If I Have Two or More Articles by Authors With the Same Last Name? 64

How Do I Cite an Article or Document From a Website? 64

If I Refer to the Same Article More Than Once in the Same Paragraph Do I Cite It Every Time? 65

How Do I Cite an Article That I Read About in Another Article or Book? 66

How Do I Cite a Lecture, an E-Mail, or a Conversation? 66

8 There Is a Method to the Madness 67

Where in the Flow of Pages Do You Place the Method Section? 67

Where Does This Information Go in the Method Section? 69

Subjects/Participants Subsection 69

Materials and Apparatus 71

Procedure 73

Formatting Your Method Section 75

9 And the Winner Is? Writing Your Results and Associated Fun 76

Let's Talk Statistics 77

Basics and Beyond 78

Formatting Your Results Paragraph 81

Including Effect Size and Power 82

10 Everybody Needs References 83

A Helpful Note 83

Creating Your Reference Section 83

Using Abbreviations 85

The Basics 86

Basic Reference Section Formatting Rules 92

Some of the Not-So-Basic Rules You Might Need 93

Section IV Presenting Your Work in APA Format

11 The Numbers Game: How to Write Numbers (and When the Rules Change) 97

When You Use Numerals 98

When You Use Words 99

Using Both Numerals and Words 100

How to Use Decimal Points 101

How Many Numbers Should Be Written After the Decimal Point? 101

Additional Rules for Including Numbers in Your Paper 102

Metrication 102

When Do You Use Abbreviations? 103

12 Formatting: Organizing, Headings, and Making Your Work Look Good to Print 106

What Goes Where? 106

What Your Paper Should Look Like 107

Headings 109

Spelling Matters: Spelling Rules and Capitalization 111

Final Touches 115

13 Table That Motion: The Special Challenges of Tables and Figures 116

What's What 116

Getting the Look Down 117

A Note on "Notes" 121

Figuring It Out 121

Get Legendary (and Use Captions) 123

Where to Place Tables and Figures 123

But I Am Doing a Literature Review: Coul0d I Use a Table or Figure? 124

Don't Forget 124

14 Make Microsoft Word 2007 Work for You: APA Formatting 125

Word 2007 Tabs and Drop-Down Menus 125

Setting the Margins 126

Line Spacing and Spacing Between Paragraphs 127

Page Headers (First Page and Subsequent Pages) and Page Numbering 129

Tabs, Centering, and the Ruler 132

References and the Hanging Indent 134

Preparing a Table (Rows, Columns, Lines, Centering) 136

Fonts and Font Variations (Italics, Bold, Superscript) 138

Page Breaks, Orphans, and Widows 139

Spell-Checker and Grammar Checker 140

Developing Good Habits: Autosave, File Naming, File Storage, Frequent Backups 141

Section V Some Nitty-Gritty Details

15 Making a List, Checking It Twice: Enumeration and Seriation l45

Why Bother? l45

Keeping Order at the Section Level 146

Order Within Paragraphs or Sentences 147

On a Related Note l48

16 The Devil Is in the Details: Abbreviations, Signs, Symbols, and Punctuation 149

OMG: To Abbreviate or Not? l49

Blinding You With Science and Latin 150

Punctuation 151

Section VI In Closing: Important Considerations

17 Using Rubrics: Knowing What It Means to Write a Good Paper 155

Follow Rubrics When Provided 155

Example Rubric 156

18 Get It Right! Proofreading the Entire Paper 158

Sample Student Paper for Practicing Proofreading 163

19 Complete Sample of an Experimental Paper: Samples, Anyone? 170

Sample Paper 172

Additional Resources on Writing 185

20 All Together Now: How to Avoid the Most Common Mistakes 186

APA Style and Format Checklist 187

Be Aware of Professors' Pet Peeves 191

Appendix A Error List for Chapter18 193

Appendix B APA Style and Format Checklist 196

References 198

Index 202

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    Posted October 1, 2011

    Book's good, but B%N is not

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