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Data analysis revealed an alignment between Abigail's purpose, her instruction, and her students' outcomes. Her classroom practices---observed and reported---promote each of the four main purposes that she claims to be primarily concerned with: developing general academic skills, promoting content knowledge, cultivating historical understandings and skills, and fostering care for content. The data suggest that her purposes overlap and interact with each other, meaning that concern with one goal is often integrally link to interest in another. Abigail utilizes a variety of instructional methods--including lecture, secondary source work, primary source work, essay writing, and discussion--to further multiple purposes congruently. However, she does assign priority to some of her purposes through the use of instructional strategies that emphasize a particular goal over others. Preparation for the AP exam represents an important element of Abigail's purpose and her instruction, but she readies students for this assessment in ways that enable her to promote one or more of her primary purposes.
Students demonstrated or reported learning with relation to each of Abigail's primary purposes; however, in certain cases, student outcomes vary in sophistication. The data indicate that students' views of and posture toward the past did not develop in a linear progression over time; rather, these understandings differed in nature with respect to particular subject matter. The findings of this study offer important evidence concerning the manner in which students display care as a component of historical empathy and the significance of this care for their thinking about the past and the present, a matter that has been primarily hypothesized about in the related literature.