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An Introduction to Persons with Severe Disabilities : Educational and Social Issues / Edition 1

An Introduction to Persons with Severe Disabilities : Educational and Social Issues / Edition 1

by John J. McDonnell

ISBN-10: 020515090X

ISBN-13: 9780205150908

Pub. Date: 02/01/1995

Publisher: Allyn & Bacon, Inc.

This book addresses the critical challenges faced by people with severe disabilities in becoming full members of our society, and provides teachers with the tools they need to successfully teach this population. It examines the ways that society has historically treated this group of people and describes promising practices that


This book addresses the critical challenges faced by people with severe disabilities in becoming full members of our society, and provides teachers with the tools they need to successfully teach this population. It examines the ways that society has historically treated this group of people and describes promising practices that will shape the future of services and programs from birth through old age. For anyone interested in learning about developmental disabilities and/or special education.

Product Details

Allyn & Bacon, Inc.
Publication date:
Edition description:
Older Edition
Product dimensions:
7.22(w) x 9.59(h) x 0.78(d)

Table of Contents

1Understanding People with Severe Disabilities1
Defining Severe Disabilities2
Historical Definitions3
The TASH Definition5
Definitions by Category of Disability5
The IDEA Definitions of Severe and Multiple Disabilities13
Current Issues in Assessment and Labeling16
Definitions and Use of Norm-Referenced Tests17
Functional Assessment17
Focus Review19
2Valuing People with Severe Disabilities: Toward Effective Education and Community Service Systems23
History of Educational and Community Services25
The Institutional Model25
The Developmental Model27
The Ecological Model30
Emerging Values in Service Programs31
Full Inclusion33
Natural Supports34
Choice and Autonomy35
Focus Review36
3Family, Friends, and Society: Supporting People with Severe Disabilities40
Formal Support Networks41
The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)42
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)44
School Reform and Accountability for Students with Severe Disabilities49
Other Government-Supported Programs51
Advocacy Organizations54
Natural Supports54
Focus Review66
4Biomedical Issues71
Genetic Engineering75
Organ Transplantation77
Genetic Screening78
Genetic Counseling82
Withholding Medical Treatment84
Advances in Newborn Intensive Care88
Focus Review89
5Multicultural and Diversity Issues94
Key Concepts and Definitions97
Context of Increasing Diversity97
Diversity and Special Education99
Culture and Key Cultural Dimensions101
Cultural Competence105
Importance and Need for Culturally Competent Services for People with Severe Disabilities and Their Families108
Current Trends: Providing Culturally Competent Services110
Honoring Differences110
Increasing the Cultural Competence of Professionals114
Approaches for Enhancing Cultural Competence116
Enhancing Cross-Cultural Communication116
Strategies for Building Rapport and Communicating Effectively119
Cultural Mediators and Language Interpreters120
Selected Approaches for Planning and Implementing Culturally Competent Services124
Future Directions129
Focus Review133
6Assistive Technology138
Importance and Needs for People with Severe Disabilities139
Aids for Daily Living139
Communication Aids140
Aids for Working, Learning, and Playing141
Mobility Aids142
Positioning Aids142
Federal Legislation and Assistive Technology145
Rehabilitation Act145
Technology Related Assistance Act145
Telecommunications Accessibility Enhancement Act146
Americans with Disabilities Act146
1997 IDEA Amendments147
Identification and Functional Use of Assistive Technology Devices and Services147
Identification of Appropriate AT Devices and Services147
Functional Use of AT Devices and Services148
Knowledge and Skill Competencies151
Conclusion and Future Directions152
Focus Review155
7Positive Behavioral Support160
Prevalence of Severe Problem Behaviors161
Life Impact162
A Shift in Perspective on Providing Behavioral Support162
Key Concepts and Definitions163
Whose Problem Is It Anyway?163
What's in a Name? Positive Behavioral Support164
Current Definitions and Features of Positive Behavioral Support164
Models and Strategies for Conducting Functional Assessments and Providing Comprehensive Positive Behavioral Support166
Initial Lifestyle Assessment and Planning166
Functional Assessment and Analysis167
Developing and Implementing Assessment-Based Comprehensive Behavior Support Plans172
The Competing Behavior Perspective173
Future Directions in Behavioral Support177
Early Intervention and Lifestyle Factors as Interventions and Outcomes177
Broader Perspectives on Implementing Behavioral Support177
Continued Development of Functional Assessment Technology177
Research into Practice: Where the Rubber Meets the Road178
Focus Review178
8Early Intervention Programs for Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities and Their Families185
Historical Overview of Early Intervention Services189
Child-Centered Early Intervention190
Family-Focused to Family-Centered Early Intervention191
Current Trends: Federal Legislation and Early Intervention192
Early Intervention as Defined by P.L. 105-17, Part C193
Family-Centered Early Intervention195
A Philosophy of Enabling and Empowering Families196
Expected Outcomes of Early Intervention196
Structure and Organization: Implementing Family-Centered Early Intervention201
Family-Directed Assessment and Selecting Intervention Goals201
Effective Practices in Family-Centered Early Intervention204
Natural Supports and Natural Environments204
Transition Planning211
Service Coordination214
Changing Needs: Birth to Three214
Future Directions in Early Intervention214
Prevention and Treatment of Developmental Disabilities214
Future Trends in Early Intervention Services216
Focus Review218
9Programs for Preschool Children226
Historical Overview of Preschool Services228
Types of Services and Service Delivery Models228
Philosophical and Curricular Models233
Models of Integration and Inclusion233
The Influence of Federal Legislation on Preschool Programs236
Current Trends and Issues in Meeting the Educational Needs of Preschoolers with Severe Disabilities238
Developmentally Appropriate Learning Experiences238
Inclusive Learning Environments241
Comprehensive and Individually Appropriate Interventions245
Interventions for Young Children with Challenging Behaviors246
Expected Outcomes for Preschool Services248
Structure/Organization of Preschool Programs249
Recommended Practices for Preschool Programs249
Effective Practices for Preschool Programs: Developing and Implementing IEPs for Preschoolers251
Team Membership and Collaboration251
Ecologically Based Curriculum and IEP Development for Preschool Children252
Implementing Intervention in Natural Routines and Activities256
Transition Planning and Preschool IEPs260
Future Directions for Preschool Programs262
Focus Review265
10Elementary Programs272
The History of Elementary Programs274
Influence of IDEA '97274
Influence of the Regular Education Initiative and the Inclusion Movement275
Structure of Elementary Programs277
The "Continuum" of Educational Services277
Inclusive Educational Programs280
Effective Practices282
Student and Family-Centered Planning282
Curriculum and Instruction Referenced to Home, School, and Community282
Promoting Friendships and Natural Supports296
Promoting Choice and Autonomy297
Transdisciplinary Teaming298
Future Directions and Issues299
Linkages with Ongoing School Reform Initiatives300
Integrating General and Special Education Pedagogy300
Redefining the Roles of Special and General Educators301
Focus Review302
11Secondary Programs307
The History of Secondary Programs309
The Influence of Federal Legislation on Secondary Programs311
Individuals with Disabilities Education Act311
Vocational Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1992 and 1998312
The Ticket to Work and Work Incentives Improvement Act of 1999313
The School-to-Work Opportunity Act (STOWA) of 1994313
Structure of Secondary Programs314
Effective Practices315
Inclusive Education315
Curriculum and Instruction Referenced to the Demands of Adulthood317
Person-Centered Transition Planning320
Securing Paid Employment320
Developing Natural Supports323
Future Directions and Issues323
Student Control323
Inclusion in the General Secondary Curriculum324
The Structure of Post-High School Programs326
Focus Review327
12Employment and Residential Programs for Adults331
History of Employment and Residential Programs332
Structure of Employment Programs333
The Continuum of Employment Services334
Supported Employment336
Structure of Residential Programs340
The Continuum of Residential Services340
Supported Living342
Future Directions344
Consumer Control345
Natural Supports346
Focus Review347
13Programs for Older Adults351
Historical Overview of Services for Older Adults353
The Structure of Services for the Aging and Elderly354
Age-Segregated or Age-Integrated Programs355
Community-Based or Institutional Programs357
Future Directions357
Definition of Elderly for Persons with Disabilities358
Aging Caregivers and Wait Lists358
Age-Appropriate Services359
Collaboration between Aging and Disability Agencies359
Focus Review361
Author Index364
Subject Index370

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