An Introduction to Sociolinguistics / Edition 1

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780582060623
  • Publisher: Longman Publishing Group
  • Publication date: 10/28/1992
  • Series: Learning about Language Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 432
  • Product dimensions: 5.47 (w) x 8.45 (h) x 0.95 (d)

Table of Contents

Author's acknowledgements
Publisher's acknowledgements
1 What do sociolinguists study? 1
What is a sociolinguist? 1
Why do we say the same thing in different ways? 3
What are the different ways we say things? 6
Social factors, dimensions and explanations 11
Sect. I Multilingual Speech Communities 19
2 Language choice in multilingual communities 21
Choosing your variety or code 21
Diglossia 32
Code-switching or code-mixing 40
3 Language maintenance and shift 55
Language shift in different communities 55
Language death and language loss 61
Factors contributing to language shift 65
How can a minority language be maintained? 71
Language revival 74
4 Linguistic varieties and multilingual nations 79
Vernacular languages 80
Standard languages 82
Lingua francas 86
Pidgins and creoles 89
5 National languages and language planning 103
National and official languages 105
Planning for a national official language 112
Developing a standard variety in Norway 118
The linguist's role in language planning 121
Sect. II Language Variation: reflecting its users 131
6 Regional and social dialects 133
Regional variation 134
Social variation 142
Social dialects 144
7 Sex and age 164
Sex-exclusive speech differences 164
Sex-preferential speech features 167
Sex and social class 168
Explanations of women's linguistic behaviour 171
Age-graded features of speech 181
Age and social dialect data 184
8 Ethnicity and social networks 190
Ethnicity 190
Social networks 202
9 Language change 210
Variation and change 211
How do changes spread? 218
How do we study language change? 225
Reasons for language change 229
Sect. III Language Variation: reflecting its uses 243
10 Style, context and register 245
Addressee as an influence on style 246
Accommodation theory 255
Context, style and class 260
Style in non-Western societies 271
Register 276
11 Speech functions, politeness and cross-cultural communication 285
The functions of speech 286
Politeness and address forms 296
Linguistic politeness in different cultures 304
12 Sex, politeness and stereotypes 312
Women's language and confidence 312
Interaction 324
Gossip 330
Sexist language 336
13 Attitudes and applications 344
Attitudes to language 344
Sociolinguistics and education 357
14 Conclusion 369
Sociolinguistic competence 370
Dimensions of sociolinguistic analysis 376
Sociolinguistic universals 381
References 386
Appendix: phonetic symbols 402
Glossary 404
Index 407
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