An Introduction to Word Grammar

Overview

Word grammar is a theory of language structure and is based on the assumption that language, and indeed the whole of knowledge, is a network, and that virtually all of knowledge is learned. It combines the psychological insights of cognitive linguistics with the rigour of more formal theories. This textbook spans a broad range of topics from prototypes, activation and default inheritance to the details of syntactic, morphological and semantic structure. It introduces elementary ideas from cognitive science and ...

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Overview

Word grammar is a theory of language structure and is based on the assumption that language, and indeed the whole of knowledge, is a network, and that virtually all of knowledge is learned. It combines the psychological insights of cognitive linguistics with the rigour of more formal theories. This textbook spans a broad range of topics from prototypes, activation and default inheritance to the details of syntactic, morphological and semantic structure. It introduces elementary ideas from cognitive science and uses them to explain the structure of language including a survey of English grammar.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
'Masterfully written and meticulously organised, Richard Hudson's book describes how general principles of categorization and cognitive processing give rise to the network structure of language, and English grammar in particular. This is essential and accessible reading for anyone interested in the induction, generalization and organization of language in the mind.' Peter Robinson, Aoyama Gakuin University
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Product Details

Meet the Author

Richard Hudson is Emeritus Professor of Linguistics at University College London. His recent publications include Language Networks: The New Word Grammar (2007).

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Table of Contents

List of figures

List of tables

Acknowledgements

Introduction 1

Part I How the mind works

1 Introduction to cognitive science 7

2 Categorization 9

2.1 Concepts, categories and exemplars 9

2.2 Taxonomies and the isA relation 12

2.3 Generalizations and inheritance 16

2.4 Multiple inheritance and choices 22

2.5 Default inheritance and prototype effects 24

2.6 Social categories and stereotypes 30

3 Network structure 34

3.1 Concepts, percepts, feelings and actions 34

3.2 Relational concepts, arguments and values 37

3.3 Choices, features and cross-classification 44

3.4 Examples of relational taxonomies 47

3.5 The network notion, properties and default inheritance 57

3.6 Do networks need modularity? 63

4 Network activity 70

4.1 Activation and long-term memory 70

4.2 Activation and working memory 73

4.3 Building and learning exemplar nodes 80

4.4 Building induced nodes 83

4.5 Building inherited nodes 87

4.6 Binding nodes together 91

Part II How language works

5 Introduction to linguistics 103

5.1 Description 103

5.2 Detail 104

5.3 Data 105

5.4 Differences 105

5.5 Divisions 106

5.6 Developments 108

6 Words as concepts 109

6.1 Types and tokens 109

6.2 Word properties 114

6.3 Word-classes 117

6.4 Grammaticality 118

6.5 Lexemes and inflections 121

6.6 Definitions and efficiency 127

6.7 Morphology and lexical relations 131

6.8 Social properties of words 136

6.9 Levels of analysis 138

7 Syntax 145

7.1 Dependencies and phrases 145

7.2 Valency 154

7.3 Morpho-syntactic features, agreement and unrealized words 162

7.4 Default word order 168

7.5 Coordination 175

7.6 Special word orders 181

7.7 Syntax without modules 189

8 Using and learning language 193

8.1 Accessibility and frequency 193

8.2 Retrieving words 197

8.3 Tokens and types in listening and speaking 202

8.4 Learning generalizations 205

8.5 Using generalizations 209

8.6 Binding in word-recognition, parsing and pragmatics 212

8.7 Meaning 220

8.8 Social meaning 241

Part III How English works

9 Introduction to English linguistics 249

10 English words 251

10.1 Word-classes 251

10.2 Inflections 255

10.3 Word-class properties 260

10.4 Morphology and lexical relations 270

10.5 Social properties 276

11 English syntax 279

11.1 Dependencies 279

11.2 Valency 285

11.3 Features, agreement and unrealized lexemes 296

11.4 Default word order 301

11.5 Coordination 304

11.6 Special word orders 307

References 327

Index 322

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