Overview

The Leading Integrated Chemical Process Design Guide: Now with New Problems, New Projects, and More

More than ever, effective design is the focal point of sound chemical engineering. Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes, Third Edition, presents design as a creative process that integrates both the big picture and the small details?and knows which to stress when, and why. Realistic from start to finish, this book moves readers ...
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Analysis, Synthesis and Design of Chemical Processes

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Overview

The Leading Integrated Chemical Process Design Guide: Now with New Problems, New Projects, and More

More than ever, effective design is the focal point of sound chemical engineering. Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes, Third Edition, presents design as a creative process that integrates both the big picture and the small details–and knows which to stress when, and why. Realistic from start to finish, this book moves readers beyond classroom exercises into open-ended, real-world process problem solving. The authors introduce integrated techniques for every facet of the discipline, from finance to operations, new plant design to existing process optimization.

This fully updated Third Edition presents entirely new problems at the end of every chapter. It also adds extensive coverage of batch process design, including realistic examples of equipment sizing for batch sequencing; batch scheduling for multi-product plants; improving production via intermediate storage and parallel equipment; and new optimization techniques specifically for batch processes.

Coverage includes
  • Conceptualizing and analyzing chemical processes: flow diagrams, tracing, process conditions, and more
  • Chemical process economics: analyzing capital and manufacturing costs, and predicting or assessing profitability
  • Synthesizing and optimizing chemical processing: experience-based principles, BFD/PFD, simulations, and more
  • Analyzing process performance via I/O models, performance curves, and other tools
  • Process troubleshooting and “debottlenecking”
  • Chemical engineering design and society: ethics, professionalism, health, safety, and new “green engineering” techniques
  • Participating successfully in chemical engineering design teams
Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes, Third Edition, draws on nearly 35 years of innovative chemical engineering instruction at West Virginia University. It includes suggested curricula for both single-semester and year-long design courses; case studies and design projects with practical applications; and appendixes with current equipment cost data and preliminary design information for eleven chemical processes–including seven brand new to this edition.

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Product Details

Meet the Author

Richard Turton, P.E., has taught the senior design course at West Virginia University for the past 22 years. Previously, he spent five years in the design and construction industry.

Richard C. Bailie, professor emeritus at WVU, taught chemical engineering design for more than 20 years, and has ten years of additional experience in process evaluation, pilot plant operation, plant start-up, and industrial consulting.

Wallace B. Whiting, P.E., professor emeritus at the University of Nevada, Reno, has practiced and taught chemical process design for more than 24 years.

Joseph A. Shaeiwitz has been involved in WVU’s senior design sequence and unique sophomore- and junior-level integrated design projects for 20 years.
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Table of Contents

Preface xxiii
About the Authors xxvii
List of Nomenclature xxix

SECTION 1: CONCEPTUALIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES 1
Chapter 1: Diagrams for Understanding Chemical Processes 5

1.1 Block Flow Diagrams (BFDs) 7
1.2 Process Flow Diagram (PFD) 9
1.3 Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) 26
1.4 Additional Diagrams 32
1.5 Three-Dimensional Representation of a Process 33
1.6 The 3-D Plant Model 42
1.7 Summary 44
References 45
Short Answer Questions 45
Problems 46

Chapter 2: The Structure and Synthesis of Process Flow Diagrams 51
2.1 Hierarchy of Process Design 51
2.2 Step 1–Batch versus Continuous Process 52
2.3 Step 2–The Input/Output Structure of the Process 57
2.4 Step 3–The Recycle Structure of the Process 68
2.5 Step 4–General Structure of the Separation System 84
2.6 Step 5–Heat-Exchanger Network or Process Energy Recovery System 84
2.7 Information Required and Sources 84
2.8 Summary 84
References 86
Short Answer Questions 88
Problems 88

Chapter 3: Batch Processing 93
3.1 Design Calculations for Batch Processes 93
3.2 Gantt Charts and Scheduling 100
3.3 Nonoverlapping, Overlapping Operations, and Cycle Times 101
3.4 Flowshop and Jobshop Plants 104
3.5 Product and Intermediate Storage and Parallel Process Units 110
3.6 Design of Equipment for Multiproduct Batch Processes 116
3.7 Summary 119
References 119
Short Answer Questions 119
Problems 120

Chapter 4: Chemical Product Design 123
4.1 Strategies for Chemical Product Design 124
4.2 Needs 126
4.3 Ideas 128
4.4 Selection 129
4.5 Manufacture 131
4.6 Batch Processing 132
4.7 Economic Considerations 132
4.8 Summary 133
References 133

Chapter 5: Tracing Chemicals through the Process Flow Diagram 135
5.1 Guidelines and Tactics for Tracing Chemicals 135
5.2 Tracing Primary Paths Taken by Chemicals in a Chemical Process 136
5.3 Recycle and Bypass Streams 142
5.4 Tracing Nonreacting Chemicals 146
5.5 Limitations 147
5.6 Written Process Description 147
5.7 Summary 149
Problems 149

Chapter 6: Understanding Process Conditions 151
6.1 Conditions of Special Concern for the Operation of Separation and Reactor Systems 152
6.2 Reasons for Operating at Conditions of Special Concern 154
6.3 Conditions of Special Concern for the Operation of Other Equipment 159
6.4 Analysis of Important Process Conditions 163
6.5 Summary 171
References 172
Short Answer Questions 172
Problems 172

SECTION 2: ENGINEERING ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES 175
Chapter 7: Estimation of Capital Costs 177
7.1 Classifications of Capital Cost Estimates 177
7.2 Estimation of Purchased Equipment Costs 181
7.3 Estimating the Total Capital Cost of a Plant 187
7.4 Summary 215
References 215
Short Answer Questions 216
Problems 216

Chapter 8: Estimation of Manufacturing Costs 221
8.1 Factors Affecting the Cost of Manufacturing a Chemical Product 221
8.2 Cost of Operating Labor 226
8.3 Utility Costs 228
8.4 Raw Material Costs 244
8.5 Yearly Costs and Stream Factors 246
8.6 Estimating Utility Costs from the PFD 247
8.7 Cost of Treating Liquid and Solid Waste Streams 250
8.8 Evaluation of Cost of Manufacture for the Production of Benzene via the Hydrodealkylation of Toluene 250
8.9 Summary 251
References 252
Short Answer Questions 252
Problems 253

Chapter 9: Engineering Economic Analysis 257
9.1 Investments and the Time Value of Money 258
9.2 Different Types of Interest 262
9.3 Time Basis for Compound Interest Calculations 264
9.4 Cash Flow Diagrams 266
9.5 Calculations from Cash Flow Diagrams 270
9.6 Inflation 276
9.7 Depreciation of Capital Investment 279
9.8 Taxation, Cash Flow, and Profit 286
9.9 Summary 288
References 290
Short Answer Questions 290
Problems 291

Chapter 10: Profitability Analysis 297
10.1 A Typical Cash Flow Diagram for a New Project 297
10.2 Profitability Criteria for Project Evaluation 299
10.3 Comparing Several Large Projects: Incremental Economic Analysis 308
10.4 Establishing Acceptable Returns from Investments: The Concept of Risk 311
10.5 Evaluation of Equipment Alternatives 312
10.6 Incremental Analysis for Retrofitting Facilities 319
10.7 Evaluation of Risk in Evaluating Profitability 325
10.8 Profit Margin Analysis 344
10.9 Summary 345
References 346
Short Answer Questions 346
Problems 347

SECTION 3: SYNTHESIS AND OPTIMIZATION OF CHEMICAL PROCESSES 361
Chapter 11: Utilizing Experience-Based Principles to Confirm the Suitability of a Process Design 363

11.1 The Role of Experience in the Design Process 364
11.2 Presentation of Tables of Technical Heuristics and Guidelines 368
11.3 Summary 371
References 389
Problems 389

Chapter 12: Synthesis of the PFD from the Generic BFD 391
12.1 Information Needs and Sources 392
12.2 Reactor Section 394
12.3 Separator Section 396
12.4 Reactor Feed Preparation and Separator Feed Preparation Sections 415
12.5 Recycle Section 416
12.6 Environmental Control Section 416
12.7 Major Process Control Loops 416
12.8 Flow Summary Table 417
12.9 Major Equipment Summary Table 417
12.10 Summary 418
References 418
Problems 419

Chapter 13: Synthesis of a Process Using a Simulator and Simulator Troubleshooting 423
13.1 The Structure of a Process Simulator 424
13.2 Information Required to Complete a Process Simulation: Input Data 428
13.3 Handling Recycle Streams 441
13.4 Choosing Thermodynamic Models 443
13.5 Case Study: Toluene Hydrodealkylation Process 457
13.6 Summary 460
References 460
Problems 461

Chapter 14: Process Optimization 465
14.1 Background Information on Optimization 465
14.2 Strategies 471
14.3 Topological Optimization 476
14.4 Parametric Optimization 484
14.5 Lattice Search Techniques versus Response Surface Techniques 496
14.6 Process Flexibility and the Sensitivity of the Optimum 497
14.7 Optimization in Batch Systems 497
14.8 Summary 506
References 507
Short Answer Questions 507
Problems 507

Chapter 15: Pinch Technology 521
15.1 Introduction 521
15.2 Heat Integration and Network Design 522
15.3 Composite Temperature-Enthalpy Diagram 539
15.4 Composite Enthalpy Curves for Systems without a Pinch 540
15.5 Using the Composite Enthalpy Curve to Estimate Heat-Exchanger Surface Area 541
15.6 Effectiveness Factor (F) and the Number of Shells 545
15.7 Combining Costs to Give the EAOC for the Network 552
15.8 Other Considerations 554
15.9 Heat-Exchanger Network Synthesis Analysis and Design (HENSAD) Program 559
15.10 Mass-Exchange Networks 560
15.11 Summary 570
References 570
Short Answer Questions 571
Problems 572

SECTION 4: ANALYSIS OF PROCESS PERFORMANCE 579
Chapter 16: Process Input/Output Models 583
16.1 Representation of Process Inputs and Outputs 584
16.2 Analysis of the Effect of Process Inputs on Process Outputs 587
16.3 A Process Example 588
16.4 Summary 590
Problems 591

Chapter 17: Tools for Evaluating Process Performance 593
17.1 Key Relationships 593
17.2 Thinking with Equations 595
17.3 Base-Case Ratios 597
17.4 Analysis of Systems Using Controlling Resistances 599
17.5 Graphical Representations 601
17.6 Summary 606
Reference 607
Problems 607

Chapter 18: Performance Curves for Individual Unit Operations 609
18.1 Applications to Heat Transfer 611
18.2 Application to Fluid Flow 617
18.3 Application to Separation Problems 633
18.4 Summary 647
Reference 648
Short Answer Questions 648
Problems 650

Chapter 19: Performance of Multiple Unit Operations 659
19.1 Analysis of a Reactor with Heat Transfer 659
19.2 Performance of a Distillation Column 664
19.3 Performance of a Heating Loop 671
19.4 Performance of the Feed Section to a Process 677
19.5 Summary 681
References 682
Short Answer Questions 682
Problems 682

Chapter 20: Reactor Performance 699
20.1 Production of Desired Product 701
20.2 Reaction Kinetics and Thermodynamics 703
20.3 The Chemical Reactor 706
20.4 Heat Transfer in the Chemical Reactor 712
20.5 Reactor System Case Studies 715
20.6 Summary 730
References 731
Short Answer Questions 731
Problems 732

Chapter 21: Regulating Process Conditions 737
21.1 A Simple Regulation Problem 738
21.2 The Characteristics of Regulating Valves 740
21.3 Regulating Flowrates and Pressures 742
21.4 The Measurement of Process Variables 746
21.5 Common Control Strategies Used in Chemical Processes 746
21.6 Exchanging Heat and Work between Process and Utility Streams 753
21.7 Case Studies 761
21.8 Summary 767
References 768
Problems 768

Chapter 22: Process Troubleshooting and Debottlenecking 773
22.1 Recommended Methodology 775
22.2 Troubleshooting Individual Units 780
22.3 Troubleshooting Multiple Units 787
22.4 A Process Troubleshooting Problem 792
22.5 Debottlenecking Problems 798
22.6 Summary 799
References 799
Problems 799

SECTION 5: THE IMPACT OF CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN ON SOCIETY 809
Chapter 23: Ethics and Professionalism 811

23.1 Ethics 812
23.2 Professional Registration 833
23.3 Legal Liability 839
23.4 Business Codes of Conduct 841
23.5 Summary 842
References 842
Problems 844

Chapter 24: Health, Safety, and the Environment 847
24.1 Risk Assessment 848
24.2 Regulations and Agencies 851
24.3 Fires and Explosions 863
24.4 Process Hazard Analysis 865
24.5 Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board 875
24.6 Inherently Safe Design 875
24.7 Summary 876
24.8 Glossary 876
References 878
Problems 879

Chapter 25: Green Engineering 881
25.1 Environmental Regulations 881
25.2 Environmental Fate of Chemicals 883
25.3 Green Chemistry 886
25.4 Pollution Prevention during Process Design 887
25.5 Analysis of a PFD for Pollution Performance and Environmental Performance 890
25.6 An Example of the Economics of Pollution Prevention 891
25.7 Life Cycle Analysis 892
25.8 Summary 893
References 894
Problems 895

SECTION 6: INTERPERSONAL AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS 897
Chapter 26: Teamwork 899

26.1 Groups 899
26.2 Group Evolution 910
26.3 Teams and Teamwork 913
26.4 Misconceptions 916
26.5 Learning in Teams 917
26.6 Other Reading 918
26.7 Summary 920
References 920
Problems 921

Appendix A: Cost Equations and Curves for the CAPCOST Program 923
A.1 Purchased Equipment Costs 923
A.2 Pressure Factors 941
A.3 Material Factors and Bare Module Factors 945
References 954

Appendix B: Information for the Preliminary Design of Eleven Chemical Processes 955
B.1 DME Production, Unit 200 956
B.2 Ethyl Benzene Production, Unit 300 962
B.3 Styrene Production, Unit 400 970
B.4 Drying Oil Production, Unit 500 978
B.5 Production of Maleic Anhydride from Benzene, Unit 600 984
B.6 Ethylene Oxide Production, Unit 700 991
B.7 Formalin Production, Unit 800 1000
B.8 Batch Production of L-Phenylalanine and L-Aspartic Acid, Unit 900 1007
B.9 Acrylic Acid Production via the Catalytic Partial Oxidation of Propylene 1015
B.10 Production of Acetone via the Dehydrogenation of Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA), Unit 1100 1026
B.11 Production of Heptenes from Propylene and Butenes, Unit 1200 1035

Index 1045
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Preface

This book represents the culmination of many years of teaching experience in the senior design course at West Virginia University (WVU) and University of Nevada, Reno. Although the program at WVU has evolved over the last thirty years and is still evolving, it is fair to say that the current program has gelled over the last twenty years as a concerted effort by the authors to integrate "design" throughout the undergraduate curriculum in chemical engineering.

We view design as the focal point of chemical engineering practice. Far more than the development of a set of specifications for a new chemical plant, design is the creative activity through which engineers continuously improve the operations of facilities to create products that enhance the quality of life. Whether developing the grass-roots plant, proposing and guiding process modifications, or troubleshooting and implementing operational strategies for existing equipment, engineering design requires a broad spectrum of knowledge and intellectual skills to be able to analyze the big picture and the minute details and, most important, to know when to concentrate on each.

Our vehicle for helping students develop and hone their design skills is process design rather than plant design, covering synthesis of the entire chemical process through topics relating to the preliminary sizing of equipment, flowsheet optimization, economic evaluation of projects, and the operation of chemical processes. The purpose of this text is to assist chemical engineering students in making the transition from solving well-posed problems in a specific subject to integrating all the knowledge that they have gained in their undergraduate educationand applying this information to solving open-ended process problems. Many of the "nuts and bolts" issues regarding plant design (for example, what schedule pipe to use for a given stream or what corrosion allowance to use for a vessel in a certain service) are not covered. Although such issues are clearly important to the practicing engineer, several excellent handbooks and textbooks are available to address such problems, and these are cited in the text where applicable.

In the third edition, we have rearranged some of the material from previous editions, we have added a new chapter on Batch Processing and a section on Optimization of Batch Processes, and have supplied new problems for all of the quantitative chapters. We continue to emphasize the importance of understanding, analyzing, and synthesizing chemical processes and process flow diagrams. To this end, we have expanded Appendix B to include an additional seven preliminary designs of chemical processes. The CAPCOST program for preliminary evaluation of fixed capital investment and profitability analysis has been expanded to include more equipment. Finally, the chapters on outcomes assessment, written and oral communications and a written report case study have been moved to the CD accompanying the text.

The arrangement of chapters into the six sections of the book is similar to that adopted in the Second Edition. These are sections are:
• Section 1-Conceptualization and Analysis of Chemical Processes
• Section 2-Engineering Economic Analysis of Chemical Processes
• Section 3-Synthesis and Optimization of Chemical Processes
• Section 4-Analysis of Process Performance
• Section 5-The Impact of Chemical Engineering Design on Society
• Section 6- Interpersonal and Communication Skills

In Section 1, the student is introduced first to the principal diagrams that are used to describe a chemical process. Next, the evolution and generation of different process configurations are covered. Key concepts used in evaluating batch processes are included in the new Chapter 3, and the chapter on product design has been moved to Chapter 4. Finally, the analysis of existing processes is covered. In Section 2, the information needed to assess the economic feasibility of a process is covered. This includes the estimation of fixed capital investment and manufacturing costs, the concepts of the time value of money and financial calculations, and finally the combination of these costs into profitability measures for the process. Section 3 covers the synthesis of a chemical process. The minimum information required to simulate a process is given, as are the basics of using a process simulator. The choice of the appropriate thermodynamic model to use in a simulation is covered and the choice of separation operations is covered. In addition, process optimization (including an introduction to optimization of batch processes) and heat integration techniques are covered in this section. In Section 4, the analysis of the performance of existing processes and equipment is covered. The material in Section 4 is substantially different from that found in most textbooks. We consider equipment that is already built and operating and analyze how the operation can be changed, how an operating problem may be solved, and how to analyze what has occurred in the process to cause an observed change. In Section 5, the impact of chemical engineering design on society is covered. The role of the professional engineer in society is addressed. Separate chapters addressing ethics and professionalism, health, safety, and the environment, and green engineering are included. Finally, in Section 6, the interpersonal skills required by the engineer to function as part of a team and to communicate both orally and written are covered (on the CD). An entire chapter (on the CD) is devoted to addressing some of the common mistakes that students make in written reports.

Finally, two appendices are included. Appendix A gives a series of cost charts for equipment. This information is embedded in the CAPCOST program for evaluating fixed capital investments and process economics. Appendix B gives the preliminary design information for eleven chemical processes: dimethyl ether, ethylbenzene, styrene, drying oil, maleic anhydride, ethylene oxide, formalin, batch manufacture of amino acids, acrylic acid, acetone, and heptenes production. This information is used in many of the end-of-chapter problems in the book. These processes can also be used as the starting point for more detailed analyses, for example, optimization studies. Other projects are included on the CD accompanying this book. The reader (faculty and students) is also referred to our Web site at http://www.che.cemr.wvu.edu/publications/projects/, where a variety of design projects for sophomore- through senior-level chemical engineering courses is provided. There is also a link to another Web site that contains environmentally related design projects.

For a one-semester design course, we recommend including the following core:
• Section 1-Chapters 1 through 6
• Section 3-Chapters 11, 12, and 13
• Section 5-Chapters 23 and 24

For programs in which engineering economics is not a prerequisite to the design course, Section 2 (Chapters 7-10) should also be included. If students have previously covered engineering economics, Chapters 14 and 15 covering optimization and pinch technology could be substituted.

For the second term of a two-term sequence, we recommend Chapters 16 through 20 (and Chapters 14 and 15 if not included in the first design course) plus design projects. If time permits, we also recommend Chapter 21 (Regulating Process Conditions) and Chapter 22 (Process Troubleshooting) as these tend to solidify as well as extend the concepts of Chapters 16 through 20, that is, what an entry-level process engineer will encounter in the first few years of employment at a chemical process facility. For an environmental emphasis, Chapter 25 could be substituted for Chapters 21 and 22; however, it is recommended that supplementary material be included.

We have found that the most effective way both to enhance and to examine student progress is through oral presentations in addition to the submission of written reports. During these oral presentations, individual students or a student group defend their results to a faculty panel, much like a graduate student defends a thesis or dissertation.

R.T.
R.C.B.
W.B.W.
J.A.S.

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