Analysis, Synthesis and Design of Chemical Processes / Edition 4

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Overview

The leading integrated chemical process design guide: Now with extensive new coverage and more process designs

More than ever, effective design is the focal point of sound chemical engineering. Analysis, Synthesis, and Design of Chemical Processes, Fourth Edition, presents design as a creative process that integrates both the big picture and the small details–and knows which to stress when, and why. Realistic from start to finish, this updated edition moves readers beyond classroom exercises into open-ended, real-world process problem solving. The authors introduce integrated techniques for every facet of the discipline, from finance to operations, new plant design to existing process optimization.

This fourth edition adds new chapters introducing dynamic process simulation; advanced concepts in steady-state simulation; extensive coverage of thermodynamics packages for modeling processes containing electrolyte solutions and solids; and a concise introduction to logic control. “What You Have Learned” summaries have been added to each chapter, and the text’s organization has been refined for greater clarity.

Coverage Includes

  • Conceptualization and analysis: flow diagrams, batch processing, tracing, process conditions, and product design strategies
  • Economic analysis: capital and manufacturing costs, financial calculations, and profitability analysis
  • Synthesis and optimization: principles, PFD synthesis, simulation techniques, top-down and bottom-up optimization, pinch technology, and software-based control
  • Advanced steady-state simulation: goals, models, solution strategies, and sensitivity and optimization studies
  • Dynamic simulation: goals, development, solution methods, algorithms, and solvers
  • Performance analysis: I/O models, tools, performance curves, reactor performance, troubleshooting, and “debottlenecking”
  • Societal impact: ethics, professionalism, health, safety, environmental issues, and green engineering
  • Interpersonal and communication skills: improving teamwork and group effectiveness

This title draws on more than fifty years of innovative chemical engineering instruction at West Virginia University and the University of Nevada, Reno. It includes suggested curricula for single-semester and year-long design courses, case studies and practical design projects, current equipment cost data, and extensive preliminary design information that can be used as the starting point for more detailed analyses.

About the CD-Rom and Web Site

The CD contains the newest version of CAPCOST, a powerful tool for evaluating fixed capital investment, full process economics, and profitability. The heat exchanger network software, HENSAD, is also included. The CD also contains an additional appendix presenting preliminary design information for fifteen key chemical processes, including four new to this edition: shift reaction; acid-gas removal via physical solvent; H2S removal from a gas stream using the Claus process; and coal gasification. The CD also includes six additional projects, plus chapters on outcomes assessment, written and oral communications, and a written report case study. Sixty additional projects and twenty-four more problems are available at www.che.cemr.wvu.edu/publications/projects.

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Product Details

Meet the Author

Richard Turton is professor of chemical engineering and professor in the Statler College of Engineering and Mineral Resources at West Virginia University. He has taught WVU’s senior design course for more than twenty-five years.

Richard C. Bailie, professor emeritus at WVU, taught chemical engineering design for more than twenty years. He has extensive experience in process evaluation, pilot plant operation, and plant startup.

Wallace B. Whiting, professor emeritus at the University of Nevada, Reno, has practiced and taught chemical process design for more than twenty-four years.

Joseph A. Shaeiwitz has been involved in WVU’s senior design sequence and sophomore- and junior-level integrated design projects for twenty years.

Debangsu Bhattacharyya, associate professor in the department of chemical engineering at WVU, has worked in computer-aided simulation, design, construction, and in the operation of a large petroleum refinery for more than ten years.

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Table of Contents

Material on the CD-ROM xix

Preface xxiii

About the Authors xxvii

List of Nomenclature xxix

Section I: Conceptualization and Analysis of Chemical Processes 1

Chapter 1: Diagrams for Understanding Chemical Processes 3

What You Will Learn 3

1.1 Block Flow Diagram (BFD) 5

1.2 Process Flow Diagram (PFD) 8

1.3 Piping and Instrumentation Diagram (P&ID) 21

1.4 Additional Diagrams 26

1.5 Three-Dimensional Representation of a Process 27

1.6 The 3-D Plant Model 35

1.7 Operator and 3-D Immersive Training Simulators 37

1.8 Summary 43

What You Should Have Learned 43

References 44

Short Answer Questions 44

Problems 44

Chapter 2: The Structure and Synthesis of Process Flow Diagrams 49

What You Will Learn 49

2.1 Hierarchy of Process Design 49

2.2 Step 1–Batch versus Continuous Process 50

2.3 Step 2–The Input/Output Structure of the Process 54

2.4 Step 3–The Recycle Structure of the Process 64

2.5 Step 4–General Structure of the Separation System 78

2.6 Step 5–Heat-Exchanger Network or Process Energy Recovery System 78

2.7 Information Required and Sources 78

2.8 Summary 78

What You Should Have Learned 80

References 80

Short Answer Questions 81

Problems 81

Chapter 3: Batch Processing 87

What You Will Learn 87

3.1 Design Calculations for Batch Processes 87

3.2 Gantt Charts and Scheduling 93

3.3 Nonoverlapping Operations, Overlapping Operations, and Cycle Times 94

3.4 Flowshop and Jobshop Plants 97

3.5 Product and Intermediate Storage and Parallel Process Units 102

3.6 Design of Equipment for Multiproduct Batch Processes 107

3.7 Summary 109

What You Should Have Learned 110

References 110

Short Answer Questions 110

Problems 110

Chapter 4: Chemical Product Design 115

What You Will Learn 115

4.1 Strategies for Chemical Product Design 116

4.2 Needs 117

4.3 Ideas 119

4.4 Selection 120

4.5 Manufacture 122

4.6 Batch Processing 123

4.7 Economic Considerations 123

4.8 Summary 123

What You Should Have Learned 124

References 124

Chapter 5: Tracing Chemicals through the Process Flow Diagram 125

What You Will Learn 125

5.1 Guidelines and Tactics for Tracing Chemicals 125

5.2 Tracing Primary Paths Taken by Chemicals in a Chemical Process 126

5.3 Recycle and Bypass Streams 132

5.4 Tracing Nonreacting Chemicals 135

5.5 Limitations 135

5.6 Written Process Description 136

5.7 Summary 137

What You Should Have Learned 137

Problems 138

Chapter 6: Understanding Process Conditions 139

What You Will Learn 139

6.1 Conditions of Special Concern for the Operation of Separation and Reactor Systems 140

6.2 Reasons for Operating at Conditions of Special Concern 142

6.3 Conditions of Special Concern for the Operation of Other Equipment 146

6.4 Analysis of Important Process Conditions 150

6.5 Summary 157

What You Should Have Learned 157

References 158

Short Answer Questions 158

Problems 158

Section II: Engineering Economic Analysis of Chemical Processes 161

Chapter 7: Estimation of Capital Costs 163

What You Will Learn 163

7.1 Classifications of Capital Cost Estimates 164

7.2 Estimation of Purchased Equipment Costs 167

7.3 Estimating the Total Capital Cost of a Plant 172

7.4 Summary 198

What You Should Have Learned 198

References 198

Short Answer Questions 199

Problems 200

Chapter 8: Estimation of Manufacturing Costs 203

What You Will Learn 203

8.1 Factors Affecting the Cost of Manufacturing a Chemical Product 203

8.2 Cost of Operating Labor 208

8.3 Utility Costs 209

8.4 Raw Material Costs 223

8.5 Yearly Costs and Stream Factors 225

8.6 Estimating Utility Costs from the PFD 225

8.7 Cost of Treating Liquid and Solid Waste Streams 228

8.8 Evaluation of Cost of Manufacture for the Production of Benzene via the Hydrodealkylation of Toluene 228

8.9 Summary 229

What You Should Have Learned 230

References 230

Short Answer Questions 230

Problems 231

Chapter 9: Engineering Economic Analysis 233

What You Will Learn 233

9.1 Investments and the Time Value of Money 234

9.2 Different Types of Interest 238

9.3 Time Basis for Compound Interest Calculations 240

9.4 Cash Flow Diagrams 241

9.5 Calculations from Cash Flow Diagrams 245

9.6 Inflation 250

9.7 Depreciation of Capital Investment 253

9.8 Taxation, Cash Flow, and Profit 259

9.9 Summary 262

What You Should Have Learned 262

References 262

Short Answer Questions 263

Problems 263

Chapter 10: Profitability Analysis 269

What You Will Learn 269

10.1 A Typical Cash Flow Diagram for a New Project 269

10.2 Profitability Criteria for Project Evaluation 271

10.3 Comparing Several Large Projects: Incremental Economic Analysis 279

10.4 Establishing Acceptable Returns from Investments: The Concept of Risk 282

10.5 Evaluation of Equipment Alternatives 283

10.6 Incremental Analysis for Retrofitting Facilities 289

10.7 Evaluation of Risk in Evaluating Profitability 293

10.8 Profit Margin Analysis 310

10.9 Summary 311

What You Should Have Learned 311

References 312

Short Answer Questions 312

Problems 312

Section III: Synthesis and Optimization of Chemical Processes 327

Chapter 11: Utilizing Experience-Based Principles to Confirm the Suitability of a Process Design 331

What You Will Learn 331

11.1 The Role of Experience in the Design Process 332

11.2 Presentation of Tables of Technical Heuristics and Guidelines 335

11.3 Summary 338

What You Should Have Learned 356

References 356

Problems 356

Chapter 12: Synthesis of the PFD from the Generic BFD 357

What You Will Learn 357

12.1 Information Needs and Sources 358

12.2 Reactor Section 360

12.3 Separator Section 362

12.4 Reactor Feed Preparation and Separator Feed Preparation Sections 377

12.5 Recycle Section 378

12.6 Environmental Control Section 378

12.7 Major Process Control Loops 379

12.8 Flow Summary Table 379

12.9 Major Equipment Summary Table 380

12.10 Summary 380

What You Should Have Learned 380

References 381

Problems 382

Chapter 13: Synthesis of a Process Using a Simulator and Simulator Troubleshooting 385

What You Will Learn 385

13.1 The Structure of a Process Simulator 386

13.2 Information Required to Complete a Process Simulation: Input Data 389

13.3 Handling Recycle Streams 401

13.4 Choosing Thermodynamic Models 403

13.5 Case Study: Toluene Hydrodealkylation Process 414

13.6 Electrolyte Systems Modeling 416

13.7 Solids Modeling 429

What You Should Have Learned 434

Appendix 13.1 Calculation of Excess Gibbs Energy for Electrolyte Systems 434

Appendix 13.2 Steps to Build a Model of a Distillation Column for an Electrolyte System Using a Rate-Based Simulation with a Film Model for Mass Transfer, the Parameters Required at Each Stage, and Possible Sources of These Parameters 437

13.8 Summary 440

References 441

Short Answer Questions 444

Problems 444

Chapter 14: Process Optimization 451

What You Will Learn 451

14.1 Background Information on Optimization 451

14.2 Strategies 457

14.3 Topological Optimization 461

14.4 Parametric Optimization 467

14.5 Lattice Search Techniques versus Response Surface Techniques 478

14.6 Process Flexibility and the Sensitivity of the Optimum 479

14.7 Optimization in Batch Systems 479

14.8 Summary 487

What You Should Have Learned 487

References 487

Short Answer Questions 488

Problems 488

Chapter 15: Pinch Technology 499

What You Will Learn 499

15.1 Introduction 499

15.2 Heat Integration and Network Design 500

15.3 Composite Temperature-Enthalpy Diagram 514

15.4 Composite Enthalpy Curves for Systems without a Pinch 516

15.5 Using the Composite Enthalpy Curve to Estimate Heat-Exchanger Surface Area 517

15.6 Effectiveness Factor (F) and the Number of Shells 521

15.7 Combining Costs to give the EAOC for the Network 526

15.8 Other Considerations 527

15.9 Heat-Exchanger Network Synthesis Analysis and Design (HENSAD) Program 532

15.10 Mass-Exchange Networks 532

15.11 Summary 541

What You Should Have Learned 542

References 542

Short Answer Questions 543

Problems 543

Chapter 16: Advanced Topics Using Steady-State Simulators 551

What You Will Learn 551

16.1 Why the Need for Advanced Topics in Steady-State Simulation? 552

16.2 User-Added Models 552

16.3 Solution Strategy for Steady-State Simulations 562

16.4 Studies with the Steady-State Simulation 581

16.5 Estimation of Physical Property Parameters 586

16.6 Summary 589

What You Should Have Learned 590

References 590

Short Answer Questions 591

Problems 592

Chapter 17: Using Dynamic Simulators in Process Design 601

What You Will Learn 601

17.1 Why Is There a Need for Dynamic Simulation? 602

17.2 Setting Up a Dynamic Simulation 603

17.3 Dynamic Simulation Solution Methods 618

17.4 Process Control 624

17.5 Summary 632

What You Should Have Learned 632

References 633

Short Answer Questions 633

Problems 634

Chapter 18: Regulation and Control of Chemical Processes with Applications Using Commercial Software 641

What You Will Learn 641

18.1 A Simple Regulation Problem 642

18.2 The Characteristics of Regulating Valves 643

18.3 Regulating Flowrates and Pressures 646

18.4 The Measurement of Process Variables 649

18.5 Common Control Strategies Used in Chemical Processes 649

18.6 Exchanging Heat and Work between Process and Utility Streams 660

18.7 Logic Control 666

18.8 Advanced Process Control 669

18.9 Case Studies 670

18.10 Putting It All Together: The Operator Training Simulator (OTS) 676

18.11 Summary 677

What You Should Have Learned 677

References 678

Problems 678

Section IV: Analysis Of Process Performance 683

Chapter 19: Process Input/Output Models 685

What You Will Learn 685

19.1 Representation of Process Inputs and Outputs 686

19.2 Analysis of the Effect of Process Inputs on Process Outputs 689

19.3 A Process Example 690

19.4 Summary 691

What You Should Have Learned 692

Problems 692

Chapter 20: Tools for Evaluating Process Performance 693

What You Will Learn 693

20.1 Key Relationships 693

20.2 Thinking with Equations 694

20.3 Base-Case Ratios 696

20.4 Analysis of Systems Using Controlling Resistances 698

20.5 Graphical Representations 700

20.6 Summary 704

What You Should Have Learned 705

References 705

Problems 705

Chapter 21: Performance Curves for Individual Unit Operations 707

What You Will Learn 707

21.1 Application to Heat Transfer 709

21.2 Application to Fluid Flow 714

21.3 Application to Separation Problems 728

21.4 Summary 740

What You Should Have Learned 741

References 741

Short Answer Questions 741

Problems 743

Chapter 22: Performance of Multiple Unit Operations 749

What You Will Learn 749

22.1 Analysis of a Reactor with Heat Transfer 749

22.2 Performance of a Distillation Column 754

22.3 Performance of a Heating Loop 759

22.4 Performance of the Feed Section to a Process 765

22.5 Summary 768

What You Should Have Learned 769

References 769

Short Answer Questions 769

Problems 769

Chapter 23: Reactor Performance 785

What You Will Learn 785

23.1 Production of Desired Product 786

23.2 Reaction Kinetics and Thermodynamics 788

23.3 The Chemical Reactor 791

23.4 Heat Transfer in the Chemical Reactor 796

23.5 Reactor System Case Studies 799

23.6 Summary 812

What You Should Have Learned 813

References 813

Short Answer Questions 813

Problems 814

Chapter 24: Process Troubleshooting and Debottlenecking 819

What You Will Learn 819

24.1 Recommended Methodology 821

24.2 Troubleshooting Individual Units 825

24.3 Troubleshooting Multiple Units 831

24.4 A Process Troubleshooting Problem 836

24.5 Debottlenecking Problems 840

24.6 Summary 841

What You Should Have Learned 841

References 841

Problems 841

Section V: The Impact of Chemical Engineering Design on Society 853

Chapter 25: Ethics and Professionalism 855

What You Will Learn 855

25.1 Ethics 856

25.2 Professional Registration 874

25.3 Legal Liability 879

25.4 Business Codes of Conduct 880

25.5 Summary 881

What You Should Have Learned 881

References 882

Problems 882

Chapter 26: Health, Safety, and the Environment 885

What You Will Learn 885

26.1 Risk Assessment 886

26.2 Regulations and Agencies 888

26.3 Fires and Explosions 898

26.4 Process Hazard Analysis 900

26.5 Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board 909

26.6 Inherently Safe Design 909

26.7 Summary 910

26.8 Glossary 910

What You Should Have Learned 912

References 912

Problems 913

Chapter 27: Green Engineering 915

What You Will Learn 915

27.1 Environmental Regulations 915

27.2 Environmental Fate of Chemicals 916

27.3 Green Chemistry 919

27.4 Pollution Prevention during Process Design 920

27.5 Analysis of a PFD for Pollution Performance and Environmental Performance 922

27.6 An Example of the Economics of Pollution Prevention 923

27.7 Life Cycle Analysis 924

27.8 Summary 926

What You Should Have Learned 926

References 926

Problems 927

Section VI: Interpersonal And Communication Skills 929

Chapter 28: Teamwork 931

What You Will Learn 931

28.1 Groups 931

28.2 Group Evolution 940

28.3 Teams and Teamwork 943

28.4 Misconceptions 945

28.5 Learning in Teams 946

28.6 Other Reading 947

28.7 Summary 948

What You Should Have Learned 949

References 949

Problems 949

Appendix A: Cost Equations and Curves for the CAPCOST Program 951

A.1 Purchased Equipment Costs 951

A.2 Pressure Factors 969

A.3 Material Factors and Bare Module Factors 973

References 982

Index 983

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Preface

This book represents the culmination of many years of teaching experience in the senior design course at West Virginia University (WVU) and University of Nevada, Reno. Although the program at WVU has evolved over the last thirty years and is still evolving, it is fair to say that the current program has gelled over the last twenty years as a concerted effort by the authors to integrate "design" throughout the undergraduate curriculum in chemical engineering.

We view design as the focal point of chemical engineering practice. Far more than the development of a set of specifications for a new chemical plant, design is the creative activity through which engineers continuously improve the operations of facilities to create products that enhance the quality of life. Whether developing the grass-roots plant, proposing and guiding process modifications, or troubleshooting and implementing operational strategies for existing equipment, engineering design requires a broad spectrum of knowledge and intellectual skills to be able to analyze the big picture and the minute details and, most important, to know when to concentrate on each.

Our vehicle for helping students develop and hone their design skills is process design rather than plant design, covering synthesis of the entire chemical process through topics relating to the preliminary sizing of equipment, flowsheet optimization, economic evaluation of projects, and the operation of chemical processes. The purpose of this text is to assist chemical engineering students in making the transition from solving well-posed problems in a specific subject to integrating all the knowledge that they have gained in their undergraduate educationand applying this information to solving open-ended process problems. Many of the "nuts and bolts" issues regarding plant design (for example, what schedule pipe to use for a given stream or what corrosion allowance to use for a vessel in a certain service) are not covered. Although such issues are clearly important to the practicing engineer, several excellent handbooks and textbooks are available to address such problems, and these are cited in the text where applicable.

In the third edition, we have rearranged some of the material from previous editions, we have added a new chapter on Batch Processing and a section on Optimization of Batch Processes, and have supplied new problems for all of the quantitative chapters. We continue to emphasize the importance of understanding, analyzing, and synthesizing chemical processes and process flow diagrams. To this end, we have expanded Appendix B to include an additional seven preliminary designs of chemical processes. The CAPCOST program for preliminary evaluation of fixed capital investment and profitability analysis has been expanded to include more equipment. Finally, the chapters on outcomes assessment, written and oral communications and a written report case study have been moved to the CD accompanying the text.

The arrangement of chapters into the six sections of the book is similar to that adopted in the Second Edition. These are sections are:
• Section 1-Conceptualization and Analysis of Chemical Processes
• Section 2-Engineering Economic Analysis of Chemical Processes
• Section 3-Synthesis and Optimization of Chemical Processes
• Section 4-Analysis of Process Performance
• Section 5-The Impact of Chemical Engineering Design on Society
• Section 6- Interpersonal and Communication Skills

In Section 1, the student is introduced first to the principal diagrams that are used to describe a chemical process. Next, the evolution and generation of different process configurations are covered. Key concepts used in evaluating batch processes are included in the new Chapter 3, and the chapter on product design has been moved to Chapter 4. Finally, the analysis of existing processes is covered. In Section 2, the information needed to assess the economic feasibility of a process is covered. This includes the estimation of fixed capital investment and manufacturing costs, the concepts of the time value of money and financial calculations, and finally the combination of these costs into profitability measures for the process. Section 3 covers the synthesis of a chemical process. The minimum information required to simulate a process is given, as are the basics of using a process simulator. The choice of the appropriate thermodynamic model to use in a simulation is covered and the choice of separation operations is covered. In addition, process optimization (including an introduction to optimization of batch processes) and heat integration techniques are covered in this section. In Section 4, the analysis of the performance of existing processes and equipment is covered. The material in Section 4 is substantially different from that found in most textbooks. We consider equipment that is already built and operating and analyze how the operation can be changed, how an operating problem may be solved, and how to analyze what has occurred in the process to cause an observed change. In Section 5, the impact of chemical engineering design on society is covered. The role of the professional engineer in society is addressed. Separate chapters addressing ethics and professionalism, health, safety, and the environment, and green engineering are included. Finally, in Section 6, the interpersonal skills required by the engineer to function as part of a team and to communicate both orally and written are covered (on the CD). An entire chapter (on the CD) is devoted to addressing some of the common mistakes that students make in written reports.

Finally, two appendices are included. Appendix A gives a series of cost charts for equipment. This information is embedded in the CAPCOST program for evaluating fixed capital investments and process economics. Appendix B gives the preliminary design information for eleven chemical processes: dimethyl ether, ethylbenzene, styrene, drying oil, maleic anhydride, ethylene oxide, formalin, batch manufacture of amino acids, acrylic acid, acetone, and heptenes production. This information is used in many of the end-of-chapter problems in the book. These processes can also be used as the starting point for more detailed analyses, for example, optimization studies. Other projects are included on the CD accompanying this book. The reader (faculty and students) is also referred to our Web site at http://www.che.cemr.wvu.edu/publications/projects/, where a variety of design projects for sophomore- through senior-level chemical engineering courses is provided. There is also a link to another Web site that contains environmentally related design projects.

For a one-semester design course, we recommend including the following core:
• Section 1-Chapters 1 through 6
• Section 3-Chapters 11, 12, and 13
• Section 5-Chapters 23 and 24

For programs in which engineering economics is not a prerequisite to the design course, Section 2 (Chapters 7-10) should also be included. If students have previously covered engineering economics, Chapters 14 and 15 covering optimization and pinch technology could be substituted.

For the second term of a two-term sequence, we recommend Chapters 16 through 20 (and Chapters 14 and 15 if not included in the first design course) plus design projects. If time permits, we also recommend Chapter 21 (Regulating Process Conditions) and Chapter 22 (Process Troubleshooting) as these tend to solidify as well as extend the concepts of Chapters 16 through 20, that is, what an entry-level process engineer will encounter in the first few years of employment at a chemical process facility. For an environmental emphasis, Chapter 25 could be substituted for Chapters 21 and 22; however, it is recommended that supplementary material be included.

We have found that the most effective way both to enhance and to examine student progress is through oral presentations in addition to the submission of written reports. During these oral presentations, individual students or a student group defend their results to a faculty panel, much like a graduate student defends a thesis or dissertation.

R.T.
R.C.B.
W.B.W.
J.A.S.

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