Analytical Methods for Food and Dairy Powders [NOOK Book]

Overview

Food and dairy powders are created by dehydrating perishable produce, such as milk, eggs, fruit and meat, in order to extend their shelf life and stabilise them for storage or transport. These powders are in high demand for use as ingredients and as food products in their own right, and are of great economic importance to the food and dairy industry worldwide. Today, the ability to control food and dairy powder quality is a source of key competitive advantage. By varying the dehydration process design, and by ...
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Analytical Methods for Food and Dairy Powders

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Overview

Food and dairy powders are created by dehydrating perishable produce, such as milk, eggs, fruit and meat, in order to extend their shelf life and stabilise them for storage or transport. These powders are in high demand for use as ingredients and as food products in their own right, and are of great economic importance to the food and dairy industry worldwide. Today, the ability to control food and dairy powder quality is a source of key competitive advantage. By varying the dehydration process design, and by controlling the technological and thermodynamic parameters during dehydration, it is possible for manufacturers to engineer the biochemical, microbiological and physical characteristics of the food powder to meet their specific product requirements.

This book provides an overview of the existing, adapted or new techniques used to analyse safety and quality in modern food and dairy powders. Based on original research by the authors, the book uses 25 commercial dairy and non-dairy powders to illustrate a range of biochemical and physical methods used to evaluate and characterise powdered food products. Written from a practical perspective, each chapter focuses on a particular analytical technique, outlining the purpose, definition and principle of that method. The authors guide the reader through all of the instruments needed, the safety measures required, and the correct procedures to follow to ensure successful analysis. Instructions on accurate measurement and expression of results are included, and each chapter is richly illustrated with original data and worked examples.

Analytical Methods for Food and Dairy Powders is a unique step-by-step handbook, which will be required reading for anyone involved in the development and manufacture of powdered food products. Food and dairy scientists based in industry will find it essential for new product development and improved quality control, while researchers in the laboratory will especially value the new techniques it comprises.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781118307427
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 2/13/2012
  • Sold by: Barnes & Noble
  • Format: eBook
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 248
  • File size: 3 MB

Meet the Author

Pierre Schuck, Anne Dolivet and Romain Jeantet are all based at INRA (the French National Institute for Agricultural Research), Agrocampus Ouest, Rennes, France. Pierre Schuck is Research Engineer, Anne Dolivet is Research Technician and Romain Jeantet is Professor in Food Science and Process Engineering.
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Table of Contents

Foreword xvii

Chapter 1 Dehydration Processes and their Influence on Powder Properties 1

1.1. Overview of operations 2

1.1.1. Concentration by evaporation 2

1.1.2. Drying 8

1.2. Properties of dehydrated products 20

1.2.1. Biochemical and physicochemical properties 22

1.2.2. Microbiological properties 34

1.2.3. Properties of use 34

1.3. Bibliography 41

Chapter 2 Determination of Dry Matter and Total Dry Matter 45

2.1. Determination of free moisture or dry matter 46

2.1.1. Purpose and range of application 46

2.1.2. Definition 46

2.1.3. Principle 46

2.1.4. Reagents and other products 46

2.1.5. Instruments and glassware 46

2.1.6. Safety 47

2.1.7. Procedure 47

2.1.8. Expression of results 48

2.1.9. Remarks 48

2.1.10. Precision values 49

2.1.11. Examples 49

2.2. Determination of total moisture or total dry matter 50

2.2.1. Purpose and range of application 50

2.2.2. Definition 51

2.2.3. Principle 51

2.2.4. Reagents and other products 51

2.2.5. Instruments and glassware 51

2.2.6. Safety 53

2.2.7. Procedure 53

2.2.8. Expression of results 54

2.2.9. Remarks 55

2.2.10. Precision values 56

2.2.11. Analysis report 57

2.2.12. Examples 57

2.3. Bibliography 57

Chapter 3 Determination of Nitrogen Fractions 59

3.1. Determination of the total nitrogen content (Kjeldahl method) 60

3.1.1. Purpose and range of application 60

3.1.2. Definition 60

3.1.3. Principle 60

3.1.4. Reagents and other products 61

3.1.5. Instruments and glassware 61

3.1.6. Safety 62

3.1.7. Procedure 62

3.1.8. Expression of results 65

3.1.9. Precision values 66

3.1.10. Examples 66

3.1.11. Annex 67

3.2. Determination of the nitrogen content soluble at pH 4.60 69

3.2.1. Purpose and range of application 69

3.2.2. Definition 69

3.2.3. Principle 69

3.2.4. Reagents and other products 69

3.2.5. Instruments and glassware 70

3.2.6. Safety 70

3.2.7. Procedure 70

3.2.8. Expression of results 72

3.2.9. Precision values 73

3.2.10. Examples 73

3.2.11. Annex 73

3.3. Determination of the non-protein nitrogen content 76

3.3.1. Purpose and range of application 76

3.3.2. Definition 76

3.3.3. Principle 76

3.3.4. Reagents and other products 76

3.3.5. Instruments and glassware 77

3.3.6. Safety 77

3.3.7. Procedure 77

3.3.8. Expression of results 78

3.3.9. Precision values 79

3.3.10. Examples 80

3.3.11. Annex 80

3.4. Determination of non-denatured whey protein nitrogen in skimmed milk powder 82

3.4.1. Purpose and range of application 82

3.4.2. Definition 82

3.4.3. Principle 82

3.4.4. Expression of results 83

3.4.5. Remarks 83

3.4.6. Examples 84

3.5. Protein nitrogen conversion factors based on amino acid composition in the case of milk and soy 85

3.5.1. Methods for the determination of the conversion factor 85

3.5.2. Conversion factors for milk, specific milk proteins, certain milk products and infant formulas 86

3.5.3. Conversion factors for soy and its derivatives 88

3.5.4. Conclusion 90

3.6. Bibliography 90

Chapter 4 Determination of the Rate of Lactose Crystallisation 93

4.1. Definitions 94

4.2. Principle 95

4.2.1. Determination of the moisture content 95

4.2.2. Determination of the total moisture content 95

4.3. Expression of results 95

4.4. Remarks 95

4.5. Examples 96

4.6. Bibliography 96

Chapter 5 Determination of Total Fat and Free Fat Content 99

5.1. Determination of total fat content 100

5.1.1. Purpose and range of application 100

5.1.2. Definition 101

5.1.3. Principle 101

5.1.4. Reagents and other products 101

5.1.5. Instruments and glassware 101

5.1.6. Safety 102

5.1.7. Procedure 102

5.1.8. Expression of results 105

5.1.9. Remarks 106

5.1.10. Precision values 106

5.1.11. Examples 106

5.2. Determination of free fat content 107

5.2.1. Purpose and range of application 107

5.2.2. Definition 107

5.2.3. Principle 107

5.2.4. Reagents and other products 107

5.2.5. Instruments and glassware 107

5.2.6. Safety 108

5.2.7. Procedure 108

5.2.8. Expression of results 109

5.2.9. Remarks 109

5.2.10. Precision values 110

5.2.11. Analysis report 110

5.2.12. Examples 110

5.3. Bibliography 111

Chapter 6 Determination of the Ash Content 113

6.1. Definitions 114

6.2. Principle 114

6.3. Instruments and glassware 114

6.4. Personal protection 114

6.5. Procedure 114

6.5.1. Preparation of the sample 114

6.5.2. Preparation of the crucible 115

6.5.3. Sample 115

6.5.4. Measurement 115

6.6. Expression of results 116

6.7. Precision values 116

6.7.1. Repeatability 116

6.8. Examples 116

6.9. Bibliography 118

Chapter 7 Determination of Particle Size and Friability 119

7.1. Definition 119

7.2. Principle 119

7.3. Methods 120

7.3.1. Sieve particle size analysis 120

7.3.2. Laser particle size analysis 120

7.4. Reagents and other products 120

7.5. Instruments and glassware 120

7.5.1. Sieve particle size analysis 120

7.5.2. Laser particle size analysis 121

7.6. Personal protection 121

7.7. Procedure 121

7.7.1. Sieve particle size analysis 121

7.7.2. Laser particle size analysis 121

7.8. Expression of results 121

7.8.1. Sieve particle size analysis 121

7.8.2. Laser particle size analysis 122

7.8.3. Friability 123

7.9. Remarks 123

7.9.1. Particle size analysis 123

7.9.2. Sieve particle size analysis 124

7.9.3. Mesh size less than 120 mm 124

7.10. Precision values 124

7.10.1. Repeatability 124

7.11. Examples 125

7.12. Bibliography 127

Chapter 8 Determination of Flowability and Floodability Indices 129

8.1. Definition 129

8.1.1. Flowability–fluidity 129

8.1.2. Floodability 130

8.2. Principle 130

8.2.1. Flowability–fluidity 130

8.2.2. Floodability 130

8.3. Reagents and other products 130

8.4. Instruments and glassware 130

8.4.1. The main unit 131

8.4.2. Accessories 131

8.5. Procedure 132

8.5.1. Flowability–fluidity 132

8.5.2. Floodability 136

8.6. Expression of results 137

8.6.1. Flowability–fluidity 137

8.6.2. Floodability 137

8.7. Remarks 137

8.8. Precision values 140

8.8.1. Repeatability 140

8.9. Examples 140

8.10. Bibliography 143

Chapter 9 Determination of Density, Interstitial Air Content and Occluded Air Content 145

9.1. Definition 146

9.2. Principle 146

9.3. Methods 146

9.3.1. Bulk density, rB and tapped density, rT 146

9.3.2. True density, rTR 147

9.4. Equipment and glassware 147

9.4.1. Bulk density, rB and tapped density, rT 147

9.4.2. True density, rTR 147

9.5. Safety 147

9.5.1. Personal protection 147

9.6. Procedure 147

9.6.1. Bulk density, rB and tapped density, rT 147

9.6.2. True density, rTR 148

9.7. Expression of results 148

9.7.1. Bulk density (rB) 148

9.7.2. Tapped density (rT) 149

9.7.3. True density (rTR) 149

9.7.4. Interstitial air (IA) 149

9.7.5. Occluded air (OA) 149

9.8. Remarks 149

9.8.1. True density 149

9.8.2. True volume 150

9.9. Precision values 151

9.9.1. Repeatability 151

9.10. Examples 151

9.11. Bibliography 154

Chapter 10 Determination of Colour and Appearance 155

10.1. Determination of colour 155

10.1.1. Definitions 155

10.1.2. Principle 157

10.1.3. Instruments and glassware 158

10.1.4. Procedure 158

10.1.5. Expression of results 158

10.1.6. Precision values 160

10.1.7. Examples 160

10.2. Determination of the presence of scorched particles 161

10.2.1. Definition 161

10.2.2. Principle 162

10.2.3. Instruments and glassware 162

10.2.4. Reagent 162

10.2.5. Procedure 162

10.2.6. Expression of results 163

10.2.7. Precision values 164

10.2.8. Remarks 164

10.2.9. Examples 164

10.3. Bibliography 164

Chapter 11 Determination of the Sorption Isotherm, Water Activity and Hygroscopicity of Powders 167

11.1. Determination of water activity 168

11.1.1. Definition 168

11.1.2. Principle 169

11.1.3. Method 169

11.1.4. Instruments and glassware 170

11.1.5. Personal protection 170

11.1.6. Procedure 170

11.1.7. Expression of results 170

11.1.8. Remarks 171

11.1.9. Precision values 171

11.1.10. Examples 171

11.2. Determination of the sorption isotherm 173

11.2.1. Definition 173

11.2.2. Principle 173

11.2.3. Methods 173

11.2.4. Reagents and other products 175

11.2.5. Equipment and glassware 175

11.2.6. Personal protection 175

11.2.7. Procedure 175

11.2.8. Expression of results 176

11.2.9. Remarks 177

11.2.10. Precision values 178

11.2.11. Examples 178

11.3. Determination of hygroscopicity 184

11.3.1. Definition 184

11.3.2. Principle 184

11.3.3. Reagents and other products 184

11.3.4. Equipment and glassware 184

11.3.5. Personal protection 184

11.3.6. Procedure 184

11.3.7. Expression of results 185

11.3.8. Remarks 186

11.3.9. Precision values 187

11.3.10. Examples 187

11.4. Bibliography 189

Chapter 12 Determination of Glass Transition Temperature Range 191

12.1. Definition 191

12.2. Principle 192

12.3. Methods 192

12.3.1. Differential scanning calorimetry 192

12.3.2. Rheological method 193

12.4. Instruments and glassware 193

12.4.1. Differential calorimetry 193

12.4.2. Rheological method 194

12.5. Personal protection 194

12.6. Procedure 194

12.6.1. Differential calorimetry 194

12.6.2. Rheological method 195

12.7. Expression of results 195

12.7.1. Differential calorimetry 195

12.7.2. Rheological method 196

12.8. Remarks 196

12.8.1. Adapt methods depending on powders being analysed 196

12.8.2. Conventional or modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry 197

12.8.3. Tg values determined by differential scanning calorimetry and rheological analysis 197

12.9. Precision values 198

12.9.1. Repeatability 198

12.10. Examples 198

12.11. Bibliography 201

Chapter 13 Determination of Rehydration Ability 203

13.1. Determination of wettability 204

13.1.1. Definition 204

13.1.2. Principle 204

13.1.3. Instruments and glassware 204

13.1.4. Procedure 204

13.1.5. Expression of results 205

13.1.6. Remarks 205

13.1.7. Precision values 205

13.1.8. Examples 206

13.2. Determination of dispersibility 207

13.2.1. Definition 207

13.2.2. Principle 207

13.2.3. Instruments and glassware 207

13.2.4. Procedure 207

13.2.5. Expression of results 208

13.2.6. Remarks 208

13.2.7. Precision values 209

13.2.8. Examples 209

13.3. Determination of solubility 209

13.3.1. Definition 209

13.3.2. Principle 210

13.3.3. Reagents and other products 210

13.3.4. Instruments and glassware 211

13.3.5. Procedure 211

13.3.6. Expression of results 212

13.3.7. Remarks 212

13.3.8. Precision values 213

13.3.9. Examples 213

13.4. Bibliography 215

Chapter 14 Summary and General Conclusion 217

Index 227

A colour plate section falls between pages 156 and 157

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