Analyzing Friction in the Design of Rubber Products and Their Paired Surfaces: Designing Rubber Products and Their Paired Surfaces

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Overview

Taking a mechanistic approach that emphasizes the physical behavior of rubber as it slides, Analyzing Friction in the Design of Rubber Products and Their Paired Surfaces integrates the engineering and scientific evidence demonstrating that the laws of metallic friction do not apply to rubber. The book also presents a newly developed, scientifically based unified theory of rubber friction that incorporates a fourth basic rubber friction force: surface deformation hysteresis.

With applications that phenomenologically treat both static and dynamic rubber friction, the book offers practical guidance for implementing the unified theory in the analysis and design processes. The use of this theory enables comprehensive calculations of rubber friction, thereby offering opportunities to enhance public safety. While the theory applies to all elastomeric products where friction is an issue, the author primarily focuses on:

• Analyzing friction in the design of rubber tires and their contacted pavements

• The geometric design of roadways

• Motor vehicle accident reconstruction

• Analyzing slip resistance in the design of footwear and their contacted walking surfaces

Supported by extensive analytical evidence, this book details what rubber friction is and why it behaves the way it does.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780849381362
  • Publisher: CRC Press
  • Publication date: 3/18/2008
  • Pages: 424
  • Product dimensions: 6.10 (w) x 9.30 (h) x 1.10 (d)

Table of Contents

Preface
Introduction
Historical Background
Purposes of the Book
The Unified Theory of Rubber Friction
Surface Deformation Hysteresis in Rubber
Differences between Metallic and Rubber Friction Mechanisms
Consequences Stemming from Use of the Traditional Metallic Friction Approach to Rubber Friction Analysis
Approach to the Subject
Organization of the Book
Metallic Coefficient of Friction
Introduction
Smooth Metal Friction
Adhesion Theory of Smooth Metal Friction
Origin of the Friction Force between Smooth Metals
Rough Metal Friction
Laws of Metallic Friction
Rubber Friction Mechanisms
Introduction
Rubber Friction Coefficient Decreases with Increasing Load
Adhesion as a Rubber Friction Mechanism
Linking Rubber Friction to the Real Area of Contact
Hertz Equation
Bulk Deformation Hysteresis in Rubber
Concurrently Acting Rubber Friction Mechanisms
Van der Waals’ Adhesion and Surface Deformation Hysteresis in Rubber
Adhesion, Bulk Deformation Hysteresis, and Wear in Sliding Rubber
Expressions for Bulk Deformation Hysteresis in Rubber
Modified Hertz Equation
Schallamach Waves
Elastomeric Friction
Microhysteretic Contributions to Wet Rubber Friction
Metallic Coefficient-of-Friction Equation Does Not Apply to Rubber
Introduction
Coefficient of Rubber Friction on Dry, Smooth Surfaces
Coefficient of Rubber Friction on Dry, Textured Surfaces
Coefficient of Rubber Friction on Wet, Smooth Surfaces
Coefficient of Rubber Friction on Wet, Textured Surfaces
Constant (Metallic) Coefficient-of-Friction Equation Not Applicable to Rubber
A Unified Theory of Rubber Friction
Introduction
Rubber Microhysteresis Development on Macroscopically Smooth Surfaces
Rubber Microhysteresis Development on Macroscopically Rough Surfaces
Characteristics of the Rubber Microhysteresis Mechanism
No-Load Adhesion Hypothesis
Rubber Surface Deformation Hysteresis Testing
A Unified Theory of Rubber Friction
The Rubber Adhesion-Transition Phenomenon
Introduction
Further Aspects of the Rubber Adhesive Friction Mechanism
Adhesive Friction of Metal and Nonelastomeric Plastics in the Elastic Loading Range
Determinants Controlling the Value of PNt
Controlling Adhesion-Transition Pressure to Optimize Friction Development
“Low” μA Values in the Low Loading Range
Microhysteretic Friction in Dry Rubber Products
Introduction
Microhysteresis in Automotive Tire Rubber in Dry Conditions
Microhysteresis in Dry Aircraft Tires
Rubber Microhysteresis in Dry Footwear Materials
Microhysteresis in Dry Rubber Belting
Rubber Adhesion-Transition Pressure Phenomenon on Macroscopically Rough Surfaces
Microhysteresis in Wet Rubber Products
Introduction
Effects of Wet Lubricants on the Rubber Adhesion Mechanism
Microhysteresis in Automotive Tire Rubber under Wet Conditions
Microhysteresis in Wet Aircraft Tires
Rubber Microhysteresis in Wet Footwear Outsoles
Ramifications of the Presence of Microhysteresis in Wet Rubber Products
Rubber Adhesion-Transition Phenomenon on Wet Surfaces
Rubber Microhysteresis in Static Friction Testing
Introduction
Does Static Friction in Rubber Exist?
Two Portable Static Friction Testing Devices
Definition of Static Friction
Rubber Microhysteresis in Static Friction Testing
Independence of the Rubber Microhysteresis Force in Static Friction Testing
Adhesion and Rubber Microhysteresis in VIT Testing
Bias in Portable Walking-Surface Slip-Resistance Testers
Introduction
Remediable Inertial Bias in Portable Walking-Surface Slip-Resistance Testers
Irremediable Inertial Bias in Portable Walking-Surface Slip-Resistance Testers
Remediable Residence-Time Bias in Static Friction Testing
Irremediable Adhesion-Transition Bias in Portable Walking-Surface Slip-Resistance Testers
Contact-Time Bias for Tribometer Comparability
Nonscientific Application of the Laws of Metallic Friction to Rubber Tires Operated on Pavements
Introduction
Comparing the Characteristics of Rubber Friction to Metallic Friction
Effects of the Development of Microhysteretic Forces on Tire Friction Analysis
Comparability of Rubber Friction Testing Data
Inadvertent Misapplication of the Laws of Metallic Friction to Rubber Tires in ASTM Test Standards
Inadvertent Misapplication of the Laws of Metallic Friction to Rubber Tires in Motor Vehicle Accident Reconstruction
Inadvertent Misapplication of the Laws of Metallic Friction to Rubber Tires in the Geometric Design of Roadways
Friction Analysis in the Design of Rubber Tires and Their Contacted Pavements
Introduction
Importance of Tire Microhysteresis on Wet Pavements
Reformulation of the Traditional Friction Force vs. Tire Slip Relationship
Measuring Tire Microhysteresis on Wet Pavements in the Design Process
Application of the Unified Theory to Analysis of Friction in the Design of Tire-Pavement Systems
Nonscientific Application of the Laws of Metallic Friction to Footwear Outsole Walking-Surface Pairings
Introduction
Comparing the Characteristics of Rubber Friction to Metallic Friction
Effects of the Development of Microhysteretic Slip-Resistance Forces on Rubber Friction Analysis
Comparability of Slip-Resistance Testing Data
Inadvertent Misapplication of the Laws of Metallic Friction in ASTM Slip-Resistance Testing Methods
Inadvertent Misapplication of the Laws of Metallic Friction by Slip-Resistance Testing Devices That Are Not the Subject of Active ASTM Standards
Irremediable Inertial and Residence-Time Bias in Slip-Resistance Testing Devices That Are Not the Subject of ASTM Standards
Slip-Resistance Analysis in the Design of Footwear Outsoles and Their Paired Walking Surfaces
Introduction
Importance of Footwear Outsole Microhysteresis in Wet Conditions
Reformulating the Traditional Approach to Walking-Surface Slip-Resistance Testing
Measuring Footwear Outsole Microhysteresis on Wet Walking Surfaces in the Design Process
Application of the Unified Theory to Analysis of Slip-Resistance in the Design of Footwear Outsole Walking-Surface Pairings
Index
A Chapter Review and References appear at the end of each chapter.

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