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SCIENCE AND ART are indeed sisters, but they are very different in their tastes, and it is no easy task to cultivate with advantage the favour of both. Artistic Anatomy is in its nature a scientific pursuit, dealing partly in explicit observation of details of form, partly in the explanation of the causes producing them; while the details themselves are among those with which the followers of Art require to be familiar; and are sometimes of little apparent scientific importance save from an artistic point of view. In these circumstances it is little to be wondered at that this department of knowledge has not been more fully explored.
Properly conceived of, Artistic Anatomy undertakes the systematic study of the particulars of superficial form, the accurate description of them one by one, and the investigation of the structural and functional causes on which they depend.
Among the phenomena to be considered, the proportions of the great divisions of the body one to another claim an important place, and have justly received attention from remote times. Rules have been laid down by which an ideal standard has been sought to be fixed, the deviations produced by age and sex being taken into account; and while such standards are more or less artificial, and not to be too slavishly followed to the extent of an unnatural uniformity, they certainly are invaluable as expressing a mean which cannot be deviated from to more than a limited extent without transgressing the laws of nature and producing deformity.
Each part of the body has also its particular proportions, and the study of proportions passes gradually into that of details of shape. All these details are capable of being taken one by one and systematically described. But this cannot be done either accurately or instructively without reference to the subjacent structures on which they depend, and the actions governing the conditions of such structures.
Subcutaneous prominences of bone afford so many constant points in the surface of the figure, while the softer subcutaneous tissues sometimes occur in masses of such firmness as to be but little affected by change of attitude, and in other instances are flaccid, pendulous, wrinkled or stretched. But the muscles and their tendons produce the greatest variations of local form in different persons and in different attitudes; muscular substance swelling when in action, while tendons are incapable alike of swelling and of altering their total length, but may stand out when they are tightened over the concavity formed by the bending of a joint. Also lines of attachment to subcutaneous bone, themselves incapable of change of form, may in different circumstances be prominent or sunk according to the degree of swelling of the muscles around. Besides all this it must be noted that muscular contractions cause, especially in the face, lines, elevations, and depressions, not corresponding to the shapes of the muscles, but produced by the displacement of skin and subcutaneous fat, as illustrated by the elevation of the cheek and lower eyelid in laughter, and by the formation at the same time of the lines called crows' toes, and it does seem possible that a more careful analysis than has been attempted of the lines and displacements occurring in different expressions might yield better results than are to be obtained from such works as those of Le Brun, Sir Charles Bell, Piderit and Darwin, however valuable these may be. It may also be mentioned that considerations in connection with balance, respiration, mental capacity and race fall within the scope of Artistic Anatomy.
If these views are allowed to be correct, it will be admitted that the field of Artistic Anatomy has never been covered; and if this task be ever undertaken it must be for its own sake, aiming at independent completeness, and not at mere assistance to Artists. Much will thus be brought to light, in all probability now unsuspected, and Art and Philosophy will both be gainers.
While, however, Art is one thing and Artistic Anatomy quite another, and while it is to be acknowledged that beautiful representations may be achieved without any anatomical knowledge, this only shows how much can be done by practised observation led on by intuitive appreciation which, often unconsciously, guides the mind to the accomplishment of its aims. But such success is neither easy nor to be depended on, and the general average thus obtainable cannot be expected to be so good as would be obtained if observation were assisted by acquaintance with the meaning of the shapes observed. The greatest masters, including notably Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael, have found that to give intelligence to their efforts at representation, and enable them to understand the indispensable relations of parts it was necessary to call in the aid of dissection. For the eye, though often, even when well trained, at fault, especially when invention is brought into play, is yet subtle to detect instinctively the unsatisfactoriness of error.
It seems sometimes to be supposed that Artistic Anatomy is merely Anatomy made easy for Artists by omitting explicit details and all mention of internal organs,—superficial Anatomy in both senses of the word. But what is superficial in the sense of being slovenly is of little use to any one. The Professional Anatomist addressing his discourse to Artists, and desiring to give them the information for which they crave, cannot help seeing at once that there is much internal structure which can have no possible bearing on Art, but he will fail altogether in his purpose if he does not note that the artist seeks for direction with regard to details which are often of small interest to the surgeon, and have received little attention from Anatomists.
Two of the sets of considerations most important to the Artist will easily be seen to be, one, the part played by the skeleton in determining the external form, and another, the precise extent and attachments of superficial muscles, together with the disposition of muscular fibre and tendon in individual muscles. It is principally to these two considerations that Mr. Dunlop directs attention in the following pages, appealing to the eye, instead of depending on description; and it appears to me that the method which he has selected, and the manner in which he has carried it out, provide for the Art Student a singularly compendious and desirable book, easily consulted, and occupying ground which has not hitherto been taken up. It is not the whole subject of Artistic Anatomy, but only one department of it which is here dealt with. The facts taught are brought out with diagrammatic simplicity and precision which cannot fail to bring them clearly and prominently before the student, thus giving him immense assistance. I have pleasure therefore in anticipating for this useful work a great success.
Excerpted from Anatomical Diagrams for Art Students by JAMES M. DUNLOP. Copyright © 2014 Dover Publications, Inc.. Excerpted by permission of Dover Publications, Inc..
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Posted July 21, 2013
Hahaha man lots of J names whats up with that?. Lol thats like rat.chet. lol anyways wanna hear a story okayy. This is my story there was pig named bacon and a hippo named frank. Jk im not telling u a story this is supposed to be my bio so im gonna tell u about myself unless ur bored well anywho heres some popcorn now listen. Name~ Jillian Mikaila Grace Red. Nicknames. Ready i have a ton ok here they are~Jill Jillybean Lia Kai Kaila Miki Gracey Red Breezy. Age~ I am 14 almost 15 haha im gonna be 15 on august 24. Descrip~ Where do i start?. Mhmm ahh yes i have beautiful long brown hair long dark eyelashes soft baby lips freckles dimples and percing green eyes with flecks of gold and dimples. I have an nose percing and a marilyn monroe piercing. Im 4'9". Ask my weight and u shall die lol jk im 78 pounds. Likes~ Youtube. Tacos. Boys. Pitch perfect. Dancing. Candy. Many more. Dislikes~ Ur face just kdding i hate people who are mean. smokers. Justin bieber. Hot sauce and alot more. Theme song~ Alive by krewella. Thats my bio i hope i didnt scare ya too much. (:Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.
Posted July 20, 2013
Okay im female 5'7" i play guitar n piano, love to draw, go shooting nd write music. Im more of tom boy..um i live in san diego california when i grow up i wanna go into photo graphy or be a personal trainer.. im really active i play soccer basketball tennis judo swimming track gymnastics nd volleyball. Uhh i guess dats it! :)Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.
Posted July 20, 2013
Badazz we all start with letter J ..loljk...im a male height of 5"9 wieght 145 .im amarican/hispanic.(i live in california .losangeles)im really atletic i have a well shaped sixpack.im very muscular i play n have played football.baseball soccer basketball softball flagfootball l.acrosse i love running field n track .im light skined i have piercings(snakebites) ..i love drawing i love doing graffitti on paper of course..lmao im intersted in any lawenforment..when i grow up i would love to be a POLICE OFFICER or join armedforces..i love wearing snap backs n mucle shirts n cargos..im not a swaggfa.g even ttho haters tell me im..i love drinking starbucks..my favorite drink is callypso ...oh im funny or i try to make peoples days..im caring n loving n sweet i think n im down for my shyt.....yeea sorry for not being proffesional...im but u was lazy pretty much yea daz it..Was this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.
Posted July 19, 2013
Im 14. Girl. I go by Jo. I like to run long distance play basketball and listening to music. I dont like lyers and people who like to cause drama. I have long brown hai thats naturally straight. I have light blue eyes a good complextion and (i dont like to brag, but since i work out) a 6 pack. Loves to read and lives in oklahoma. Anything else ask mezzWas this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.
Posted July 19, 2013
GENDER: Male -- RACE: White -- AGE: 19 -- HEIGHT: 6'9" -- WEIGHT: 143 lbs -- EYES: Green -- HAIR: Dirty Blonde -- PERSONALITY: Funny, smart, caring, daring -- TALENTS: Plays the guitar, is a good artist -- CASUAL CLOTHES: Black basketball shoes, blue jeans, usually a shirt with a band logo on it, a leather aviator's jacket, black dogtag necklace with silver cross design, gold ring on his right ring finger, black baseball cap -- FORMAL CLOTHES: Black dress shoes, black dress pants, burgundy longsleeve shirt, black vest, black blazer jacket -- LUCKY CHARM: An inicialed Geddy Lee guitar pick that he got at a Rush concert -- MISC INFO: Deep voice, Muscular, well tannedWas this review helpful? Yes NoThank you for your feedback. Report this reviewThank you, this review has been flagged.
Posted July 19, 2013
Se.x; haven't had it yet.lolz jk female(:
Race': part phillipino(asian) and part black
Looks: tall. Curved. Very light brown skinned.big brown eyes.very long curly blackish black hair. Very pretty smile
Sports: Well I do martial arts jujitsu
Hobby: drawing manga.(imma manga artest) .reading.dancing.writing.goofing with friends.shopping n yea.
Personality: Veeery funny.smart-ish.cool.cute.artistic
Likes; I love NARUTO!!! And cotton candy and home made pizza:)