Anatomy and Physiology: From Science to Life / Edition 2

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The second edition is designed to help allied health professionals keep their focus, make connections, and improve their overall understanding of the anatomy and physiology they need to succeed in the field. Each chapter is written and developed into manageable modules of content that place a conceptual order on the facts and terminology. Relevant clinical stories draw readers in, keep them connected to the content and provide the platform for developing critical thinking skills. The focused narrative is accompanied by outstanding illustrations that help allied health professionals learn key concepts.

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Editorial Reviews

Doody's Review Service
Reviewer: Steven K. Hamick, BIS, RCP, RRT (William Beaumont Hospitals)
Description: This is not the typical anatomy and physiology book that emphasizes rote memorization. This unique book uses a variety of special features to make studying anatomy and physiology a more rewarding experience.
Purpose: Anatomy and physiology is the foundation for all health-related careers. This second edition fully explains the subject, yet focuses on critical thinking, conceptual understanding, and application of newly learned material.
Audience: Although intended for students beginning a health-related vocation, it is well written and easy to understand so anyone with a curiosity for anatomy would find it both interesting and informative. The authors are unquestionably experts in their fields of expertise.
Features: This revised edition is divided into three units. Unit 1 is an introduction to the human body, including chemical, cellular, and tissue level of organization. Unit 2 consists of 21 chapters on the various body systems, followed by unit 3 with three appendixes, a glossary, credits, and index. Uniquely, each chapter starts with a clinical case followed by an introduction to the chapter and one line summary concepts for each subsection in the chapter. Each subsection contains a Checkpoint for review and the text is peppered with bolded terminology and pronunciations, tables, and beautiful, four-color illustrations and photographs. Each chapter ends with the clinical case epilogue and discussion, concept and resource summary, other chapter resources, and a list of questions called Understanding the Concepts. The appendixes include measurements, periodic table, and answers to Checkpoint questions. Extras include the student companion web site, which consists of Visual Anatomy, chapter quizzes, negative feedback loop exercises, and other learning reinforcement tools.
Assessment: This well done book is highly recommended for any students requiring anatomy and physiology. The text is easy to read and the illustrations reinforcing learning concepts are superb. As science continues to advance, it is hoped the authors keep pace by producing future revisions.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470227589
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 1/14/2009
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 1040
  • Product dimensions: 9.50 (w) x 11.10 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Gail W. Jenkins is a popular Professor of Biology at Montgomery College in Maryland, where she teaches human anatomy and physiology as well as general biology and microbiology. She received her bachelor's degree in botany from the University of California in Davis, with a minor in medical technology and completed a graduate biological sciences instructor credential program. Her master's degree in biological sciences was from California State University in Sacramento, where she focused on anatomy with research in neuroembryology conducted at the University of Kentucky College of Medicine in Lexington.

Gail is passionately devoted to assisting students in the learning process and in their preparation for health science vocations. She was the recipient of the Montgomery College Outstanding Faculty Award in 1999 and the 1997 National Institute for Staff and Organizational Development Excellence Award for Outstanding Contribution to Teaching and Learning from the University of Texas. At Montgomery College, Gail is Course Coordinator of the human anatomy and physiology curriculum, course curriculum liaison to college Health Science programs, and has served as the Chair of the Department of Biology, Physical Education and the Health Science; Chair of the Faculty Council (the faculty governance organization); Phi Theta Kappa Advisor, mentor for adjunct science faculty through the college Center for Teaching and Learning, and co-developed the Physical Therapist Assistant Program and Associate of Science Degree in Science with concentrations in the Life Sciences, Physics, and Mathematics.

Gail is Treasure and member of the Executive Committee of the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS) and has been an active participant in annual and regional conference planning. Gail founded and directed a program at Stanford University's Department of Anatomy to integrate human cadaveric materials and medical imaging into pre-health science curricula, co-founded the Northern California Society of Anatomists, developed a hospital laboratory work/learn internship program for health science students, was a Federal Liaison Officer in Washington D.C. working with Congress for higher education funding, and served as an educational consultant to Stanford University's Advanced Media Research Group and to several publishing and software companies.

Christopher P. Kemnitzis an Associate Professor at the University of Wisconsin-Superior in Superior, Wisconsin, where he teaches human anatomy and physiology as well as human biology. He received his bachelor’s degree in biology from Carroll College and his Ph.D. in Biology from Marquette University. Although his degree is in biology, Chris’ area of specialization is in neurophysiology. Chris did his postdoctoral work while on active duty with the United States Army where he received two commendation for his research on human performance.

Chris has always been interested in teaching and his current area of research focus is in science and nursing education. Currently, he is pursuing a second bachelor’s degree in nursing to enhance his teaching and advisement skills as the primary health science advisor for his campus. Since coming to the University of Wisconsin-Superior in 1997, Chris has become involved in application of problem-based learning strategies as a method of teaching applied critical thinking skills in both the classroom and online environments.

Gerard J. Tortora is Professor of Biology and former Coordinator at Bergen Community College in Paramus, NJ, where he teaches human anatomy and physiology as well as microbiology.  He received his bachelor's degree in biology from Fairleigh Dickinson University and his master's degree in science education from Montclair State College.  He is a member of many professional organizations, such as the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS), the American Society of Microbiology (ASM), American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), National Education Association (NEA), and the Metropolitan Association of College and University Biologists (MACUB). 

Above all, Jerry is devoted to his students and their aspirations.  In recognition of this commitment, Jerry was the recipient of MACUB's 1992 President's Memorial Award.  In 1996, he received a National Institute for Staff and Organizational Development (NISOD) excellence award from the University of Texas and was selected to represent Bergen Community College in a campaign to increase awareness of the contributions of community colleges to higher education.  Jerry is also the author of several best-selling science textbooks and laboratory manuals, a calling that often requires an additional 40 hours per week beyond his teaching responsibilities.

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Table of Contents


CHAPTER 1.  An Introduction to the Human Body.
1.1: The human body is composed of six levels of structuralorganization and contains eleven organ systems.
1.2: The human body carries on basic life processes thatdistinguish it from nonliving objects. 
1.3: Homeostasis is controlled through feedback systems.
1.4: The human body is described using the anatomical position andspecific terms.
1.5: Body cavities are spaces within the body that help protect,separate, and support internal organs. 
1.6: Serous membranes line the walls of body cavities and cover theorgans within them. 
1.7: The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into regions orquadrants.
CHAPTER 2. The Chemical Level of Organization.

2.1 Chemical elements are composed of small units calledatoms.
2.2 Atoms are held together by chemical bonds.
2.3 Chemical reactions occur when atoms combine with or separatefrom other atoms.
2.4 Inorganic compounds include water, salts, acids, andbases.
2.5  Organic molecules are large carbon-based molecules thatcarry out complex functions in living systems.
2.6  Carbohydrates function as building blocks and sources ofenergy.
2.7  Lipids are important for cell membrane structure, energystorage, and hormone production.
2.8  Proteins are amino acid complexes serving many diverseroles.
2.9  Nucleic acids contain genetic material and function inprotein synthesis.
2.10  Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the principalenergy-transferring molecule in living systems.

CHAPTER 3. The Cellular Level of Organization.
3.1 The principal parts of a cell are the plasma membrane, thecytoplasm, and the nucleus.
3.2 The plasma membrane contains the cytoplasm and regulatesexchanges with the extracellular environment.
3.3 Transport of a substance across the plasma membrane occurs byboth passive and active processes.
3.4 Cytoplasm consists of the cytosol and organelles.
3.5 The nucleus contains nucleoli and genes.
3.6 Cells make proteins by transcribing and translating the geneticinformation contained in DNA.
3.7 Cell division allows the replacement of cells and theproduction of new cells.

CHAPTER 4. The Tissue Level of Organization.
4.1  Human body tissues can be classified as epithelial,connective, muscle, or nervous.
4.2  Epithelial tissue covers body surfaces, lines organs andbody cavities, or secretes substances.
4.3  Connective tissue binds organs together, stores energyreserves as fat, and helps provide immunity.
4.4  Membranes cover the surface of the body, line bodycavities, and cover organs.
4.5  Muscle tissue generates the physical force needed to makebody structures move.
4.6 Nervous tissue consists of neurons and neuroglia.
4.7  The ability of an injured tissue to repair itself dependson the extent of damage and the regenerative ability of the injuredtissue.

CHAPTER 5. The Integumentary System.
5.1 Skin is composed of a superficial epidermis and a deeperdermis, and is anchored by the hypodermis.
5.2 The layers of the epidermis include the stratum basale, stratumspinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratumcorneum.
5.3 The dermis contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerves,sensory receptors, hair follicles, and glands.
5.4 Skin color is a result of the pigments melanin, carotene, andhemoglobin.
5.5 The functions of hair, skin glands, and nails includeprotection and body temperature regulation.
5.6 Skin damage sets in motion a sequence of events that repairsthe skin to its normal (or near-normal) structure andfunction.
5.7 Skin regulates body temperature, protects underlying tissues,provides cutaneous sensations, excretes body wastes, andsynthesizes vitamin D.

CHAPTER 6. Introduction to the SkeletalSystem.
6.1 Skeletal system functions include support, protection,movement, mineral homeostasis, blood cell production, and energystorage.
6.2 Bones are classified as long, short, flat, irregular, orsesamoid.
6.3 Long bones have a diaphysis, a medullary cavity, epiphyses,metaphyses, and periosteum.
6.4 Osseous tissue can be arranged as compact bone tissue or spongybone tissue.
6.5 Bones are richly supplied with blood vessels and nerves.
6.6 The two types of bone formation are intramembranousossification and endochondral ossification.
6.7 Bones grow longer due to activity of the epiphyseal plate andincrease in diameter by the addition of new osseous tissue aroundthe outer surface.
6.8 Bone remodeling renews osseous tissue, redistributes boneextracellular matrix, and repairs bone injuries.

CHAPTER 7. The Axial Skeleton.
7.1 Bones of the axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton havecharacteristic surface markings.
7.2 The skull provides attachment sites for muscles and membranes,and protects and supports the brain and sense organs.
7.3 The cranial bones include the frontal, parietal, temporal,occipital, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones.
7.4 Facial bones include the nasal bones, maxillae, zygomaticbones, mandible, lacrimal bones, palatine bones, inferior nasalconchae, and vomer.
7.5 Unique features of the skull include the nasal septum, orbits,sutures, paranasal sinuses, and fontanels.
7.6 The hyoid bone supports the tongue and attaches to tongue,pharynx, and larynx muscles.
7.7 The vertebral column encloses and protects the spinal cord,supports the head, and is a point of attachment for the ribs,pelvic girdle, and muscles of the back.
7.8 A vertebra usually consists of a body, a vertebral arch, andseveral processes.
7.9 Vertebrae in the different regions of the vertebral column varyin size, shape, nd detail.
7.10 The thoracic cage encloses and protects vital organs in thethorax and upper abdomen and provides support for the bones of theshoulder girdles and upper limbs.

CHAPTER 8. The Appendicular Skeleton.
8.1 Each pectoral girdle, which consists of a clavicle and scapula,attaches an upper limb to the axial skeleton.
8.2 The bones of each upper limb include the humerus, ulna, radius,carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges.
8.3 The pelvic girdle supports the vertebral column and pelvicviscera and attaches the lower limbs to the axial skeleton.
8.4 Male pelves are generally larger, heavier, and have moreprominent markings; female pelves are generally wider andshallower.
8.5 The bones of each lower limb include the femur, patella, tibia,fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges.

CHAPTER 9. Articulations.
9.1 Joints are classified structurally as fibrous, cartilaginous,or synovial; they are classified functionally as synarthroses,amphiarthroses, or diarthroses.
9.2 Fibrous joints lack a synovial cavity and are held together byfibrous connective tissue.
9.3 Cartilaginous joints lack a synovial cavity and are heldtogether by cartilage.
9.4 Articulating surfaces of bones at a synovial joint are coveredwith articular cartilage and enclosed within a synovialcavity.
9.5 Synovial joints are described as planar, hinge, pivot,condyloid, saddle, or ball-and-socket.
9.6 Synovial joint movement terminology indicates the direction ofmovement or the relationships of body parts during movement.
9.7 The shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee joints provide examples ofsynovial joint components, classifications, and movements.

CHAPTER 10. Muscle Tissue.
10.1 Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle tissues differ inlocation, structure, and function.
10.2 Muscle tissue produces movement, generates heat, andstabilizes body positions; it possesses electrical excitability,contractility, extensibility, and elasticity.
10.3 Skeletal muscles are surrounded by connective tissues and arewell supplied with nerves and blood vessels.
10.4 Each skeletal muscle fiber is covered by a sarcolemma; each ofits myofibrils is surrounded by sarcoplasmic reticulum and containssarcomeres.
10.5 The neuromuscular junction is where a muscle action potentialis initiated.
10.6 An action potential releases calcium ions that allow thickfilaments to bind to and pull thin filaments toward the center ofthe sarcomere.
10.7 Muscle fiber tension is controlled by stimulation frequencyand the number of motor units activated; changes in tension canproduce isotonic or isometric contractions.
10.8 Muscle fibers produce ATP from creatine phosphate, byanaerobic cellular respiration, and by aerobic cellularrespiration.
10.9 Skeletal muscle fibers are classified as slow oxidativefibers, fast oxidative-glycolytic fibers, or fast glycolyticfibers.
10.10 Cardiac muscle tissue is found in the walls of the heart, andsmooth muscle tissue is found in the walls of hollow organs, bloodvessels, and airways.

CHAPTER 11. The Muscular System.
11.1 Skeletal muscles produce movement when the insertion is pulledtoward the origin.
11.2 Skeletal muscles are named based on size, shape, action,location, or attachments.
11.3 Muscles of the head produce facial expressions, eyeballmovement, and assist in biting, chewing, swallowing, andspeech.
11.4 Muscles of the neck assist in swallowing and speech, and allowbalance and movement of the head.
11.5 Muscles of the torso help protect the abdominal viscera, movethe vertebral column, and assist breathing.
11.6 Muscles of the pelvic floor and perineum support the pelvicviscera, function as sphincters, and assist in urination, erection,ejaculation, and defecation.
11.7 Muscles inserting on the upper limb move and stabilize thepectoral girdle, and move the arm, forearm, and hand.
11.8 Deep muscles of the back move the head and vertebralcolumn.
11.9 Muscles originating on the pelvic girdle or lower limb movethe femur, leg, and foot.

CHAPTER 12. Introduction to the NervousSystem.
12.1 The nervous system maintains homeostasis and integrates allbody activities.
12.2 The nervous system is organized into the central andperipheral nervous systems.
12.3 Neurons are responsible for most of the unique functions ofthe nervous system.
12.4 Neuroglia support, nourish, and protect neurons and maintainhomeostasis.
12.5 Neurons communicate with other cells.
12.6 Graded potentials are the first response of a neuron tostimulation.
12.7 The action potential is an all-or-none electricalsignal.
12.8 Action potentials propagate from the trigger zone to axonterminals.
12.9 The synapse is a special junction between neurons.
12.10 PNS neurons have a greater capacity for repair andregeneration than CNS neurons.

CHAPTER 13. The Central Nervous System.
13.1 The CNS consists of the brain, the spinal cord, and severalprotective structures.
 13.2 The CNS is nourished by blood and cerebrospinal fluid,which also provides mechanical and chemical protection.
 13.3 The cerebrum interprets sensory impulses, controlsmuscular movements, and functions in intellectual processes.
 13.4 The limbic system controls emotions, behavior, andmemory.
 13.5 The cerebral cortex can be divided functionally intosensory areas, motor areas, and association areas.
 13.6 The diencephalon includes the thalamus and thehypothalamus.
 13.7 The midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata of the brainstem serve as a relay station and control center.
 13.8 The cerebellum coordinates movements and helps maintainnormal muscle tone, posture, and balance.
 13.9 The spinal cord gray matter receives sensory input andprovides motor output through spinal nerves.
13.10 The spinal cord conducts nerve impulses between spinal nervesand the brain, and contains reflex pathways.

CHAPTER 14. The Peripheral Nervous System.
14.1 Nerves have three protective connective tissuecoverings.
14.2 Twelve pairs of cranial nerves distribute primarily to regionsof the head and neck.
14.3 Each spinal nerve branches into a posterior ramus, anteriorramus, meningeal branch, and rami communicantes.
14.4  A reflex is produced by a reflex arc in response to aparticular stimulus.
14.5 The autonomic nervous system produces involuntarymovements.
14.6 The ANS includes preganglionic neurons, autonomic ganglia andplexuses, and postganglionic neurons.
14.7 ANS neurons release acetylcholine or norepinephrine, resultingin excitation or inhibition.
14.8 The sympathetic division supports vigorous physical activity;the parasym pathetic division conserves body energy.
14.9 Autonomic reflexes regulate controlled body conditions and areprimarily integrated by the hypothalamus.

CHAPTER 15. Sensory, Motor, and IntegrativeSystems.
15.1 Sensations arise as a result of stimulation, transduction,generation, and integration.
15.2 Sensory receptors can be classified structurally,functionally, or by the type of stimulus detected.
15.3 Somatic sensations include tactile sensations, thermalsensations, pain, and proprioception.
15.4  The somatosensory and primary motor areas of thecerebral cortex unequally serve different body regions.
15.5 Somatic sensory pathways relay information from sensoryreceptors to the cerebral cortex and cerebellum.
15.6 Somatic motor pathways carry impulses from the brain toeffectors.
15.7 Wafefulness and memory are integrative functions of thebrain.

CHAPTER 16. The Special Senses.
16.1 Impulses for smell propagate along the olfactory nerve to thebrain.
16.2 Impulses for taste propagate along the facial,glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves to the brain.
16.3 The eye is protected by eyelids, eyelashes, eyebrows, and alacrimal apparatus.
16.4 The eye is constructed of three layers and two chambers.
16.5  Image formation involves refraction of light rays,change in lens shape, and constriction of the pupil.
16.6  The neural pathway for light is photoreceptors →ganglion cells → optic nerve → primary visualcortex.
16.7  The three main regions of the ear are the external,middle, and internal ear.
16.8  The pathway of sound is tympanic membrane →ossicles → oval window → cochlea →vestibulocochlear nerve → primary auditory cortex.
16.9  Impulses for equilibrium propagate along thevestibulocochlear nerve to the brain.

CHAPTER 17. The Endocrine System.
17.1 The endocrine system works more slowly than the nervoussystem, releasing hormones into the blood that can controlvirtually all body cells.
17.2 The secretion of hormones is regulated by signals from thenervous system, chemical changes in the blood, and otherhormones.
17.3 The hypothalamus regulates anterior pituitary hormonesecretion of seven important hormones.
17.4 Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone originate in thehypothalamus and are stored in the posterior pituitary.
17.5 The thyroid gland secretes the thyroid hormones thyroxine,triiodothyronine, and calcitonin.
17.6 The parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone, whichregulates calcium, magnesium, and phosphate ion levels.
17.7 The adrenal cortex secretes mineralocorticoids,glucocorticoids, and androgens; the adrenal medulla secretesepinephrine and norepinephrine.
17.8 The pancreatic islets regulate blood glucose levels bysecreting glucagon and insulin.
17.9 The ovaries produce estrogens, progesterone, and inhibin; thetestes produce testosterone and inhibin.
17.10 The pineal gland secretes melatonin, which contributes tosetting the body’s biological clock.

CHAPTER 18. The Cardiovascular System:  TheBlood.
18.1 Blood contains plasma and formed elements and transportsessential substances through the body.
18.2 Hemopoiesis is the production of formed elements.
18.3 Mature red blood cells are biconcave cells containinghemoglobin.
18.4 Red blood cells have a life cycle of 120 days.
18.5 Erythropoiesis is the process of red blood cellformation.
18.6 Blood is categorized into groups based on surfaceantigens.
18.7 White blood cells combat inflammation and infection.
18.8 Platelets reduce blood loss from damaged vessels.
18.9 Hemostasis is the sequence of events that stops bleeding froma damaged blood vessel.

CHAPTER 19. The Cardiovascular System:  TheHeart.
19.1 The heart is located in the mediastinum and has a muscularwall covered by pericardium.
19.2 The heart has four chambers, two upper atria and two lowerventricles.
19.3 Heart valves ensure one-way flow of blood.
19.4 The heart pumps blood to the lungs for oxygenation, then pumpsoxygen-rich blood throughout the body.
19.5 The cardiac conduction system coordinates heart contractionsfor effective pumping.
19.6 The electrocardiogram is a record of electrical activityassociated with each heartbeat.
19.7 The cardiac cycle represents all the events associated withone heartbeat.
19.8 Cardiac output is the blood volume ejected by a ventricle eachminute.

CHAPTER 20. The Cardiovascular System: BloodVessels.
20.1 Most blood vessel walls have three distinct tissuelayers.
20.2 Blood ejected from the heart flows through elastic arteries,muscular arteries, and then arterioles.
20.3 Capillaries are microscopic blood vessels that function inexchange between blood and interstitial fluid.
20.4 Venules and veins return blood to the heart.
20.5 Blood flow occurs from regions of higher pressure to those oflower pressure.
20.6 Blood pressure is regulated by neural and hormonal negativefeedback systems.
20.7 Measurement of the pulse and blood pressure are two ways toassess the functioning of the cardiovascular system.
20.8 The two main circulatory routes are the pulmonary circulationand the systemic circulation.
20.9  Systemic arteries carry blood from the heart to all bodyorgans except the lungs.
20.10  Systemic veins return blood to the heart from all bodyorgans except the lungs.

CHAPTER 21. The Lymphatic System and Immunity.
21.1 The lymphatic system drains interstitial fluid, transportsdietary lipids, and protects against invasion.
21.2  Lymph flows through lymphatic capillaries, lymphaticvessels, and lymph nodes.
21.3 The lymphatic organs and tissues include the thymus, lymphnodes, spleen, and lymphatic nodules.
21.4 Innate immunity includes external physical and chemicalbarriers and various internal defenses.
21.5 Adaptive immunity involves the production of a specificlymphocyte or antibody against a specific antigen.
21.6  In cell-mediated immunity cytotoxic T cells directlyattack target cells.
21.7 In antibody-mediated immunity, antibodies specifically targeta particular antigen.
21.8 The complement system destroys microbes through phagocytosis,cytolysis, and inflammation.
21.9  Immunological memory results in a more intense secondaryresponse to an antigen.

CHAPTER 22. The Respiratory System.
22.1 Inhaled air travels in the upper respiratory system throughthe nasal cavities of the nose and then through the pharynx.
22.2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system from thelarynx to alveoli.
22.3 Inhalation and exhalation result from pressure changes causedby muscle contraction and relaxation.
22.4 Important measurements of lung volumes and capacities includetidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reservevolume, residual volume, and lung capacities.
22.5 Oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse into or out of the bloodbased on partial pressure gradients and solubility.
22.6 Respiration occurs between alveoli and pulmonary bloodcapillaries and between systemic blood capillaries and tissuecells.
22.7 Oxygen is primarily transported attached to hemoglobin, whilecarbon dioxide is transported in three different ways.
22.8 The basic rhythm of respiration is controlled by therespiratory center in the brain stem.
22.9 Respiration may be modified by cortical influences, chemicalstimuli, proprioceptor input; and the inflation reflex.
22.10 The overall acid–base balance of the body is maintainedby controlling the H+ concentration of body fluids.

CHAPTER 23. The Digestive System.
23.1 The GI tract is a continuous multilayered tube extending fromthe mouth to the anus.
23.2 The mouth lubricates and begins digestion of food, andmaneuvers it to the pharynx for swallowing.
23.3 Swallowing consists of voluntary oral, involuntary pharyngeal,and involuntary esophageal stages.
23.4 The stomach mechanically breaks down the bolus and mixes itwith gastric secretions.
23.5 The pancreas secretes pancreatic juice, the liver secretesbile, and the gallbladder stores and concentrates bile.
23.6 In the small intestine, chyme mixes with digestive juices fromthe small intestine, pancreas, and liver.
23.7 In the large intestine, the final secretion and absorption ofnutrients occur as chyme moves toward the rectum.
23.8 Digestive activities occur in three overlapping phases:cephalic, gastric, and intestinal.
23.9 Food molecules supply energy for life processes and serve asbuilding blocks for complex molecules.
23.10 Metabolism includes the catabolism and anabolism ofmolecules.

CHAPTER 24.  The Urinary System.
24.1 The kidneys regulate the composition of the blood, producehormones, and excrete wastes and foreign substances.
24.2 After blood is filtered in the renal cortex, the resultingurine travels through the renal medulla, calyces, and renalpelvis.
24.3 Each of the nephrons consists of a renal corpuscle and a renaltubule.
24.4 The functions of the nephrons and collecting ducts areglomerular filtration, tubular secretion, and tubularreabsorption.
24.5 Unlike other components of the blood, water and solutes easilypass through the filtration membrane during glomerularfiltration.
24.6 Tubular reabsorption reclaims substances from the filtrate,while tubular secretion discharges substances not needed by thebody.
24.7 Four hormones regulate tubular reabsorption and tubularsecretion.
24.8 Antidiuretic hormone affects the concentration of urineproduced by the kidneys.
24.9 The ureters transport urine from the renal pelvis to theurinary bladder where it is stored until micturition.
24.10 The kidneys help maintain the overall fluid andacid–base balance of the body.

CHAPTER 25.   The Reproductive Systems andDevelopment.
25.1 The scrotum supports and regulates the temperature of thetestes, which produce spermatozoa.
25.2 Sperm are transported from the testes through the epididymis,ductus deferens, ejaculatory ducts, and urethra.
25.3 After a secondary oocyte is discharged from an ovary, it mayundergo fertilization and implantation in the uterus.
25.4 The vagina is a passageway for childbirth; the mammary glandssecrete milk.
25.5 The female reproductive cycle includes the ovarian and uterinecycles.
25.6 The zygote divides into a morula and then a blastocyst thatimplants in the endometrium of the uterus.
25.7 During the embryonic period, the embryonic membranes and mostmajor organs develop.
25.8 During pregnancy the uterus expands, maternal gastrointestinaltract organs are displaced, and the ureters and urinary bladder arecompressed.
25.9 Labor includes dilation of the cervix and expulsion of thefetus and placenta.
25.10 Milk production and ejection are influenced by prolactin,estrogens, progesterone, and oxytocin.


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