Anatomy and Physiology: From Science to Life / Edition 2

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The second edition is designed to help allied health professionals keep their focus, make connections, and improve their overall understanding of the anatomy and physiology they need to succeed in the field. Each chapter is written and developed into manageable modules of content that place a conceptual order on the facts and terminology. Relevant clinical stories draw readers in, keep them connected to the content and provide the platform for developing critical thinking skills. The focused narrative is accompanied by outstanding illustrations that help allied health professionals learn key concepts.
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Editorial Reviews

From The Critics
Reviewer: Steven K. Hamick, BIS, RCP, RRT (William Beaumont Hospitals)
Description: This is not the typical anatomy and physiology book that emphasizes rote memorization. This unique book uses a variety of special features to make studying anatomy and physiology a more rewarding experience.
Purpose: Anatomy and physiology is the foundation for all health-related careers. This second edition fully explains the subject, yet focuses on critical thinking, conceptual understanding, and application of newly learned material.
Audience: Although intended for students beginning a health-related vocation, it is well written and easy to understand so anyone with a curiosity for anatomy would find it both interesting and informative. The authors are unquestionably experts in their fields of expertise.
Features: This revised edition is divided into three units. Unit 1 is an introduction to the human body, including chemical, cellular, and tissue level of organization. Unit 2 consists of 21 chapters on the various body systems, followed by unit 3 with three appendixes, a glossary, credits, and index. Uniquely, each chapter starts with a clinical case followed by an introduction to the chapter and one line summary concepts for each subsection in the chapter. Each subsection contains a Checkpoint for review and the text is peppered with bolded terminology and pronunciations, tables, and beautiful, four-color illustrations and photographs. Each chapter ends with the clinical case epilogue and discussion, concept and resource summary, other chapter resources, and a list of questions called Understanding the Concepts. The appendixes include measurements, periodic table, and answers to Checkpoint questions. Extras include the student companion web site, which consists of Visual Anatomy, chapter quizzes, negative feedback loop exercises, and other learning reinforcement tools.
Assessment: This well done book is highly recommended for any students requiring anatomy and physiology. The text is easy to read and the illustrations reinforcing learning concepts are superb. As science continues to advance, it is hoped the authors keep pace by producing future revisions.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780470227589
  • Publisher: Wiley, John & Sons, Incorporated
  • Publication date: 1/14/2009
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 2
  • Pages: 1040
  • Product dimensions: 9.50 (w) x 11.10 (h) x 1.50 (d)

Meet the Author

Gail W. Jenkins is a popular Professor of Biology at Montgomery College in Maryland, where she teaches human anatomy and physiology as well as general biology and microbiology. She received her bachelor's degree in botany from the University of California in Davis, with a minor in medical technology and completed a graduate biological sciences instructor credential program. Her master's degree in biological sciences was from California State University in Sacramento, where she focused on anatomy with research in neuroembryology conducted at the University of Kentucky College of Medicine in Lexington.

Gail is passionately devoted to assisting students in the learning process and in their preparation for health science vocations. She was the recipient of the Montgomery College Outstanding Faculty Award in 1999 and the 1997 National Institute for Staff and Organizational Development Excellence Award for Outstanding Contribution to Teaching and Learning from the University of Texas. At Montgomery College, Gail is Course Coordinator of the human anatomy and physiology curriculum, course curriculum liaison to college Health Science programs, and has served as the Chair of the Department of Biology, Physical Education and the Health Science; Chair of the Faculty Council (the faculty governance organization); Phi Theta Kappa Advisor, mentor for adjunct science faculty through the college Center for Teaching and Learning, and co-developed the Physical Therapist Assistant Program and Associate of Science Degree in Science with concentrations in the Life Sciences, Physics, and Mathematics.

Gail is Treasure and member of the Executive Committee of the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS) and has been an active participant in annual and regional conference planning. Gail founded and directed a program at Stanford University's Department of Anatomy to integrate human cadaveric materials and medical imaging into pre-health science curricula, co-founded the Northern California Society of Anatomists, developed a hospital laboratory work/learn internship program for health science students, was a Federal Liaison Officer in Washington D.C. working with Congress for higher education funding, and served as an educational consultant to Stanford University's Advanced Media Research Group and to several publishing and software companies.

Christopher P. Kemnitzis an Associate Professor at the University of Wisconsin-Superior in Superior, Wisconsin, where he teaches human anatomy and physiology as well as human biology. He received his bachelor’s degree in biology from Carroll College and his Ph.D. in Biology from Marquette University. Although his degree is in biology, Chris’ area of specialization is in neurophysiology. Chris did his postdoctoral work while on active duty with the United States Army where he received two commendation for his research on human performance.

Chris has always been interested in teaching and his current area of research focus is in science and nursing education. Currently, he is pursuing a second bachelor’s degree in nursing to enhance his teaching and advisement skills as the primary health science advisor for his campus. Since coming to the University of Wisconsin-Superior in 1997, Chris has become involved in application of problem-based learning strategies as a method of teaching applied critical thinking skills in both the classroom and online environments.

Gerard J. Tortora is Professor of Biology and former Coordinator at Bergen Community College in Paramus, NJ, where he teaches human anatomy and physiology as well as microbiology.  He received his bachelor's degree in biology from Fairleigh Dickinson University and his master's degree in science education from Montclair State College.  He is a member of many professional organizations, such as the Human Anatomy and Physiology Society (HAPS), the American Society of Microbiology (ASM), American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), National Education Association (NEA), and the Metropolitan Association of College and University Biologists (MACUB). 

Above all, Jerry is devoted to his students and their aspirations.  In recognition of this commitment, Jerry was the recipient of MACUB's 1992 President's Memorial Award.  In 1996, he received a National Institute for Staff and Organizational Development (NISOD) excellence award from the University of Texas and was selected to represent Bergen Community College in a campaign to increase awareness of the contributions of community colleges to higher education.  Jerry is also the author of several best-selling science textbooks and laboratory manuals, a calling that often requires an additional 40 hours per week beyond his teaching responsibilities.

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Table of Contents


CHAPTER 1.  An Introduction to the Human Body.
1.1: The human body is composed of six levels of structural organization and contains eleven organ systems.
1.2: The human body carries on basic life processes that distinguish it from nonliving objects. 
1.3: Homeostasis is controlled through feedback systems.
1.4: The human body is described using the anatomical position and specific terms.
1.5: Body cavities are spaces within the body that help protect, separate, and support internal organs. 
1.6: Serous membranes line the walls of body cavities and cover the organs within them. 
1.7: The abdominopelvic cavity is divided into regions or quadrants.
CHAPTER 2. The Chemical Level of Organization.

2.1 Chemical elements are composed of small units called atoms.
2.2 Atoms are held together by chemical bonds.
2.3 Chemical reactions occur when atoms combine with or separate from other atoms.
2.4 Inorganic compounds include water, salts, acids, and bases.
2.5  Organic molecules are large carbon-based molecules that carry out complex functions in living systems.
2.6  Carbohydrates function as building blocks and sources of energy.
2.7  Lipids are important for cell membrane structure, energy storage, and hormone production.
2.8  Proteins are amino acid complexes serving many diverse roles.
2.9  Nucleic acids contain genetic material and function in protein synthesis.
2.10  Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is the principal energy-transferring molecule in living systems.

CHAPTER 3. The Cellular Level of Organization.
3.1 The principal parts of a cell are the plasma membrane, the cytoplasm, and the nucleus.
3.2 The plasma membrane contains the cytoplasm and regulates exchanges with the extracellular environment.
3.3 Transport of a substance across the plasma membrane occurs by both passive and active processes.
3.4 Cytoplasm consists of the cytosol and organelles.
3.5 The nucleus contains nucleoli and genes.
3.6 Cells make proteins by transcribing and translating the genetic information contained in DNA.
3.7 Cell division allows the replacement of cells and the production of new cells.

CHAPTER 4. The Tissue Level of Organization.
4.1  Human body tissues can be classified as epithelial, connective, muscle, or nervous.
4.2  Epithelial tissue covers body surfaces, lines organs and body cavities, or secretes substances.
4.3  Connective tissue binds organs together, stores energy reserves as fat, and helps provide immunity.
4.4  Membranes cover the surface of the body, line body cavities, and cover organs.
4.5  Muscle tissue generates the physical force needed to make body structures move.
4.6 Nervous tissue consists of neurons and neuroglia.
4.7  The ability of an injured tissue to repair itself depends on the extent of damage and the regenerative ability of the injured tissue.

CHAPTER 5. The Integumentary System.
5.1 Skin is composed of a superficial epidermis and a deeper dermis, and is anchored by the hypodermis.
5.2 The layers of the epidermis include the stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum.
5.3 The dermis contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, nerves, sensory receptors, hair follicles, and glands.
5.4 Skin color is a result of the pigments melanin, carotene, and hemoglobin.
5.5 The functions of hair, skin glands, and nails include protection and body temperature regulation.
5.6 Skin damage sets in motion a sequence of events that repairs the skin to its normal (or near-normal) structure and function.
5.7 Skin regulates body temperature, protects underlying tissues, provides cutaneous sensations, excretes body wastes, and synthesizes vitamin D.

CHAPTER 6. Introduction to the Skeletal System.
6.1 Skeletal system functions include support, protection, movement, mineral homeostasis, blood cell production, and energy storage.
6.2 Bones are classified as long, short, flat, irregular, or sesamoid.
6.3 Long bones have a diaphysis, a medullary cavity, epiphyses, metaphyses, and periosteum.
6.4 Osseous tissue can be arranged as compact bone tissue or spongy bone tissue.
6.5 Bones are richly supplied with blood vessels and nerves.
6.6 The two types of bone formation are intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification.
6.7 Bones grow longer due to activity of the epiphyseal plate and increase in diameter by the addition of new osseous tissue around the outer surface.
6.8 Bone remodeling renews osseous tissue, redistributes bone extracellular matrix, and repairs bone injuries.

CHAPTER 7. The Axial Skeleton.
7.1 Bones of the axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton have characteristic surface markings.
7.2 The skull provides attachment sites for muscles and membranes, and protects and supports the brain and sense organs.
7.3 The cranial bones include the frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, sphenoid, and ethmoid bones.
7.4 Facial bones include the nasal bones, maxillae, zygomatic bones, mandible, lacrimal bones, palatine bones, inferior nasal conchae, and vomer.
7.5 Unique features of the skull include the nasal septum, orbits, sutures, paranasal sinuses, and fontanels.
7.6 The hyoid bone supports the tongue and attaches to tongue, pharynx, and larynx muscles.
7.7 The vertebral column encloses and protects the spinal cord, supports the head, and is a point of attachment for the ribs, pelvic girdle, and muscles of the back.
7.8 A vertebra usually consists of a body, a vertebral arch, and several processes.
7.9 Vertebrae in the different regions of the vertebral column vary in size, shape, nd detail.
7.10 The thoracic cage encloses and protects vital organs in the thorax and upper abdomen and provides support for the bones of the shoulder girdles and upper limbs.

CHAPTER 8. The Appendicular Skeleton.
8.1 Each pectoral girdle, which consists of a clavicle and scapula, attaches an upper limb to the axial skeleton.
8.2 The bones of each upper limb include the humerus, ulna, radius, carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges.
8.3 The pelvic girdle supports the vertebral column and pelvic viscera and attaches the lower limbs to the axial skeleton.
8.4 Male pelves are generally larger, heavier, and have more prominent markings; female pelves are generally wider and shallower.
8.5 The bones of each lower limb include the femur, patella, tibia, fibula, tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges.

CHAPTER 9. Articulations.
9.1 Joints are classified structurally as fibrous, cartilaginous, or synovial; they are classified functionally as synarthroses, amphiarthroses, or diarthroses.
9.2 Fibrous joints lack a synovial cavity and are held together by fibrous connective tissue.
9.3 Cartilaginous joints lack a synovial cavity and are held together by cartilage.
9.4 Articulating surfaces of bones at a synovial joint are covered with articular cartilage and enclosed within a synovial cavity.
9.5 Synovial joints are described as planar, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, or ball-and-socket.
9.6 Synovial joint movement terminology indicates the direction of movement or the relationships of body parts during movement.
9.7 The shoulder, elbow, hip, and knee joints provide examples of synovial joint components, classifications, and movements.

CHAPTER 10. Muscle Tissue.
10.1 Skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle tissues differ in location, structure, and function.
10.2 Muscle tissue produces movement, generates heat, and stabilizes body positions; it possesses electrical excitability, contractility, extensibility, and elasticity.
10.3 Skeletal muscles are surrounded by connective tissues and are well supplied with nerves and blood vessels.
10.4 Each skeletal muscle fiber is covered by a sarcolemma; each of its myofibrils is surrounded by sarcoplasmic reticulum and contains sarcomeres.
10.5 The neuromuscular junction is where a muscle action potential is initiated.
10.6 An action potential releases calcium ions that allow thick filaments to bind to and pull thin filaments toward the center of the sarcomere.
10.7 Muscle fiber tension is controlled by stimulation frequency and the number of motor units activated; changes in tension can produce isotonic or isometric contractions.
10.8 Muscle fibers produce ATP from creatine phosphate, by anaerobic cellular respiration, and by aerobic cellular respiration.
10.9 Skeletal muscle fibers are classified as slow oxidative fibers, fast oxidative-glycolytic fibers, or fast glycolytic fibers.
10.10 Cardiac muscle tissue is found in the walls of the heart, and smooth muscle tissue is found in the walls of hollow organs, blood vessels, and airways.

CHAPTER 11. The Muscular System.
11.1 Skeletal muscles produce movement when the insertion is pulled toward the origin.
11.2 Skeletal muscles are named based on size, shape, action, location, or attachments.
11.3 Muscles of the head produce facial expressions, eyeball movement, and assist in biting, chewing, swallowing, and speech.
11.4 Muscles of the neck assist in swallowing and speech, and allow balance and movement of the head.
11.5 Muscles of the torso help protect the abdominal viscera, move the vertebral column, and assist breathing.
11.6 Muscles of the pelvic floor and perineum support the pelvic viscera, function as sphincters, and assist in urination, erection, ejaculation, and defecation.
11.7 Muscles inserting on the upper limb move and stabilize the pectoral girdle, and move the arm, forearm, and hand.
11.8 Deep muscles of the back move the head and vertebral column.
11.9 Muscles originating on the pelvic girdle or lower limb move the femur, leg, and foot.

CHAPTER 12. Introduction to the Nervous System.
12.1 The nervous system maintains homeostasis and integrates all body activities.
12.2 The nervous system is organized into the central and peripheral nervous systems.
12.3 Neurons are responsible for most of the unique functions of the nervous system.
12.4 Neuroglia support, nourish, and protect neurons and maintain homeostasis.
12.5 Neurons communicate with other cells.
12.6 Graded potentials are the first response of a neuron to stimulation.
12.7 The action potential is an all-or-none electrical signal.
12.8 Action potentials propagate from the trigger zone to axon terminals.
12.9 The synapse is a special junction between neurons.
12.10 PNS neurons have a greater capacity for repair and regeneration than CNS neurons.

CHAPTER 13. The Central Nervous System.
13.1 The CNS consists of the brain, the spinal cord, and several protective structures.
 13.2 The CNS is nourished by blood and cerebrospinal fluid, which also provides mechanical and chemical protection.
 13.3 The cerebrum interprets sensory impulses, controls muscular movements, and functions in intellectual processes.
 13.4 The limbic system controls emotions, behavior, and memory.
 13.5 The cerebral cortex can be divided functionally into sensory areas, motor areas, and association areas.
 13.6 The diencephalon includes the thalamus and the hypothalamus.
 13.7 The midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata of the brain stem serve as a relay station and control center.
 13.8 The cerebellum coordinates movements and helps maintain normal muscle tone, posture, and balance.
 13.9 The spinal cord gray matter receives sensory input and provides motor output through spinal nerves.
13.10 The spinal cord conducts nerve impulses between spinal nerves and the brain, and contains reflex pathways.

CHAPTER 14. The Peripheral Nervous System.
14.1 Nerves have three protective connective tissue coverings.
14.2 Twelve pairs of cranial nerves distribute primarily to regions of the head and neck.
14.3 Each spinal nerve branches into a posterior ramus, anterior ramus, meningeal branch, and rami communicantes.
14.4  A reflex is produced by a reflex arc in response to a particular stimulus.
14.5 The autonomic nervous system produces involuntary movements.
14.6 The ANS includes preganglionic neurons, autonomic ganglia and plexuses, and postganglionic neurons.
14.7 ANS neurons release acetylcholine or norepinephrine, resulting in excitation or inhibition.
14.8 The sympathetic division supports vigorous physical activity; the parasym pathetic division conserves body energy.
14.9 Autonomic reflexes regulate controlled body conditions and are primarily integrated by the hypothalamus.

CHAPTER 15. Sensory, Motor, and Integrative Systems.
15.1 Sensations arise as a result of stimulation, transduction, generation, and integration.
15.2 Sensory receptors can be classified structurally, functionally, or by the type of stimulus detected.
15.3 Somatic sensations include tactile sensations, thermal sensations, pain, and proprioception.
15.4  The somatosensory and primary motor areas of the cerebral cortex unequally serve different body regions.
15.5 Somatic sensory pathways relay information from sensory receptors to the cerebral cortex and cerebellum.
15.6 Somatic motor pathways carry impulses from the brain to effectors.
15.7 Wafefulness and memory are integrative functions of the brain.

CHAPTER 16. The Special Senses.
16.1 Impulses for smell propagate along the olfactory nerve to the brain.
16.2 Impulses for taste propagate along the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves to the brain.
16.3 The eye is protected by eyelids, eyelashes, eyebrows, and a lacrimal apparatus.
16.4 The eye is constructed of three layers and two chambers.
16.5  Image formation involves refraction of light rays, change in lens shape, and constriction of the pupil.
16.6  The neural pathway for light is photoreceptors → ganglion cells → optic nerve → primary visual cortex.
16.7  The three main regions of the ear are the external, middle, and internal ear.
16.8  The pathway of sound is tympanic membrane → ossicles → oval window → cochlea → vestibulocochlear nerve → primary auditory cortex.
16.9  Impulses for equilibrium propagate along the vestibulocochlear nerve to the brain.

CHAPTER 17. The Endocrine System.
17.1 The endocrine system works more slowly than the nervous system, releasing hormones into the blood that can control virtually all body cells.
17.2 The secretion of hormones is regulated by signals from the nervous system, chemical changes in the blood, and other hormones.
17.3 The hypothalamus regulates anterior pituitary hormone secretion of seven important hormones.
17.4 Oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone originate in the hypothalamus and are stored in the posterior pituitary.
17.5 The thyroid gland secretes the thyroid hormones thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and calcitonin.
17.6 The parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone, which regulates calcium, magnesium, and phosphate ion levels.
17.7 The adrenal cortex secretes mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, and androgens; the adrenal medulla secretes epinephrine and norepinephrine.
17.8 The pancreatic islets regulate blood glucose levels by secreting glucagon and insulin.
17.9 The ovaries produce estrogens, progesterone, and inhibin; the testes produce testosterone and inhibin.
17.10 The pineal gland secretes melatonin, which contributes to setting the body’s biological clock.

CHAPTER 18. The Cardiovascular System:  The Blood.
18.1 Blood contains plasma and formed elements and transports essential substances through the body.
18.2 Hemopoiesis is the production of formed elements.
18.3 Mature red blood cells are biconcave cells containing hemoglobin.
18.4 Red blood cells have a life cycle of 120 days.
18.5 Erythropoiesis is the process of red blood cell formation.
18.6 Blood is categorized into groups based on surface antigens.
18.7 White blood cells combat inflammation and infection.
18.8 Platelets reduce blood loss from damaged vessels.
18.9 Hemostasis is the sequence of events that stops bleeding from a damaged blood vessel.

CHAPTER 19. The Cardiovascular System:  The Heart.
19.1 The heart is located in the mediastinum and has a muscular wall covered by pericardium.
19.2 The heart has four chambers, two upper atria and two lower ventricles.
19.3 Heart valves ensure one-way flow of blood.
19.4 The heart pumps blood to the lungs for oxygenation, then pumps oxygen-rich blood throughout the body.
19.5 The cardiac conduction system coordinates heart contractions for effective pumping.
19.6 The electrocardiogram is a record of electrical activity associated with each heartbeat.
19.7 The cardiac cycle represents all the events associated with one heartbeat.
19.8 Cardiac output is the blood volume ejected by a ventricle each minute.

CHAPTER 20. The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels.
20.1 Most blood vessel walls have three distinct tissue layers.
20.2 Blood ejected from the heart flows through elastic arteries, muscular arteries, and then arterioles.
20.3 Capillaries are microscopic blood vessels that function in exchange between blood and interstitial fluid.
20.4 Venules and veins return blood to the heart.
20.5 Blood flow occurs from regions of higher pressure to those of lower pressure.
20.6 Blood pressure is regulated by neural and hormonal negative feedback systems.
20.7 Measurement of the pulse and blood pressure are two ways to assess the functioning of the cardiovascular system.
20.8 The two main circulatory routes are the pulmonary circulation and the systemic circulation.
20.9  Systemic arteries carry blood from the heart to all body organs except the lungs.
20.10  Systemic veins return blood to the heart from all body organs except the lungs.

CHAPTER 21. The Lymphatic System and Immunity.
21.1 The lymphatic system drains interstitial fluid, transports dietary lipids, and protects against invasion.
21.2  Lymph flows through lymphatic capillaries, lymphatic vessels, and lymph nodes.
21.3 The lymphatic organs and tissues include the thymus, lymph nodes, spleen, and lymphatic nodules.
21.4 Innate immunity includes external physical and chemical barriers and various internal defenses.
21.5 Adaptive immunity involves the production of a specific lymphocyte or antibody against a specific antigen.
21.6  In cell-mediated immunity cytotoxic T cells directly attack target cells.
21.7 In antibody-mediated immunity, antibodies specifically target a particular antigen.
21.8 The complement system destroys microbes through phagocytosis, cytolysis, and inflammation.
21.9  Immunological memory results in a more intense secondary response to an antigen.

CHAPTER 22. The Respiratory System.
22.1 Inhaled air travels in the upper respiratory system through the nasal cavities of the nose and then through the pharynx.
22.2 Inhaled air travels in the lower respiratory system from the larynx to alveoli.
22.3 Inhalation and exhalation result from pressure changes caused by muscle contraction and relaxation.
22.4 Important measurements of lung volumes and capacities include tidal volume, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume, residual volume, and lung capacities.
22.5 Oxygen and carbon dioxide diffuse into or out of the blood based on partial pressure gradients and solubility.
22.6 Respiration occurs between alveoli and pulmonary blood capillaries and between systemic blood capillaries and tissue cells.
22.7 Oxygen is primarily transported attached to hemoglobin, while carbon dioxide is transported in three different ways.
22.8 The basic rhythm of respiration is controlled by the respiratory center in the brain stem.
22.9 Respiration may be modified by cortical influences, chemical stimuli, proprioceptor input; and the inflation reflex.
22.10 The overall acid–base balance of the body is maintained by controlling the H+ concentration of body fluids.

CHAPTER 23. The Digestive System.
23.1 The GI tract is a continuous multilayered tube extending from the mouth to the anus.
23.2 The mouth lubricates and begins digestion of food, and maneuvers it to the pharynx for swallowing.
23.3 Swallowing consists of voluntary oral, involuntary pharyngeal, and involuntary esophageal stages.
23.4 The stomach mechanically breaks down the bolus and mixes it with gastric secretions.
23.5 The pancreas secretes pancreatic juice, the liver secretes bile, and the gallbladder stores and concentrates bile.
23.6 In the small intestine, chyme mixes with digestive juices from the small intestine, pancreas, and liver.
23.7 In the large intestine, the final secretion and absorption of nutrients occur as chyme moves toward the rectum.
23.8 Digestive activities occur in three overlapping phases: cephalic, gastric, and intestinal.
23.9 Food molecules supply energy for life processes and serve as building blocks for complex molecules.
23.10 Metabolism includes the catabolism and anabolism of molecules.

CHAPTER 24.  The Urinary System.
24.1 The kidneys regulate the composition of the blood, produce hormones, and excrete wastes and foreign substances.
24.2 After blood is filtered in the renal cortex, the resulting urine travels through the renal medulla, calyces, and renal pelvis.
24.3 Each of the nephrons consists of a renal corpuscle and a renal tubule.
24.4 The functions of the nephrons and collecting ducts are glomerular filtration, tubular secretion, and tubular reabsorption.
24.5 Unlike other components of the blood, water and solutes easily pass through the filtration membrane during glomerular filtration.
24.6 Tubular reabsorption reclaims substances from the filtrate, while tubular secretion discharges substances not needed by the body.
24.7 Four hormones regulate tubular reabsorption and tubular secretion.
24.8 Antidiuretic hormone affects the concentration of urine produced by the kidneys.
24.9 The ureters transport urine from the renal pelvis to the urinary bladder where it is stored until micturition.
24.10 The kidneys help maintain the overall fluid and acid–base balance of the body.

CHAPTER 25.   The Reproductive Systems and Development.
25.1 The scrotum supports and regulates the temperature of the testes, which produce spermatozoa.
25.2 Sperm are transported from the testes through the epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory ducts, and urethra.
25.3 After a secondary oocyte is discharged from an ovary, it may undergo fertilization and implantation in the uterus.
25.4 The vagina is a passageway for childbirth; the mammary glands secrete milk.
25.5 The female reproductive cycle includes the ovarian and uterine cycles.
25.6 The zygote divides into a morula and then a blastocyst that implants in the endometrium of the uterus.
25.7 During the embryonic period, the embryonic membranes and most major organs develop.
25.8 During pregnancy the uterus expands, maternal gastrointestinal tract organs are displaced, and the ureters and urinary bladder are compressed.
25.9 Labor includes dilation of the cervix and expulsion of the fetus and placenta.
25.10 Milk production and ejection are influenced by prolactin, estrogens, progesterone, and oxytocin.


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