Anatomy: A Complete Guide for Artists

Overview

In this superb guidebook, a skilled practitioner of figure drawing demonstrates how to achieve mastery of anatomy through careful, knowledgeable articulation of the muscles and bones lying beneath the skin. Joseph Sheppard's concise instructions have been carefully integrated with over 250 halftone illustrations and over 180 line drawings to lead artists one step at a time through the techniques required in rendering human anatomy convincingly.
The opening chapter of the book ...

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Anatomy: A Complete Guide for Artists

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Overview

In this superb guidebook, a skilled practitioner of figure drawing demonstrates how to achieve mastery of anatomy through careful, knowledgeable articulation of the muscles and bones lying beneath the skin. Joseph Sheppard's concise instructions have been carefully integrated with over 250 halftone illustrations and over 180 line drawings to lead artists one step at a time through the techniques required in rendering human anatomy convincingly.
The opening chapter of the book presents the special techniques involved in mastering human proportion.The chapters that follow each deal with a separate part of the body: the arm, hand, leg, foot, torso, head, and neck (with special coverage of facial features and expressions) and the complete figure.
Each of these chapters follows a basic format that combines drawings of the featured body portion from many different angles, coverage of the specific bones and muscles involved, a table of muscle origins and insertions, and coverage of surface anatomy and depictions of the body part in a variety of positions.
Joseph Sheppard taught drawing, anatomy, and painting for many years at the Maryland Institute of Art. He is the author of several books of art instruction, and the recipient of a number of distinguished prizes and awards for his sculptures and other works of art, many of which are in the collections of art museums across America.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780486272795
  • Publisher: Dover Publications
  • Publication date: 9/30/1992
  • Series: Dover Anatomy for Artists Series
  • Pages: 224
  • Sales rank: 483,470
  • Product dimensions: 8.34 (w) x 11.16 (h) x 0.55 (d)

Read an Excerpt

ANATOMY

A COMPLETE GUIDE FOR ARTISTS


By JOSEPH SHEPPARD

Dover Publications, Inc.

Copyright © 1975 Watson-Guptill Publications
All rights reserved.
ISBN: 978-0-486-12994-5



CHAPTER 1

PROPORTION

Proportion varies as much as people do. However, the classical figure, Greek and Renaissance, was an eight-heads-length figure, the head being used as the unit of measure. Mannerist artists created an elongated figure, using nine, ten, or more head lengths. In nature, the average figure height is between seven and eight heads.

The eight-heads-length figure seems by far the best; it gives dignity to the figure and also seems to be the most convenient.


Landmarks

Certain bones project on the surface of the body, becoming important landmarks for the artist. These bones are always next to the skin. On a thin person they protrude and on a heavy person they show as dimples.


Key

A. Sternal notch

B. End of clavicle and scapula

C. Bottom end of sternum

D. Inside of elbow (humerus)

E. Ridge of pelvis

F. Pubis bone

G. Thumb side of wrist (radius)

H. Little finger side of wrist (ulna)

I. Inside of upper part of knee (femur)

J. Inside of lower part of knee (tibia)

K. Kneecap (patella)

L. Head of fibula

M. Outside of ankle (fibula)

N. Inside of ankle (tibia)

O. Shinbone (tibia)

P. Nipples

Q. Navel

R. Hipbone (femur)

S. Seventh cervical vertebra

T. Bottom of scapula

U. Dimples caused by end of iliac spine

V. Back of elbow (ulna head)

W. Head of radius

CHAPTER 2

THE ARM


SCHEMATIC DRAWINGS

Front View of Arm, Palm Out (Supination)

The shoulder socket is made up of two bones: the clavicle (collarbone) in front and the scapula (shoulder bone) in back. The upper arm has one bone: the humerus. Half its dual head is shaped like a rectangle and half like a ball, fitting into the shoulder socket. At the elbow, the humerus is divided into three equal sections: the first section is shaped like a ball; the second section is shaped like a spool and forms an angle downward toward the torso; the third section protrudes and can be seen and felt on the inside of the elbow. The forearm has two bones: the radius and the ulna. The radius is on the outside of the elbow and on the thumb side of the wrist. It is smaller at the elbow and larger at the wrist. The head of the radius is round and flat and rotates on the small ball of the humerus. The head of the ulna rises up behind the humerus and rides on the spool of the humerus.

There is a slight drop, or stepdown, where the clavicle meets the scapula. The muscle that attaches from the scapula to the inside of the humerus is called the coracobrachialis. It raises the arm. The small muscle attached to the inside of the humerus at the elbow is a pronator and turns the radius so that the palm of the hand faces in. The other three muscles are flexors of the wrist and fingers.

The muscle attached to the lower front of the humerus and the ulna is called the brachialis. It flexes the forearm. The long supinator attaches to the outside of the humerus and along the edge of the radius near the thumb. It pulls the radius to the supinated position (palm out). The long supinator and the pronator of the radius turn the forearm in opposite directions (see next drawing).

The largest muscle on the front of the arm is the biceps. It has two heads that attach to the scapula. At its base, the biceps also splits in two. The primary function of the biceps is to flex the forearm. It also helps rotate the radius outward.

Attached to the external third of the clavicle and to the scapula is the deltoid. It overlaps the biceps and coracobrachialis and inserts into the outside of the humerus. The deltoid elevates the arm and helps draw it forward and backward.


Back View of the Arm, Palm Out (Supination)

The ball of the humerus fits into the shoulder socket of the scapula. Note that the angle of the forearm away from torso is in a supinated position. This angle is caused by the angle of the spool on the end of the humerus (see detail at right). The hook of the ulna fits up into the back of the humerus. Note the angle at wrist.

On the back of the scapula are two overlapping muscles that attach to the head of the humerus. They are called the infraspinatus and teres minor. They help rotate the arm and pull it in toward the body. On the lower part of the back of the scapula is a muscle that inserts in front of the humerus and helps rotate the arm inward. It is called the teres major. The large muscle attached to the humerus and the hook part of the ulna is called the triceps. It has three heads. The long head is shown cut so that the underlying inner head can be seen. The external head is the highest, forming an angle on the back of the arm. There are three muscles that arise from the ulna and radius and insert into the thumb: the muscle that attaches highest is the abductor of the thumb, which draws the thumb toward the back of the hand—its tendon is noticeable in this action; the other two muscles are the short and long extensors of the thumb.

The long head of the triceps passes between the infraspinatus and teres major muscles and attaches to the edge of the scapula. The triceps is the large extensor of the forearm. The one short and three long muscles originating on the external side of the humerus at the elbow are all extensors of the forearm, wrist, and fingers. The diagram of extensors for the back of the arm is the same as the extensors for the front of the arm.

The shape of the inside of the forearm is made by the flexor muscle from the front of the arm. High on the outside of the arm is the long supinator. Just below it is the long radial extensor of the wrist.

The deltoid is attached to the entire extent of the spine of the scapula and overlaps the muscles of the scapula and the triceps, where it inserts into the outside of the humerus.


Front View of the Arm, Palm In (Pronation)

The radius turns the palm in and crosses over the ulna at the wrist. The hook of the ulna is forced to the outside at the elbow, and the humerus turns slightly. The angle of of the wrist changes. The whole arm is straight in this position, as compared with the angle created in supination.

The external head of the triceps becomes prominent. The mass of muscle of the long supinator and long extensor of the wrist crosses over, with the thumb making the inside silhouette of the forearm higher than the outside.


Back View of the Arm, Palm In (Pronation)

The hook of the ulna is on the outside of the elbow. The radius has crossed over the front of the ulna, creating a reverse angle at the wrist. The whole arm is straight.

The deltoid and long head of the triceps are stretched. Note stepdown from clavicle to scapula.


Inside of the Arm, Supinated

The hook of the ulna riding on the spool of the humerus is clearly seen in this drawing. Even though the ulna is the shorter bone, it is very prominent at the wrist and can be easily seen and felt.

The long supinator forms a high angle on the top exterior side of the forearm. The muscles in the upper part of the arm are relaxed in this position.


Inside of the Arm, Pronated

When palm is in pronation, the radius crosses over the ulna and brings the thumb to the inside.

The long supinator crosses over the radius; the extensors of the wrist and fingers follow.


Outside of the Arm, Supinated

The ball of the humerus fits into the shoulder socket. The head of the radius sitting on the small ball of the humerus can be easily seen from this view. The hook of the ulna sitting behind the radius rides on the spool of the humerus. The radius at the wrist overlaps the wrist and is on the thumb side.

The deltoid inserts into the external side of the humerus about midway down. The triceps is higher in the back than the biceps in the front, forming an angle. The long supinator attaches into the humerus just a few inches below the deltoid, forming a reverse angle at the forearm.


Outside of the Arm, Pronated

The radius crosses over the ulna at the wrist, leaving the ulna prominent on the outside. The radius rotates in on the small ball of the humerus.

The front part of the deltoid hardens as it helps rotate the arm. The external head of the triceps swells in this position. Supinator and extensors follow the radius.


Front View, Arm Raised Away from Body

When the arm is raised, the scapula and clavicle follow with it.

The teres major muscle stretches. The coracobrachialis becomes prominent as it elevates the arm.


Back View, Arm Raised Away from Body

The scapula raises with the arm.

The infraspinatus flexes as it helps raise the arm. The deltoid also helps elevate the arm.


Outside View, Biceps Flexed

The radius and the ulna ride on the ball and spool of the humerus.

The biceps and supinator swell as they flex. The triceps remains relaxed. Note that the bones of the elbow, which are not covered with muscle bulk, are prominent.


Front View, Arm Flexed

The hook of the ulna is shown riding on the spool of the humerus. The ball of the humerus rotates in the shoulder socket.

The biceps is flexed and hard as it pulls the forearm up. The coracobrachialis is flexed as it holds up the upper arm. The flexor group in the forearm is swollen during the action of making a fist. Note that the bones in the elbow are prominent.


BONES

Shoulder Socket

The shoulder socket is made up of two bones: the clavicle in front and the scapula in back.


Key

Parts of the Clavicle

a. Shaft

b. Sternal end

c. Acromion end


Parts of the Scapula

1. Glenoid fossa (for head of humerus)

2. Spine

3. Acromion process

4. Coracoid process

5. Superior angle

6. Inferior angle

7. Exterior border

8. Internal border

9. Superior border

10. Surface for clavicle attachment

11. Supraspinous fossa

12. Infraspinous fossa

13. Anterior surface

14. Glenoid cavity


Upper Arm (Humerus)

Key

1. Head

2. Greater tuberosity

3. Lesser tuberosity

4. Bicipital groove

5. Deltoid impression

6. Internal condyle

7. External condyle

8. Capitulum for articulation with radius

9. Trochlear surface for articulation with ulna

10. External condyle ridge

11. Internal condyle ridge

12. Coronoid depression

13. Olecranon depression


Upper Arm (Humerus)

Key

1. Head

2. Greater tuberosity

3. Lesser tuberosity

4. Bicipital groove

5. Deltoid impression

6. Internal condyle

7. External condyle

7. Capitulum for articulation with radius

9. Trochlear surface for articulation with ulna

10. External condyle ridge

11. Internal condyle ridge

12. Coronoid depression

13. Olecranon depression


Shoulder Joint

Key

1. Clavicle

a. Sternal end

b. Acromion end

2. Scapula

c. Acromion process

d. Coracoid process

e. Glenoid fossa

3. Humerus

4. Ribcage


Forearm (Radius and Ulna)

There are two bones in the forearm: the radius and the ulna. The radius is always on the outside of the elbow and the thumb side of the wrist. The upper end, at the elbow, is small; the lower end, at the wrist, is large. The ulna is on the inside of the elbow. And, conversely, its upper end is large and its lower end is small.


Key

1. Radius

a. Head of radius

b. Bicipital tuberosity

c. Insertion of the pronator radii teres

d. Expanded lower end of radius

e. Styloid process of radius

2. Ulna

f. Olecranon process

g. Coronoid process

h. Greater sigmoid notch

i. Attachment of brachialis anticus

j. Triangular subcutaneous surface

k. Styloid process of ulna

l. Crest of the posterior border

m. Lower end of ulna


Forearm (Radius and Ulna)

Key

1. Radius

a. Head of radius

b. Bicipital tuberosity

c. Insertion of the pronator radii teres

d. Expanded lower end of radius

e. Styloid process of radius

2. Ulna

f. Olecranon process

g. Coronoid process

h. Greater sigmoid notch

i. Attachment of brachialis anticus

j. Triangular subcutaneous surface

k. Styloid process of ulna

1. Crest of the posterior border

m. Lower end of ulna


(Continues...)

Excerpted from ANATOMY by JOSEPH SHEPPARD. Copyright © 1975 Watson-Guptill Publications. Excerpted by permission of Dover Publications, Inc..
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

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Table of Contents

Introduction
1. PROPORTION
    Landmarks
2. THE ARM
    Schematic Drawings
      "Front View, Palm Out (Supination)"
      "Back View, Palm Out (Supination)"
      "Front View, Palm In (Pronation)"
      "Back View, Palm In (Pronation)"
      "Inside of Arm, Supinated"
      "Inside of Arm, Pronated"
      "Outside of Arm, Supinated"
      "Outside of Arm, Pronated"
      "Front View, Arm Raised Away from Body"
      "Outside View, Biceps Flexed"
      "Front View, Arm Flexed"
    Bones
      Shoulder Socket
      Upper Arm (Humerus)
      Shoulder Joint
      Forearm (Radius and Ulna)
      Elbow Joint
      Bones of the Hand and Wrist
      Wrist Joint
    Muscles
      Back of Arm
      Front of Arm
      Outside of Arm
    Table of Muscle Origins and Insertions
    Surface Anatomy
3. THE HAND
    Schematic Drawings
      Palm Side
      Back of the Hand
      Little Finger Side
      Thumb Side
    Muscles
    Table of Muscle Origins and Insertions
    Surface Anatomy
4. THE LEG
    Schematic Drawings
      Front View
      Back View
      Outside of Leg
      Inside of Leg
      "Front View, Extended with Toes Pointing Out"
      "Back View, Extended with Toes Pointing Out"
      "Outside View, Leg in Flexed Position"
      "Front of the Inside of Flexed Leg, with Knee Pointed Out"
    Bones
      Pelvis
      Upper Leg (Femur)
      Hip Joint
      Lower Leg (Tibia and Fibula)
      Knee Joint
      Bones of the Foot
      Ankle Joint
    Muscles
    Table of Muscle Origins and Insertions
    Surface Anatomy
5. THE FOOT
    Schematic Drawings
      Outside of Foot
      Inside of Foot
      Front View
      Back View
      Top of Foot
      Bottom of Foot
    Muscles
    Table of Muscle Origins and Insertions
    Surface Anatomy
6. THE TORSO
    Schematic Drawings
      Front View
      Back View
      Side View
      Back View with Torso Bent and Arm Raised
      Side View of Torso with Arm Raised Forward
      Side View of Torso with Arm Pulled Back
      Front View of Torso with Arms Raised
    Bones
      Spinal Column
      Vertebrae
      Ribcage
    Muscles
      Torso
      Armpit
    Table of Muscle Origins and Insertions
    Surface Anatomy
7. HEAD AND NECK
    Schematic Drawings
      Front View
      Side View
      Front View with Head and Neck Turned
      Side View with Head Down
      Side View with Head Back
    Bones
      Skull
      Neck Joint
    Muscles
    Table of Muscle Origins and Insertions
    Surface Anatomy of the Neck
    The Features
      Ear
      Nose
      Lips
      Eye
      Teeth
    Facial Expressions
8. COMPLETE FIGURE
    Veins

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Sort by: Showing all of 4 Customer Reviews
  • Posted March 13, 2010

    I always wanted to learn how to draw the human figure correctly, so I enrolled in art school. This book is very helpful in depicting the figure accurately. My only wish was that it gave me more poses, from both views, and different angles, etc.

    I would recommend this book to others, in fact, one of my fellow students in a higher level painting class, saw my book and subsequently bought my second copy of it. (I misplaced mine right after my purchase and reordered it, found my original copy later) My friend was having trouble depicting the human skull, the book helped her make the necessary corrections. This book has proved very help to me when I sketch helping me to make my figures more realistic.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted June 10, 2008

    Not Quite Complete

    The skeletel and muscular diagrams in this book are great, and the captions are exceptionally thorough, but only one body type is discussed. I found it to be a great starter book for the artist concerned about anatomical correctness, but it does not deal with smaller frames such as children or petite women. Muscles and bones make up the majority of the book, but I found the brief inclusions of facial expressions and features helpful. My biggest complaint is that this book covers Caucasian features only.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted March 5, 2008

    Not For Beginners!

    I believe that this is a good resource for more advanced artists. It is not for someone--like me--who is just beginning and is interested in learning how to draw the human body simply. The illustrations in this book are great and detailed, but maybe Sheppard's other title about Drawing the Living Figure would have been more helpful for me. In any case, I would only recommend this book if you are more advanced.

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  • Anonymous

    Posted October 5, 2010

    No text was provided for this review.

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