Anatomy, Physiology, and Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professions / Edition 1

Anatomy, Physiology, and Disease: An Interactive Journey for Health Professions / Edition 1

by Bruce J. Colbert, Jeff J. Ankney, Karen T. Lee
     
 

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ISBN-10: 0132050730

ISBN-13: 9780132050739

Pub. Date: 08/19/2008

Publisher: Prentice Hall

This engaging, conversational book introduces all the anatomy, physiology, and pathology concepts that students must master to succeed in the health professions. ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, & DISEASE: AN INTERACTIVE JOURNEY FOR HEALTH PROFESSIONS, 3/e is designed to promote true understanding, not mere memorization, and to help students make the lasting

Overview

This engaging, conversational book introduces all the anatomy, physiology, and pathology concepts that students must master to succeed in the health professions. ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, & DISEASE: AN INTERACTIVE JOURNEY FOR HEALTH PROFESSIONS, 3/e is designed to promote true understanding, not mere memorization, and to help students make the lasting connections they need to thrive as practitioners. Throughout, well-placed "Pathology Connections" sections tightly link A&P concepts to pathologic processes. Analogies help students compare the human body to objects and processes they already understand, and illustrations and visual features support the visual learning style many of them prefer. This edition adds new web-based animations, videos, and interactive exercises to its fully integrated website. It also offers an easier-to-navigate text design; enriched illustrations and new photographs; and a new chapter on biochemistry.

Note: This is just the standalone book.

Product Details

ISBN-13:
9780132050739
Publisher:
Prentice Hall
Publication date:
08/19/2008
Series:
Pearson Custom Health Professions Series
Edition description:
Older Edition
Pages:
840
Product dimensions:
8.80(w) x 11.06(h) x 1.10(d)

Table of Contents


Introduction xii

Preview of the Teacher’s Wraparound Edition xiii

Chapter 1 Anatomy, Physiology and Disease:

Learning the Language 1

Chapter 2 The Human Body: Reading the

What Is Anatomy and Physiology? 2

Anatomy 2

Physiology 3

Putting It All Together 3

What Is Disease? 4

The Language 5

Medical Terminology 6

Abbreviations 9

Te Metric System 11

Anatomy, Physiology, and Disease

Concepts You Will Encounter

on Your Journey 11

Metabolism 11

Homeostasis 12

Disease Concepts 15

The Body’s Defense System 18

Body Barriers 18

Understanding Routes of Transmission 19

Standard Precautions 20

Summary 23

Case Study 24

Review Questions 26

Career Connections 28

Anatomy, Physiology, and Disease

in Action 29

Map 31

The Map of the Human Body 32

Body Positions 32

Pathology Connection: Body Positions

and A&P Changes 34

Body Planes and Directional Terms 35

Additional Directional Terms 37

Body Cavities 40

Body Regions 41

Radiology: The Science of Viewing

the Body 46

X-rays (Radiograph or Roentgenogram) 46

Computerized Tomography (CT or CAT

Scan) 48

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) 48

Ultrasound (Sonography) 48

Summary 50

Case Study 51

Review Questions 52

Career Connections 54

Anatomy, Physiology, and Disease

in Action 54

iv • CONTENTS

Chapter 3 Biochemistry: The Basic Ingredients

of Life 55

Atoms, Elements, and Ions 56

Acids and Bases 58

Bonding 60

Water 61

Solutions 62

Biological Molecules 63

Metabolism 67

Enzymes: Making Reactions Happen 67

Summary 70

Case Study 71

Review Questions 71

Career Connections 73

Anatomy, Physiology, and Disease

in Action 74

Chapter 4 The Cells: The Raw Materials and

Pathology Connection: Organelle

Disorders 92

Pathology Connection: Diabetes

Mellitus (Revisited): A Disorder Tied to

Cellular Respiration 93

Pathology Connection: PKU, an Enzyme

Disorder 94

Mitosis 95

Cellular Reproduction 95

Te Cell Cycle 96

Pathology Connection: Cancer: Mitosis

Run Amok 98

Microorganisms 99

Bacteria 99

Viruses 100

Fungi 101

Protozoa 101

Pathology Connection: How

Microorganisms Cause Disease 103

Summary 106

Case Study 107

Review Questions 108

Career Connections 110

Anatomy, Physiology, and Disease

in Action 110

Building Blocks 75

Overview of Cells 76

Cell Structure 77

Cell Membrane 78

Transport Methods 79

Passive Transport 79

Pathology Connection: Cystic

Fibrosis (CF): A Membrane Channel

Abnormality 82

Pathology Connection: Diabetes

Mellitus: A Disorder of Facilitated

Diffusion 83

Active Transport 84

Pathology Connection: Familial

Hypercholesterolemia: A Disorder

of Endocytosis 86

Cellular Components 87

Cytoplasm 87

Nucleus and Nucleolus 87

Ribosomes 88

Centrosomes 89

Mitochondria 89

Endoplasmic Reticulum 90

Golgi Apparatus 90

Lysosomes 91

Other Interesting Parts 91

Chapter 5 Tissues and Systems: The Inside

Story 111

Overview of Tissues 112

Tissue Types 112

Pathology Connection: Blood Sugar and

Tissue Damage 120

Organs 121

Systems 122

Skeletal System 124

Muscular System 125

Integumentary System 126

Nervous System 127

Endocrine System 128

Cardiovascular System 129

Pathology Connection: Septicemia 130

Respiratory System 130

Lymphatic and Immune System 131

Gastrointestinal (Digestive) System 132

Contents • v

Pathology Connection: Body Image:

Obesity and Anorexia 134

Urinary System 135

Reproductive System 136

Summary 138

Case Study 138

Review Questions 140

Career Connections 142

Anatomy, Physiology, and Disease

in Action 142

Chapter 7 The Muscular System: Movement

Chapter 6 The Skeletal System: The

Framework 143

System Overview: More Than the “Bare

Bones” About Bones 144

General Bone Classifcation 144

Basic Bone Anatomy 145

Bone Tissue 147

Surface Structures of Bones 148

Bone Growth and Repair 149

Pathology Connection:

Osteoporosis 151

Cartilage 153

Joints and Ligaments 154

Movement Classifcation 156

Pathology Connection: Common Joint

Disorders 158

The Skeleton 160

Special Regions of the Skeletal System 160

Pathology Connection: Spinal Column

Abnormalities 165

Pathology Connection: Bone Fractures

and Healing 168

Maintaining Good Bone Health 169

A Quick Trip Through Some Diseases of

the Skeletal System 171

Pharmacology Corner 175

Summary 176

Case Study 177

Review Questions 178

Career Connections 180

Anatomy, Physiology, and Disease

in Action 180

for the Journey 181

Overview of the Muscular System 182

Types of Muscles 182

Pathology Connection: Myopathy 184

Skeletal Muscles 185

Pathology Connection: Strains and

Tears 185

Skeletal Muscle Injuries 188

Pathology Connection: Fibromyalgia

Syndrome 192

Skeletal Muscle Movement 192

Contraction and Relaxation 192

Movement Terminology 194

Muscular Movement at the Cellular

Level 196

Te Functional Unit of the Muscle 196

Pathology Connection: Duchenne’s

Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) 199

Pathology Connection: Myasthenia

Gravis (MG) 199

Pathology Connection: Tetanus 201

Muscular Fuel 202

Visceral or Smooth Muscle 203

Cardiac Muscle 204

A Quick Trip Through Diseases and

Conditions of the Muscular System 205

Pharmacology Corner: Skeletal Muscle

Drugs 207

Summary 208

Case Study 209

Review Questions 210

Career Connections 212

Anatomy, Physiology, and Disease

in Action 213

Chapter 8 The Integumentary System: The

Protective Covering 215

System Overview 216

Integumentary System Functions 216

Te Skin 217

Pathology Connection: Skin Color

and Disease 219

Pathology Connection: Infections

of the Skin 221

vi • CONTENTS

How Skin Heals 225

Pathology Connection: Burns 227

Nails 230

Hair 232

Pathology Connection: Lice

and Scabies 234

Temperature Regulation 235

Pathology Connection: Skin Lesions 237

A Quick Trip Through Some Diseases

of the Integumentary System 238

Pharmacology Corner 244

Summary 244

Case Study 245

Review Questions 246

Career Connections 248

Anatomy, Physiology, and Disease

in Action 249

Chapter 9 The Nervous System: The Body’s

Pathology Connection:

Brain Injury 280

Cerebrospinal Fluid and Ventricles 288

Cranial Nerves 288

Pathology Connection: Alzheimer’s

Disease 288

Pathology Connection:

Hydrocephalus 291

The Big Picture: Integration of Brain,

Spinal Cord, and PNS 292

Te Somatic Sensory System 292

Te Motor System 294

Pathology Connection: Motor

Pathologies 296

The Autonomic Nervous

System 298

Te Sympathetic Branch 299

Te Parasympathetic Branch 300

A Quick Trip Through Diseases

of the Nervous System 302

Pharmacology Corner 304

Summary 305

Case Study 306

Review Questions 307

Career Connections 310

Anatomy, Physiology, and Disease

in Action 310

Control Center 251

Overview 252

Te Parts and Basic Operation

of the Nervous System 252

Nervous Tissue 255

Neuroglia 255

Neurons 256

How Neurons Work 257

Excitable Cells 257

Action Potentials 258

Local Potentials 258

Impulse Conduction 259

Pathology Connection: Myelin

Disorders 261

How Synapses Work 262

Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves 265

External Anatomy of the Spinal Cord 265

Internal Anatomy of the Spinal Cord 267

Pathology Connection: Polio and Post-
Polio Syndrome 271

Pathology Connection: Peripheral

Neuropathy and Spinal Cord Injury 272

The Brain and Cranial Nerves 276

Te Brain’s External Anatomy 276

Internal Anatomy of the Brain 279

Chapter 10 The Endocrine System: The Body’s

Other Control Center 311

Organization of the Endocrine

System 312

Endocrine Organs 312

Hormones 314

Control of Endocrine Activity 315

Homeostasis and Negative Feedback 315

Sources of Control of Hormone Levels 317

The Major Endocrine Organs 319

Te Hypothalamus 319

Te Pituitary 320

Pathology Connection: Posterior

Pituitary and Antidiuretic Hormone 322

Pathology Connection: Anterior

Pituitary 323

Te Tyroid Gland 324

Contents • vii

Te Tymus Gland 325

Te Pineal Gland 325

Te Pancreas 325

Pathology Connection: The Thyroid

Gland 326

Te Adrenal Glands 329

Pathology Connection: Diabetes

Mellitus 331

Pathology Connection: Steroid-Related

Conditions 334

Cortisol and the Stress Response 335

The Gonads 336

Prostaglandins 337

A Quick Trip Through the Diseases

of the Endocrine System 338

Pharmacology Corner 339

Summary 340

Case Study 341

Review Questions 342

Career Connections 344

Anatomy, Physiology, and Disease

in Action 344

Case Study 372

Review Questions 372

Career Connections 374

Anatomy, Physiology, and Disease

in Action 375

Chapter 12 The Cardiovascular System:

Chapter 11 The Senses: The Sights

and Sounds 345

The Senses 346

Sense of Sight 347

Te External Structures of the Eye 347

Te Internal Structures of the Eye 348

Pathology Connection: Injuries

and Disorders of the Eyes 350

The Sense of Hearing 356

Structures of the Ear 356

Pathology Connection: Diseases

of the Ear 360

Other Senses 362

Taste 362

Smell 363

Touch 364

A Quick Trip Through Some Diseases

of the Eye 368

A Quick Trip Through Some Diseases

of the Ears 369

Pharmacology Corner 370

Summary 371

Transport and Supply 377

System Overview 378

Incredible Pumps: The Heart 380

General Structure and Function 380

Cardiac Cycle 382

Pathology Connection: Problems

with Cardiac Muscle and Cardiac

Vasculature 387

Pathology Connection: Electrical

Disturbances 397

Hematology 399

Blood Composition 399

Red Blood Cells 401

White Blood Cells 401

Infammation 402

Trombocytes 403

Blood Types and Transfusions 403

Pathology Connection: Assorted Blood

Conditions 406

Blood Vessels: The Vascular

System 407

Structure and Function 407

Capillaries and Veins 408

Blood Clotting 411

Pathology Connection: Clotting 413

Pathology Connection: Problems

Associated with Systemic Blood

Vessels 415

A Quick Trip Through Some Diseases

of the Cardiovascular System 415

Pharmacology Corner 423

Summary 424

Case Study 425

Review Questions 425

Career Connections 428

Anatomy, Physiology, and Disease

in Action 429

viii • CONTENTS

Chapter 13 The Respiratory System: It’s

a Gas 431

System Overview 432

Ventilation versus Respiration 434

The Respiratory System 436

Te Airways and Te Lungs 436

Te Upper Airway of the Respiratory

Tract 436

Pathology Connection: The Nose 439

Te Sinuses 441

Te Pharynx 442

Te Larynx 443

Pathology Connection: The Upper

Airway 444

The Lower Respiratory Tract 447

Te Alveolar Capillary Membrane: Where

the Action Is 450

Pulmonary Function Testing 452

Pathology Connection: The Lower

Airways 454

Te Housing of the Lungs and Related

Structures 462

Pathology Connection: Pleural Space

Problems 463

Te Lungs 464

Te Protective Bony Torax 464

How We Breathe 465

A Quick Trip Through the Diseases

of the Respiratory System 469

Pharmacology Corner 472

Summary 473

Case Study 474

Review Questions 474

Career Connections 476

Anatomy, Physiology, and Disease

in Action 477

Pathology Connection: Cancer Stages

and the Lymphatic System 486

The Immune System 488

Antigens and Antibodies 488

Innate versus Adaptive Immunity 488

Components of the Immune System 489

Pathology Connection: Leukemia 491

Pathology Connection: Inflammation,

a Two-Edged Sword 493

How the Immune System Works 495

Innate Immunity 495

Adaptive Immunity 496

Pathology Connection: Autoimmune

Disorders 497

Pathology Connection: HIV and

AIDS 502

B and T Cell Action 503

The Big Picture 507

Pathology Connection: Hypersensitivity

Reactions 508

A Quick Trip Through Some Diseases

of the Immune System 510

Pharmacology Corner 511

Summary 512

Case Study 515

Review Questions 516

Career Connections 518

Anatomy, Physiology, and Disease

in Action 518

Chapter 15 The Gastrointestinal System: Fuel

Chapter 14 The Lymphatic and Immune

Systems: Your Defense Systems 479

The Defense Zone 480

The Lymphatic System 480

Pathology Connection: Tonsillitis 483

Lymph Organs 485

Pathology Connection: Lymphatic

Disorders 486

for the Trip 519

System Overview 520

The Mouth and Oral Cavity 522

Oral Cavity 522

Tongue 522

Salivary Glands 522

Teeth 524

Pathology Connection: Oral

Disorders 527

Pharynx 527

Esophagus 528

The Walls of the Alimentary

Canal 529

Contents • ix

Stomach 531

Pathology Connection: Stomach Acid

Disorders 535

Small Intestine 537

Large Intestine 541

Pathology Connection: Disorders of the

Lower Gastrointestinal Tract 543

Accessory Organs 544

Liver 544

Gallbladder 545

Pancreas 546

Pathology Connection: Cholecystitis,

Pancreatitis, and Hepatitis 547

Common Symptoms of Digestive

System Disorders 548

A Quick Trip Through Some Diseases

of the Gastrointestinal System 549

Pharmacology Corner 556

Summary 556

Case Study 558

Review Questions 558

Career Connections 562

Anatomy, Physiology, and Disease

in Action 563

Pathology Connection: Dialysis

or Kidney Transplant Therapy 589

Te Urinary Bladder and Urination

Refex 590

Pathology Connection: Incontinence

and Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) 592

A Quick Trip Through Disorders of the

Urinary System 593

Pharmacology Corner 595

Summary 596

Case Study 597

Review Questions 598

Career Connections 600

Anatomy, Physiology, and Disease

in Action 600

Chapter 17 The Reproductive System:

Chapter 16 The Urinary System: Filtration and

Fluid Balance 565

System Overview 566

The Anatomy of the Kidney 567

External Anatomy 567

Internal Anatomy 568

Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidney:

Te Nephron 570

Pathology Connection: Kidney

Stones and Polycystic Kidney Disease

(PKD) 572

Urine Formation 576

Control of Filtration 576

Pathology Connection:

Nephropathy 580

Control of Tubular Reabsorption

and Secretion 582

Pathology Connection: Uremia

and Renal Failure 585

Replacement and Repair 601

Tissue Growth and Replacement 602

Mitosis 602

Sexual Reproduction 603

Reduction Division: Meiosis 603

The Human Life Cycle 605

The Human Reproductive System 607

Female Anatomy 607

Pathology Connection:

Endometriosis 610

Reproductive Physiology: Female 613

Te Menstrual Cycle 613

Pathology Connection: Menstrual

Disorders 618

Male Anatomy 621

Pathology Connection: Male

Reproductive Diseases 623

Reproductive Physiology: Male 625

Spermatogenesis 625

Pathology Connection: Erectile

Dysfunction (ED) 627

Pregnancy 628

Pathology Connection: Infertility 629

Pathology Connection: Breast

Health 632

x • CONTENTS

A Quick Trip Through Some Diseases

of the Reproductive System 634

Pharmacology Corner 636

Summary 637

Case Study 639

Review Questions 639

Career Connections 642

Anatomy, Physiology, and Disease

in Action 643

Career Connections 676

Anatomy, Physiology, and Disease

in Action 676

Chapter 19 Anatomy and Physiology and the

Chapter 18 Basic Diagnostic Tests: What Do

the Tests Tell Us? 645

Overview of Diagnostic Testing 646

Blood Testing 647

Blood Basics 647

General Blood Disorders 649

Specifc Blood Tests 649

Blood Chemistry 655

Urine Testing 658

Dipsticks 659

Specifc Urine Tests 660

Fecal Testing 665

Amount, Consistency, Form,

and Shape 665

Stool pH 665

Stool Color 665

Blood in Stool 666

Mucus in Stool 666

Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF) Testing 667

CSF Color 667

CSF Cell Counts 668

Culture and Sensitivity (C&S)

Testing 668

Cardiac Diagnostics 669

Electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG) 669

Holter Monitor 669

Stress Testing 670

“Scopes” 670

Pulmonary Function Testing (PFT) 671

Polysomnography 672

Summary 673

Case Study 674

Review Questions 674

Scientific Method 677

Overview of the Scientific Method 678

Patterns of Knowing 678

Te Scientifc Method 679

Formulating Questions 680

Hypotheses and Teories 680

Testing Hypotheses 682

Making Measurement 685

Presenting and Data 689

Drawing Inferences 692

Limitations of the Scientifc Method 695

Summary 696

Review Questions 696

Anatomy, Physiology, and Disease in

Action 698

Chapter 20 The Journey’s End: Now What? 699

Forensic Science 700

Disease Detection 701

Primitive Surgery 701

Remains Identifcation 702

Murder Most Foul! 702

Fingerprints 703

DNA Fingerprinting 704

Geriatrics 705

General Body Changes 706

Gustatory Changes 707

Te Brain and Nervous System 707

Te Cardiovascular System 707

Genitourinary System 708

Integumentary System 708

Polypharmacy 708

Wellness 709

Nervous System 710

Skeletal System 710

Muscular System 711

Integumentary System 712

Cardiovascular System 712

Respiratory System 713

Contents • xi

Chapter 21 Health Care: Careers and Career

Appendix A Medical Terminology, Words Parts,

Planning 731

Interests 732

Values 732

Abilities 732

Heath Care Education 733

Resources For Occupational Research 733

Jobs and Professions 734

Professional and Personal

Characteristics 749

Ethical Roles and Responsibilities of a

Health Care Worker 752

Meetings in the Workplace 753

Safety in the Workplace 753

Job-Seeking Skills 754

Your Career Plan 755

Volunteering 757

Suggested Activities 758

and Singular and Plural Endings 779

Appendix B Clinical Abbreviations and

“Do Not Use” List 790

Appendix C Infectious Diseases and Teir

Pathogens 800

Appendix D Laboratory Reference Values 803

Appendix E Multisystem Efects of Various

Diseases and Conditions 807

Appendix F Vitamins and Minerals: Sources,

The Study Success Companion: The Key to Your

Functions, and Efects of Defciency

and Toxicity 818

Successful Journey 759

Study Skills 760

1. Select a Good Time and Place to Study 760

2. Use Good Study Habits 761

3. Take Care of Yourself 763

Stress Management 763

Stress Misconceptions 763

What Causes Physical and Emotional

Stress? 764

A Stress Management System 766

Efective Coping Strategies 766

Efective Physical Strategies 767

The Mathematical Language of

Medicine 769

Why Learn the Metric System? 769

Exponential Powers of 10 769

Systems of Measurement 770

Conversion of Units 774

Using the Factor Label Method for Conversion

Between Systems 777

Appendix G Standard and Transmission-Based

Precautions 821

Glossary 826

Index 874

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