CHOU: at first a principality in South Shen Si and part of Kan
Suh, subject to Shang dynasty; afterwards the imperial dynasty
TS'lN: principality west of the above. When the Chou dynasty moved
its capital east into Ho Nan, Ts'in took possession of the old
TSIN: principality (same family as Chou) in South Shan Si (and in
part of Shen Si at times).
TS'I: principality, separated by the Yellow River from Tsin and
Yen; it lay in North Shan Tung, and in the coast part of Chih Li.
TS'U: semi-barbarous principality alone preponderant on the Yang-
WU: still more barbarous principality (ruling caste of the same
family as Chou, but senior to Chou) on the Yang-tsz _embouchure_
and Shanghai coasts.
YÜEH: equally barbarous principality commanding another
_embouchure_ in the Hangchow-Ningpo region. Wu and Yüeh were
at first subordinate to Ts'u.
YEN: principality (same family as Chou) in the Peking plain, north
of the Yellow River mouth,
SHUH and PA: in no way Chinese or federal; equivalent to Central
and Eastern Sz Ch'wan province.
CHÊNG: principality in Ho Nan (same family as Chou).
SUNG: principality taking in the four corners of Ho Nan, Shan
Tung, An Hwei, and Kiang Su (Shang dynasty family).
CH'ÊN: principality in Ho Nan, south of Sung (family of the
Ploughman Emperor, 2250 B.C., preceding even the Hia dynasty).
WEI: principality taking in corners of Ho Nan, Chih Li, and Shan
Tung (family of the Chou emperors).
TS'AO: principality in South-west Shan Tung; neighbour of Lu, Wei,
and Sung (same family as Chou).
TS'AI: principality in Ho Nan, south of CH'ÊN (same family as
LU: principality in South-west Shan Tung, between Ts'ao and Ts'i
(its founder was the brother of the Chou founder).
HÜ: very small principality in Ho Nan, south of Cheng (same
obscure eastern ancestry as Ts'i),
K'I: Shan Tung promontory and German sphere (of Hia dynasty
descent); it is often confused with, or is quite the same as,
another principality called _Ki_ (without the aspirate).
The above are practically all the states whose participation in
Chinese development has been historically of importance,
NAMES OF CHIEF PERSONAGES
CONFUCIUS: after 500 B.C. premier of Lu; traced his descent back
through the Chou dynasty vassal ruling family of Sung to the Shang
TSZ-CH'AN: elder contemporary of Confucius; premier of Cheng;
traced his descent through the vassal ruling family of Cheng to
the Chou dynasty family: date of death variously stated.
KWAN-TSE: died between 648 and 643 B.C., variously stated; premier
of Ts'i; traced his descent to the same clan as the ruling dynasty
YEN-TSZ: died 500 B.C.; premier of Ts'i; traced his descent to a
local clan, apparently eastern barbarian by origin.
WEI YANG: died 338 B.C.; premier of Ts'in; was a concubine-born
prince of the vassal state of Wei, and was thus of the imperial
Chou dynasty clan.
SHUH HIANG: lawyer and minister of Tsin; belonged to one of the
"great families" of Tsin; was contemporary with Tsz-ch'an. HIANG
SÜH: diplomat of the state of Sung; pedigree not ascertained,
KI-CHAH: son, brother, and uncle of successive barbarian kings of
Wu, whose ancestors, however, were the same ancestors as the
orthodox imperial rulers of the Chou dynasty; contemporary of Tsz-
NAMES OF THE SO-CALLED "FIVE PROTECTORS"
(ONLY THE TWO FIRST OF THE FIVE WERE SO OFFICIALLY; THE TWO LAST
WERE SO, EVEN OFFICIALLY, THOUGH NEVER COUNTED AMONGST THE FIVE.)
1. MARQUESS OF Ts'i (not of imperial Chou clan, perhaps of
"Eastern Barbarian" origin).
2. MARQUESS OF TSIN (imperial Chou clan).
3. DUKE OF SUNG (imperial Shang dynasty descent),
4. "KING" OF T'SU (semi-barbarian, but with remote imperial
Chinese legendary descent).
5. EARL OF TS'IN (semi-Tartar, with legendary descent from remote
6. "KING" OF Wu (semi-barbarian, but of imperial Chou family
7. "KING" OF YÜEH (barbarian, but with legendary descent from
ultra-remote imperial Chinese).
Beginning of dated history--Size of ancient China--Parcelled out
into fiefs--Fiefs correspond to modern _hien_ districts--
Mesne lords and sub-vassals--Method of migration and colonizing--
Course of the Yellow River in 842 B.C.--Distant fiefs in Shan Tung
and Chih Li provinces of to-day--A river which subsequently became