Ancient Lives: An Introduction to Archaeology and Prehistory / Edition 5

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Overview

Theory and Methods in Archaeology and Prehistory

Written for complete beginners in a narrative style, Ancient Lives is aimed at introductory courses in archaeology and prehistory that cover archaeological methods and theory, as well as world prehistory.

The first half of Ancient Lives covers the basic principles, methods, and theoretical approaches of archaeology. The second half is devoted to a summary of the major developments of human prehistory: the origins of humankind and the archaic world, the origins and spread of modern humans, the emergence of food production, and the beginnings of civilization.

Learning Goals

Upon completing this book, readers should be able to:

  • Understand the basic principles of archaeology
  • Summarize the major developments of human prehistory

Note: MySearchLab does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase MySearchLab, please visit www.MySearchLab.com or you can purchase a valuepack of the text + MySearchLab (VP ISBN-10: 0205887708, VP ISBN-13: 9780205887705).

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780205178070
  • Publisher: Pearson
  • Publication date: 10/7/2011
  • Edition description: New Edition
  • Edition number: 5
  • Pages: 528
  • Sales rank: 624,111
  • Product dimensions: 7.90 (w) x 9.90 (h) x 0.80 (d)

Meet the Author

In This Section:

I. Author Bio

II. Author Letter

I. Author Bio


Brian Fagan is one of the leading archaeological writers in the world and an internationally recognized authority on world prehistory. He studied archaeology and anthropology at Pembroke College, Cambridge University, and then spent seven years in sub-Saharan Africa working in museums and in monument conservation and excavating early farming sites in Zambia and East Africa. He was one of the pioneers of multidisciplinary African history in the 1960s. From 1967 to 2003, he was professor of anthropology at the University of California, Santa Barbara, where he specialized in lecturing and writing about archaeology to wide audiences. He is now professor emeritus.

Professor Fagan has written six best-selling textbooks: Ancient Lives: An Introduction to Archaeology and Prehistory; In the Beginning; Archaeology: A Brief Introduction; People of the Earth; World Preh istory; and A Brief History of Archaeology–all published by Prentice Hall–which are used around the world. His general books include The Rape of the Nile, a classic history of Egyptology; The Adventure of Archaeology; Time Detectives; Ancient North America; The Little Ice Age; and The Great Warming. He is general editor of the Oxford Companion to Archaeology. In addition, he has published several scholarly monographs on African archaeology and numerous specialized articles in national and international journals. He is also an expert on multimedia teaching and received the Society for American Archaeology’s first Public Education Award for his indefatigable efforts on behalf of archaeology and education.

II. Author Letter

Dear Colleague:

I became an archaeologist by accident, in large part because of the stories told by my very first university instructor, Miles Burkitt. Miles was an institution at Cambridge University where I studied archaeology. His lectures were long on artifacts and short on sophistication. But he was a consummate storyteller—about fellow archaeologists and copying Stone Age cave art with the legendary French prehistorian Abbé Breul before World War I, among other things. He taught me that storytelling is central to good teaching.

I started teaching introductory archaeology at the University of California - Santa Barbara in 1967, to an audience of 300 students. Finding no suitable textbooks, I ended up writing Ancient Lives; a short book that combined both the basics of method and theory—how archaeology works—and the major developments of world prehistory. It has filled an important niche in the marketplace for instructors who want a course that combines the basics both of archaeology itself and of human prehistory. To my delight, it has been widely used in many colleges and universities as a first introduction to a complex subject that has an important role to play in today’s world. I’m proud that highly respected archaeologists first encountered archaeology through its pages!

Ancient Lives is a straightforward journey through the world of archaeology and prehistory, which covers the basics--I mean the basics. Its chapters answer fundamental questions. How do we find sites, excavate them, and analyze their finds? How do we date the past? How do we study ancient landscapes and settlement patterns? It also tells the story of the human past from the emergence of the first humans in East Africa well before 2.5 million years ago to the appearance of the world’s first pre-industrial civilizations in 3100 B.C. and afterward. It surveys the long span of human experience in the Old World, also in the Americas, attempting to tell the story of our remote past as a straightforward narrative, not just a list of artifacts and archaeological sites. Ancient Lives is user friendly, as jargon-free as possible, and designed for complete beginners. It can serve either as a one-shot introduction to the subject as part of general education, or a basis for taking additional courses later on.

This new fifth edition draws on the success of earlier editions, and plentiful encouragement from users and reviewers, as well as students. The basic approach is unchanged: produce a simple narrative of method and theory and human prehistory for beginners. I’ve updated examples throughout, added new information on human evolution, and brought in some exciting new discoveries, such as the Göbekli carvings in Turkey and the Lords of Sicán from coastal Peru. The illustrations have been completely refreshed and revised for this edition. Otherwise, this updated and improved edition continues a successful formula that has introduced thousands of students to the fascinating world of archaeology. Long may it continue to do so!

Please do let me know what you think of the new edition of Ancient Lives. If you have any comments, suggestions, or questions about the book, please do not hesitate to send me an e-mail at brian@brianfagan.com .

I look forward to hearing from you!

Best regards,

Brian Fagan

Professor Emeritus

University of California—Santa Barbara

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Table of Contents


In This Section

1.) Brief Contents

2.) Comprehensive

Brief Contents

Part I Archaeology: Studying Ancient Times

Chapter 1 Introducing Archaeology and Prehistory

Chapter 2 The Record of the Past

Chapter 3 Acquiring the Record

Chapter 4 How Did People Live?

Part II Ancient Interactions

Chapter 5 Individuals and Interactions

Chapter 6 Studying the Intangible

Chapter 7 Explaining the Past

Part III The World of the First Humans

Chapter 8 Human Origins

Chapter 9 African Exodus

Part IV Modern Humans Settle the World

Chapter 10 The Great Diaspora

Part V The First Farmers and Civilizations

Chapter 11 The Earliest Farmers

Chapter 12 The First Civilizations

Chapter 13 Early Asian Civilizations

Part VI Ancient America

Chapter 14 Maize, Pueblos, and Mound Builders

Chapter 15 Mesoamerican Civilizations

Chapter 16 Andean Civilizations

Part VII On Being an Archaeologist

Chapter 17 So You Want to Become an Archaeologist

Comprehensive Contents

Contents

Preface

Author’s Note

About the Author

Part I Archaeology: Studying Ancient Times

SPECIAL FEATURE: CONSERVATION OF SITES AND FINDS

Chapter 1 Introducing Archaeology and Prehistory

How Archaeology Began

The Discovery of Early Civilizations

DISCOVERY: Austen Henry Layard at Nineveh

The Antiquity of Humankind

The Origins of Scientific Archaeology

Archaeology and Prehistory

Prehistory and World Prehistory

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: A Short Guide to Archaeological Diversity

Major Developments in Human Prehistory

Why Are Archaeology and World Prehistory Important?

Mysteries of the Past

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Pseudoarchaeology, or You, Too, Can Be an Armchair Indiana Jones

The Powerful Lure of the Past

Archaeology and Human Diversity

Archaeology as a Political Tool

Archaeology and Economic Development

Garbology

Who Needs the Past?

SITE: Inyan Ceyaka Atonwan, Minnesota

Summary

Key Terms and Sites

Critical-Thinking Questions

Chapter 2 The Record of the Past

The Goals of Archaeology

Constructing Culture History

DISCOVERY: The Folsom Bison Kill Site, New Mexico

Reconstructing Ancient Lifeways

SITE: Sounds of the Past

Explaining Cultural Change

The Process of Archaeological Research

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: An Archaeologist’s Ethical Responsibilities

Research Design

Data Acquisition

Analysis

Interpretation

Publication and Curation

What Is Culture?

The Archives of the Past: The Archaeological Record

Preservation Conditions

A Waterlogged Site: Ozette, Washington

A Dry Site: Puruchucho-Huaquerones, Peru

Cold Conditions: Nevado Ampato, Peru

Volcanic Ash: Cerén, El Salvador

DISCOVERY: Tragedy at Cerén, El Salvador

Context

Time and Space

The Law of Association

The Law of Superposition

Summary

Key Terms and

Critical-Thinking Questions

Chapter 3 Acquiring the Record

DISCOVERY: Recording the Behistun Inscription, Iran

How Do You Find Archaeological Sites?

Accidental Discoveries

Deliberate Survey

Settlement Patterns and Settlement Archaeology

Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

SITE: Teotihuacán, Mexico

How Do You Dig Up the Past?

The Ethical Responsibilities of the Excavator

Research Design and Problem-Oriented Excavation

Koster

Types of Excavation

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Archaeological Sites

Excavation as Recording

How Old Is It?

Relative Chronology

Chronometric Dating

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Dating the Past

Summary

Key Terms and Sites

Critical-Thinking Questions

Chapter 4 How Did People Live?

Technologies of the Ancients

Stone

Bone, Antler, and Ivory

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Classifying Artifact Types

Wood 88

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Lithic Analysis

Clay (Ceramics)

Metals and Metallurgy

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Ceramic Analysis

Basketry and Textiles

SITE: Ancient Wine at Abydos, Egypt

Subsistence: Making a Living

Animal Bones

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Studying Ancient Subsistence

Plant Remains

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Flotation Methods

Fishing and Fowling

Reconstructing Ancient Diet

Summary

Key Terms and Sites

Critical-Thinking Questions

Part II Ancient Interactions

SPECIAL FEATURE: MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS IN ARCHAEOLOGY SINCE 1798

Chapter 5 Individuals and Interactions

An Individual: Ötzi the Ice Man

Social Ranking

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: The Law Code of Hammurabi of Babylon, 1760 B.C.

SITE: The Sepulcher of the Maya Lord Pacal, Palenque, Mexico

Gender: Men and Women

Grinding Grain at Abu Hureyra, Syria

The Engendered Past 1

Ethnicity and Inequality

Ideologies of Domination

Artifacts, Social Inequality, and Resistance

Trade and Exchange

DISCOVERY: War Casualties at Thebes, Egypt

Types of Exchange and Trade

Sourcing

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Obsidian Sourcing

A Unique Portrait of Ancient Trade: The Uluburun Ship

Summary

Key Terms and Sites

Critical-Thinking Questions

Chapter 6 Studying the Intangible

A Framework of Common Belief

DISCOVERY: Shang Oracle Bones, China

Ethnographic Analogy and Rock Art

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Copying South African Rock Paintings

The Archaeology of Death

Artifacts: The Importance of Context

Artifacts and Art Styles

SITE: The Shrine at Phylakopi, Greece

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: The Ancient Maya World through Glyphs

Sacred Places

Astroarchaeology and Stonehenge

Southwestern Astronomy and Chaco Canyon

Summary

Key Terms and Sites

Critical-Thinking Questions

Chapter 7 Explaining the Past

Culture History

Constructing Culture History

Synthesis

A Hierarchy of Archaeological Units

Descriptive Models of Cultural Change

Inevitable Variation

Cultural Selection

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: A Hierarchy of Archaeological Entities

Invention

Diffusion

Migration

Analogy

DISCOVERY: A Tale of Two Maya Women: Waka, Guatemala

Archaeology by Observation and Experiment

Ethnoarchaeology

Experimental Archaeology

Explaining Cultural Change

Cultural Systems and Cultural Processes

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Deductive and Inductive Reasoning

Processual Archaeology

People, Not Systems

SITE: Guilá Naquitz Cave, Mexico

Cognitive-Processual Archaeology

The Issue of Complexity

Change and No Change

Summary

Key Terms and Sites

Critical-Thinking Questions

Part III The World of the First Humans

SPECIAL FEATURE: THE PRE-MODERN WORLD

Chapter 8 Human Origins

The Great Ice Age (c. 2.5 Million to 15,000 Years Ago)

Early Primate Evolution and Adaptation

The Primate Order

"Coming Down from the Trees"

The Fossil Evidence for Human Evolution (7 Million to 1.5 Million Years Ago)

The Earliest Known Hominin: Toumaï, Sahelanthropus tchadensis

What Is Australopithecus?

Ardipithecus ramidus

Australopithecus anamensis and Australopithecus afarensis

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Potassium-Argon Dating

All Kinds of Australopithecines (3 Million to 2.5 Million Years Ago)

Gracile Australopithecines: Australopithecus africanus

Robust Australopithecines: A. aethiopicus, A. boisei, and A. robustus

Australopithecus garhi

Early Homo: Homo habilis (2.5 Million to 2 Million Years Ago)

A Burst of Rapid Change?

Who Was the First Human?

The Earliest Human Technology

Hunters or Scavengers?

SITE: Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania

Plant Foraging and Grandmothering

The Earliest Human Mind

The Development of Language

The Earliest Social Organization

Summary

Key Terms and Sites

Critical-Thinking Questions

Chapter 9 African Exodus

Ice Age Background

Homo ergaster in Africa

Homo erectus (c. 1.9 Million to c. 200,000 Years Ago)

Radiating out of Africa

Homo erectus in Asia

The Lifeway of Homo erectus

Hand Axes and Choppers

Language

Archaic Homo sapiens (c. 400,000 to 130,000 Years Ago)

Archaic Homo sapiens: Homo heidelbergensis

SITE: A 400,000-Year-Old Hunt at Schöningen, Germany

The Neanderthals (c. 200,000 to 30,000 Years Ago)

The Origins of Modern Humans (c. 180,000 to 150,000 Years Ago)

Continuity or Replacement?

Molecular Biology and Homo sapiens

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: DNA and Prehistory

Ecology and Homo sapiens

Out of Tropical Africa

Summary

Key Terms and Sites

Critical-Thinking Questions

Part IV Modern Humans Settle the World

SPECIAL FEATURE: THE SPREAD OF MODERN HUMANS TO 12,000 YEARS AGO

Chapter 10 The Great Diaspora

The Late Ice Age World (50,000 to 15,000 Years Ago)

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Radiocarbon Dating

The Peopling of Southeast Asia and Australia (c. 50,000 to 15,000 Years Ago)

Late Ice Age Europe: The Cro-Magnons (45,000 to 15,000 Years Ago)

Subsistence

Cro-Magnon Technology

Cro-Magnon Art

Hunter-Gatherers in Eurasia (35,000 to 15,000 Years Ago)

DISCOVERY: Grotte de Chauvet, France

East Asia (35,000 to 15,000 Years Ago)

Sinodonty and Sundadonty

Early Human Settlement of Siberia (Before 20,000 to 15,000 Years Ago)

The First Americans (Before 15,000 Years Ago to 11,000 B.C.)

Settlement before 30,000 Years Ago?

Settlement after 15,000 Years Ago?

SITE: Monte Verde, Chile

The Clovis People (c. 11,200 to 10,900 B.C.)

Summary

Key Terms and Sites

Critical-Thinking Questions

Part V The First Farmers and Civilizations

SPECIAL FEATURE: EARLY FOOD PRODUCTION

Chapter 11 The Earliest Farmers

After the Ice Age

Changes in Hunter-Gatherer Societies

Social Complexity among Hunter-Gatherers

DISCOVERY: Hunter-Gatherers at Modoc Rockshelter, Illinois

Origins of Food Production

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) Radiocarbon Dating

Consequences of Food Production

The First Farmers in Southwestern Asia

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Domesticating Wheat and Barley

Egypt and the Nile Valley

Early Agriculture in Anatolia

SITE: Ritual Buildings in Southeastern Turkey

European Farmers

Early Agriculture in South and East Asia

The Indus Valley

Rice Cultivation in Southern China

SITE: Easton Down and the Avebury Sacred Landscape, England

The First Farmers in Northern China

Navigators and Chiefs in the Pacific (2000 B.C. to Modern Times)

Summary

Key Terms and Sites

Critical-Thinking Questions

Chapter 12 The First Civilizations

SPECIAL FEATURE: OLD WORLD CIVILIZATIONS

What Is a State-Organized Society?

Cities

Theories of the Origins of States

The Collapse of Civilizations

Early Civilization in Mesopotamia (5500 to 3100 B.C.)

The First Cities: Uruk

The Sumerians (c. 3100 to 2334 B.C.)

DISCOVERY: The Temple at Eridu, Iraq

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: The Sumerians

Ancient Egyptian Civilization (c. 3100 B.C. to 30 B.C.)

Predynastic Egypt: Ancient Monopoly? (5000 to 3100 B.C.)

Dynastic Egyptian Civilization (c. 3100 to 30 B.C.)

SITE: The Step Pyramid at Saqqara

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Ahmose, Son of Ebana

Summary

Key Terms and Sites

Critical-Thinking Questions

Chapter 13 Early Asian Civilizations

South Asia: The Harappan Civilization (c. 2700 to 1700 B.C.)

Mature Harappan Civilization

South Asia after the Harappans (1700 to 180 B.C.)

The Origins of Chinese Civilization (2600 to 1100 B.C.)

Royal Capitals

Royal Burials

Bronze Working

Shang Warriors

The War Lords (1100 to 221 B.C.)

DISCOVERY: The Burial Mound of Emperor Shihuangdi, China

Southeast Asian Civilization (A.D. 1 to 1500)

The Angkor State (A.D. 802 to 1430)

SITE: Angkor Wat, Cambodia

Summary

Key Terms and Sites

Critical-Thinking Questions

Part VI Ancient America

SPECIAL FEATURE: NATIVE AMERICAN CIVILIZATIONS

Chapter 14 Maize, Pueblos, and Mound Builders

North America after First Settlement

SITE: The Olsen-Chubbock Bison Kill, Colorado

The Story of Maize

Mesoamerica: Guilá Naquitz and Early Cultivation

The Earliest Maize

Andean Farmers

The North American Southwest (300 B.C. to Modern Times)

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Dendrochronology (Tree-Ring Dating)

Hohokam, Mogollon, and Ancestral Pueblo

Mound Builders in Eastern North America (2000 B.C. to A.D. 1650)

Adena and Hopewell

The Mississippian Tradition

SITE: Moundville, Alabama

Summary

Key Terms and Sites

Critical-Thinking Questions

Chapter 15 Mesoamerican Civilizations

The Olmec (1500 to 500 B.C.)

Ancient Maya Civilization (Before 1000 B.C. to A.D. 1519)

Beginnings (Before 1000 to 300 B.C.)

Kingship

Classic Maya Civilization (A.D. 300 to 900)

The Classic Maya Collapse

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: The Hieroglyphic Stairway at Copán

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Studying the Maya Collapse at Copán

The Rise of Highland Civilization (1500 to 200 B.C.)

Teotihuacán (200 B.C. to A.D. 750)

DOING ARCHAEOLOGY: Life in Teotihuacán’s Barrios

The Toltecs (650 to 1200)

Aztec Civilization (1200 to 1521)

Tenochtitlán

SITE: The Great Temple at Tenochtitlán

The World of the Fifth Sun

The Aztec State

The Spanish Conquest

Summary

Key Terms and Sites

Critical-Thinking Questions

Chapter 16 Andean Civilizations

The Maritime Foundations of Andean Civilization

Coastal Foundations (2500 to 900 B.C.)

Caral

El Paraíso and Huaca Florida

The Early Horizon and Chavín de Huántar (900 to 200 B.C.)

The Initial Period

Irrigation Agriculture Inland (After 1800 B.C.)

The Lake Titicaca Basin: Chiripa and Pukara (1000 B.C. to A.D. 100)

The Moche State (200 B.C. to A.D. 700)

DISCOVERY: The Lords of Sipán, Peru

The Middle Horizon: Tiwanaku and Wari (600 to 1000) 423

Tiwanaku

Wari

The Late Intermediate Period: Sicán and Chimu (700 to 1460)

The Late Horizon: The Inka State (1476 to 1534)

SITE: Cuzco, the Imperial Inka Capital

The Spanish Conquest (1532 to 1534)

Summary

Key Terms and Sites

Critical-Thinking Questions

Part VII On Being an Archaeologist

Chapter 17 So You Want to Become an Archaeologist

Archaeology as a Profession

Deciding to Become an Archaeologist

Gaining Fieldwork Experience

Career Opportunities

Academic Qualifications and Graduate School

Thoughts on Not Becoming a Professional Archaeologist

Our Responsibilities to the Past

A Simple Code of Archaeological Ethics for All

Summary

Key Term

Critical-Thinking Questions

Glossary

References

Credits

Index

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Preface

GOLDEN PHARAOHS, LOST CITIES, GRINNING HUMAN SKELETONS: archaeology is the stuff of romance and legend! Many people still think of archaeologists as adventurers and treasure hunters, like Indiana Jones of, Hollywood movie fame seeking the elusive Holy Grail. These enduring images go back to the late nineteenth century, when archaeologists like Heinrich Schliemann could still find' lost civilizations like Troy and excavate three royal palaces in a week. Today, few, if any, archaeologists are like Indiana Jones. They are scientists, not adventurers, as comfortable in an air-conditioned laboratory as they are on a remote excavation. The development of scientific archaeology from its Victorian beginnings ranks among the greatest triumphs of twentieth-century science.

Archaeology has changed our understanding of the human experience in profound ways. A century ago, most scientists believed that humans were no more than 100,000 years old. Today we know that our origins go back 5 million years. Our predecessors assumed that the Americas were settled about 8000 B.C. and that farming began around 4000 B.C. New excavations date the first Americans to at least 12,000 B.C. and the beginnings of agriculture to about 10,000 B.C. Most important of all, archaeology has changed our perceptions of ourselves, our biological and cultural diversity. Welcome to the fascinating world of archaeology and prehistory.

Ancient Lives began life as a textbook on the basic methods and theories of archaeology, an introduction to the workings of a scientific discipline. This second edition is reborn as an entirely different book, one that combines an exploration of archaeology, the discipline, with abrief narrative of prehistory, what actually happened in the early human past. In short, it has become an archaeology and prehistory text. This book is a celebration of the only scientific discipline that studies human biological and cultural evolution over enormously long periods of time. In these pages, we celebrate more than 2.5 million years of the human past.

ABOUT ANCIENT LIVES

Ancient Lives is divided into two halves, and as if that were not enough, into seven parts as well. The first seven chapters cover the basic methods and theoretical approaches of archaeology. The remainder of the book takes us on a journey through prehistory, from human origins to those dramatic moments when Spanish conquistadors gazed on the Aztec capital in the Valley of Mexico and at the wealth of the Inka civilization in the Andes. The remaining six parts subdivide these broad themes into more manageable chunks.

Part 1, "Archaeology: Studying Ancient Times," consists of four chapters. These chapters define archaeology and prehistory, introduce the nature of the archaeological record, discuss the ways in which archaeologists date the past, and examine ancient technology and ways of obtaining food. Part 2, "Ancient Interactions," focuses on people and their interactions, on the study of ancient religious beliefs, and on the all-important topic of explaining the past.

With Chapter 8 and Part 3, "The World of the First Humans," we begin our narrative of human prehistory with a discussion of human origins and the spread of archaic peoples out of tropical Africa more than 2 million years ago. We end with an analysis of the controversies surrounding the origins of modern humans—Homo sapiens sapiens, modern humanity, "the wise person." Part 4, "Modern Humans Settle the World," comprises just one chapter, which covers the thousands of years of migration that took Homo sapiens sapiens, ourselves, from our African homeland into every corner of the Old World, and, after 15,000 years ago, into the Americas.

In Part 5, "The First Farmers and Civilizations," we continue the story in the Old World, with the beginnings of farming in southwestern Asia, then, later, in Asia. It was farming that led to the last great migrations of Homo sapiens, to the offshore islands of the Pacific Ocean. In Chapter 12, we discuss the beginnings of civilization in Mesopotamia and Egypt. Chapter 13 describes the origins of Asian civilization, culminating in the stupendous Khmer states of Cambodia.

Part 6, "Ancient America," moves to the western hemisphere, where we follow developments after first settlement of the Americas in Chapter 14 and tell the early story of maize, the staple crop of native American agriculture. Chapters 15 and 16 recount the complex histories of civilization in Central America (Mesoamerica) and the Andes region of South America respectively.

Finally, Part 7, "On Being an Archaeologist," provides you with a frank appraisal of career prospects in archaeology, the subject of a brief essay in Chapter 17. Glossaries of technical terms, sites, and cultures follow the final chapter.

THE PHILOSOPHY BEHIND ANCIENT LIVES

Writing a textbook such as Ancient Lives is a constant exercise in compromise and making decisions as to what to include and what to omit. Ancient Lives is designed as a first text in archaeology and prehistory that seeks to engage the reader in a complex enterprise, to explore some of the dimensions of archaeology and human prehistory at a fundamental level.

For the archaeology section (Chapters 1 to 7),1 have made unashamed use of my own extensive fieldwork and laboratory experience, of years visiting other archaeologists' excavations and surveys, to give a sometimes unavoidably arid subject matter greater immediacy. At the same time, these seven chapters draw on methods and examples from all parts of the world, for this is what the prehistory in the next eight chapters is all about. Remember that archaeology and prehistory are global enterprises, not just a product of Europe, North America, and Mexico. The beginner should enjoy archaeology and prehistory, with all the attendant global diversity of field experience and intellectual problems.

The seven method and theory chapters make use of examples from the Americas, Africa, Europe, and Asia, from the earliest archaeological sites to modern urban trash deposits. There are numerous examples of good applications of archaeological method and theory, so it has been hard to choose among them. One school of thought urges the use of the latest examples from brand-new research. Another feels that one should balance male and female archaeologists equally in the examples, without, apparently, any concern for the significance of the site or the methods. I have chosen to mix three ingredients: important sites and case studies, many of them several generations old, which are still outstanding and well-known instances of archaeological research; examples from different parts of the world; and new discoveries. There are many familiar sites and discoveries (Olduvai Gorge, the tomb of Tutankhamun, and so on) that transcend the narrow interests of individual teachers and students. They are used without apology here. After all, the best-known and most spectacular sites are those that often stick in the mind, even if they were excavated several generations ago.

Then there is the thorny issue of archaeological theory, the subject of Chapter 7. Archaeology has witnessed constant theoretical ferment over the past half century, some of it inspired, some of it downright nonsense. The theoretical debates continue, most of them of little concern to the beginner. For this reason, this book espouses no particular theoretical bias, because a wide range of instructors and students will use this book and also because individual teachers can easily use the general summaries given here and present their own perspectives on the tidal currents of archaeological theory.

The prehistory chapters (8 to 16) attempt a simple, jargon-free account of humanity over the past 2.5 million years. Again, I have chosen a global perspective, for I believe that you cannot understand humanity or human diversity unless you examine what happened in all parts of the world. The prehistory of humankind viewed from the single perspective of, say, Egypt or the Andes is meaningless, for the human experience in these regions is but a fragment of an infinitely larger jigsaw puzzle. I have told the story with a minimum of detail, and with as few sites as possible, on the argument that we are concerned here with the general outline of what happened in prehistory and why, not with minor details of local developments, which are covered in more detailed regional surveys. For the same reason, I have skated over the major theoretical debates that surround such important issues as the first settlement of the Americas, the origins of agriculture and animal domestication, and the beginnings of literate civilization. Again, these subjects can be explored in the more specialized literature, references to which are provided in the "Guide to Further Reading," at the end of each chapter.

Ancient Lives is a rapid-fire journey through the worlds of archaeology and prehistory. Inevitably, the discussions of many issues in these pages are cursory. I have erred on the side of overgeneralization, on the grounds that such excesses can easily be corrected in class or in later courses. Best to get the point across, then qualify it, rather than wallowing in a mishmash of "probably's" or "perhapses."

Ancient Lives is written for people who want to know more about archaeology and prehistory, not necessarily with a view to becoming professional archaeologists (although I tell you how to do that in Chapter 17) but so that they can carry some knowledge of the remote past and how we study it with them in later life. As you will discover, the future of our past depends on responsible stewardship of the finite archives of archaeology for future generations by archaeologists and society as a whole.

I have a modest ambition for Ancient Lives. If this book leaves you with a lifetime interest in archaeology and prehistory, with enough background knowledge to understand the reasoning behind archaeological stories in such popular journals as National Geographic magazine, and with respect for archaeologists and the achievements of our forebears, then its job is done.

COVERAGE AND SPECIAL FEATURES

Ancient Lives makes no attempt to be a comprehensive survey of archaeology and prehistory. We focus on general issues at the expense of irrelevant detail and specialized controversies.

Coverage

This book covers all aspects of archaeology and prehistory, but pays particular attention to the following:

  • Archaeological ethics, stewardship, and conservation of the past (Chapters 1, 2, and 17). Frequently neglected in beginning archaeology courses, these issues are fundamental to the survival of the discipline.
  • Alternative perspectives on the past and on time (Chapters 1 and 3) and important issues for Native Americans and other indigenous peoples.
  • The people of the past and the study of human diversity, including gender and ethnicity (Part 2).
  • The study of ancient religious beliefs and other cultural intangibles, a fascinating and rapidly expanding direction in the field (Chapter 6).
  • Career opportunities in archaeology and living with the past on a day-by-day basis (Chapter 17).
  • A balanced, global perspective on human prehistory that emphasizes no one region at the expense of others.
  • A jargon-free narrative focusing on four basic developments:
    – Early human evolution. Chapter 8 discusses the latest advances in the study of human origins, including the latest fossil discoveries in East Africa.
    – Origins of modern humans. Chapters 9 and 10 cover new research on the controversial issue of the earliest modern humans and fresh perceptions of Neanderthal ancestry and behavior, as well as the diaspora of Homo sapiens sapiens across the world.
    – Origins of food production. Chapter 11 describes the first farmers of the Old World, incorporating new dates for early agriculture obtained from accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon.
  • – Origins of states and civilization. Chapters 12, 13, 15, and 16 offer an up-to-date description and analysis of the first civilizations in the Old World and the Americas.
    – Lastly, Chapter 17 gives a frank appraisal of career prospects in archaeology.

Inevitably, I made compromises in the subject matter. Ancient Lives does not provide much coverage of the history of archaeology, or of cultural resource management (CRM), although I mention CRM and its career possibilities. Nor is there much discussion of archaeological theory. All these topics are more appropriately taught in greater detail in more advanced undergraduate courses. So are the minute details of archaeological survey, remote sensing, excavation, artifact analysis, and local archaeological sequences. In all cases, I give examples of books or articles that provide more information on these important topics. The fact that something is not covered here does not mean that it is unimportant.

Special Features

  • A jargon-free, easy-to-read style.
  • Comprehensive glossaries of technical terms and sites and cultures, to amplify formal definitions given at intervals in the text in boldface, for terms, and italics, for sites and cultures.
  • Boxes that describe key methods such as radiocarbon dating or molecular genetics. Discoveries and site boxes cover particularly significant subjects that are mentioned only briefly in the main narrative.
  • Unique, truly global coverage of archaeology and prehistory, reflected in a balanced treatment of many parts of the world.
  • The "Guide to Further Reading," at the end of each chapter, that directs the reader to more specialized literature or more comprehensive coverage.
  • A comprehensive illustration program designed to amplify the text.

Boxes

Three types of in-text boxes enhance the narrative:

  • Doing Archaeology. These boxes introduce key dating methods and other scientific approaches, such as radiocarbon and AMS dating, flotation for the recovery of seeds, and sourcing of obsidian (volcanic rock) traded over long distances in ancient times.
  • Sites. Each of the first 16 chapters includes one or more boxes describing important sites and some aspect of them that has unusual interest.
  • Discoveries. Details of important archaeological discoveries are explored in the Discoveries boxes.

Ancillary Materials

The ancillary materials that accompany this textbook are carefully created to enhance the topics being discussed.

Instructor's Manual with Tests. For each chapter in the text, this manual provides a detailed outline, list of objectives, discussion questions, classroom activities, and additional resources. The test bank includes multiple-choice, true/false, and essay questions for each chapter.

TestGen. This dual-platform CD-ROM is a test generator designed to allow the creation of personalized exams.

Companion Website™. In tandem with the text, students can now take full advantage of the World Wide Web to enrich their study of archaeology and prehistory through the Fagan Companion Website™. This resource correlates the text with related material available on the Internet. Features include chapter objectives, study questions, research projects, and links to additional material that can reinforce and enhance the content of each chapter.

Research Navigator™. Research Navigator™ is the easiest way for students to start a research assignment or research paper. Complete with extensive help on the research process and three exclusive dates of credible and reliable source material, include EBSCO's ContentSelect™ Academic Journal Database, The New York Times Search-by-Subject Archive, and "Best of the Web" Link Library. Research Navigator™ helps students quickly and efficiently make the most of their research time.

Evaluating Online Resources, Anthropology 2004. This guide encourages students to be critical consumers of online resources. References related specifically to the discipline of anthropology are included. Included with the guide is an access code for Research Navigator™. This guide is free when packaged with Ancient Lives, Second Edition.

Read More Show Less

Introduction

GOLDEN PHARAOHS, LOST CITIES, GRINNING HUMAN SKELETONS: archaeology is the stuff of romance and legend! Many people still think of archaeologists as adventurers and treasure hunters, like Indiana Jones of, Hollywood movie fame seeking the elusive Holy Grail. These enduring images go back to the late nineteenth century, when archaeologists like Heinrich Schliemann could still find' lost civilizations like Troy and excavate three royal palaces in a week. Today, few, if any, archaeologists are like Indiana Jones. They are scientists, not adventurers, as comfortable in an air-conditioned laboratory as they are on a remote excavation. The development of scientific archaeology from its Victorian beginnings ranks among the greatest triumphs of twentieth-century science.

Archaeology has changed our understanding of the human experience in profound ways. A century ago, most scientists believed that humans were no more than 100,000 years old. Today we know that our origins go back 5 million years. Our predecessors assumed that the Americas were settled about 8000 B.C. and that farming began around 4000 B.C. New excavations date the first Americans to at least 12,000 B.C. and the beginnings of agriculture to about 10,000 B.C. Most important of all, archaeology has changed our perceptions of ourselves, our biological and cultural diversity. Welcome to the fascinating world of archaeology and prehistory.

Ancient Lives began life as a textbook on the basic methods and theories of archaeology, an introduction to the workings of a scientific discipline. This second edition is reborn as an entirely different book, one that combines an exploration of archaeology, thediscipline, with a brief narrative of prehistory, what actually happened in the early human past. In short, it has become an archaeology and prehistory text. This book is a celebration of the only scientific discipline that studies human biological and cultural evolution over enormously long periods of time. In these pages, we celebrate more than 2.5 million years of the human past.

ABOUT ANCIENT LIVES

Ancient Lives is divided into two halves, and as if that were not enough, into seven parts as well. The first seven chapters cover the basic methods and theoretical approaches of archaeology. The remainder of the book takes us on a journey through prehistory, from human origins to those dramatic moments when Spanish conquistadors gazed on the Aztec capital in the Valley of Mexico and at the wealth of the Inka civilization in the Andes. The remaining six parts subdivide these broad themes into more manageable chunks.

Part 1, "Archaeology: Studying Ancient Times," consists of four chapters. These chapters define archaeology and prehistory, introduce the nature of the archaeological record, discuss the ways in which archaeologists date the past, and examine ancient technology and ways of obtaining food. Part 2, "Ancient Interactions," focuses on people and their interactions, on the study of ancient religious beliefs, and on the all-important topic of explaining the past.

With Chapter 8 and Part 3, "The World of the First Humans," we begin our narrative of human prehistory with a discussion of human origins and the spread of archaic peoples out of tropical Africa more than 2 million years ago. We end with an analysis of the controversies surrounding the origins of modern humans—Homo sapiens sapiens, modern humanity, "the wise person." Part 4, "Modern Humans Settle the World," comprises just one chapter, which covers the thousands of years of migration that took Homo sapiens sapiens, ourselves, from our African homeland into every corner of the Old World, and, after 15,000 years ago, into the Americas.

In Part 5, "The First Farmers and Civilizations," we continue the story in the Old World, with the beginnings of farming in southwestern Asia, then, later, in Asia. It was farming that led to the last great migrations of Homo sapiens, to the offshore islands of the Pacific Ocean. In Chapter 12, we discuss the beginnings of civilization in Mesopotamia and Egypt. Chapter 13 describes the origins of Asian civilization, culminating in the stupendous Khmer states of Cambodia.

Part 6, "Ancient America," moves to the western hemisphere, where we follow developments after first settlement of the Americas in Chapter 14 and tell the early story of maize, the staple crop of native American agriculture. Chapters 15 and 16 recount the complex histories of civilization in Central America (Mesoamerica) and the Andes region of South America respectively.

Finally, Part 7, "On Being an Archaeologist," provides you with a frank appraisal of career prospects in archaeology, the subject of a brief essay in Chapter 17. Glossaries of technical terms, sites, and cultures follow the final chapter.

THE PHILOSOPHY BEHIND ANCIENT LIVES

Writing a textbook such as Ancient Lives is a constant exercise in compromise and making decisions as to what to include and what to omit. Ancient Lives is designed as a first text in archaeology and prehistory that seeks to engage the reader in a complex enterprise, to explore some of the dimensions of archaeology and human prehistory at a fundamental level.

For the archaeology section (Chapters 1 to 7),1 have made unashamed use of my own extensive fieldwork and laboratory experience, of years visiting other archaeologists' excavations and surveys, to give a sometimes unavoidably arid subject matter greater immediacy. At the same time, these seven chapters draw on methods and examples from all parts of the world, for this is what the prehistory in the next eight chapters is all about. Remember that archaeology and prehistory are global enterprises, not just a product of Europe, North America, and Mexico. The beginner should enjoy archaeology and prehistory, with all the attendant global diversity of field experience and intellectual problems.

The seven method and theory chapters make use of examples from the Americas, Africa, Europe, and Asia, from the earliest archaeological sites to modern urban trash deposits. There are numerous examples of good applications of archaeological method and theory, so it has been hard to choose among them. One school of thought urges the use of the latest examples from brand-new research. Another feels that one should balance male and female archaeologists equally in the examples, without, apparently, any concern for the significance of the site or the methods. I have chosen to mix three ingredients: important sites and case studies, many of them several generations old, which are still outstanding and well-known instances of archaeological research; examples from different parts of the world; and new discoveries. There are many familiar sites and discoveries (Olduvai Gorge, the tomb of Tutankhamun, and so on) that transcend the narrow interests of individual teachers and students. They are used without apology here. After all, the best-known and most spectacular sites are those that often stick in the mind, even if they were excavated several generations ago.

Then there is the thorny issue of archaeological theory, the subject of Chapter 7. Archaeology has witnessed constant theoretical ferment over the past half century, some of it inspired, some of it downright nonsense. The theoretical debates continue, most of them of little concern to the beginner. For this reason, this book espouses no particular theoretical bias, because a wide range of instructors and students will use this book and also because individual teachers can easily use the general summaries given here and present their own perspectives on the tidal currents of archaeological theory.

The prehistory chapters (8 to 16) attempt a simple, jargon-free account of humanity over the past 2.5 million years. Again, I have chosen a global perspective, for I believe that you cannot understand humanity or human diversity unless you examine what happened in all parts of the world. The prehistory of humankind viewed from the single perspective of, say, Egypt or the Andes is meaningless, for the human experience in these regions is but a fragment of an infinitely larger jigsaw puzzle. I have told the story with a minimum of detail, and with as few sites as possible, on the argument that we are concerned here with the general outline of what happened in prehistory and why, not with minor details of local developments, which are covered in more detailed regional surveys. For the same reason, I have skated over the major theoretical debates that surround such important issues as the first settlement of the Americas, the origins of agriculture and animal domestication, and the beginnings of literate civilization. Again, these subjects can be explored in the more specialized literature, references to which are provided in the "Guide to Further Reading," at the end of each chapter.

Ancient Lives is a rapid-fire journey through the worlds of archaeology and prehistory. Inevitably, the discussions of many issues in these pages are cursory. I have erred on the side of overgeneralization, on the grounds that such excesses can easily be corrected in class or in later courses. Best to get the point across, then qualify it, rather than wallowing in a mishmash of "probably's" or "perhapses."

Ancient Lives is written for people who want to know more about archaeology and prehistory, not necessarily with a view to becoming professional archaeologists (although I tell you how to do that in Chapter 17) but so that they can carry some knowledge of the remote past and how we study it with them in later life. As you will discover, the future of our past depends on responsible stewardship of the finite archives of archaeology for future generations by archaeologists and society as a whole.

I have a modest ambition for Ancient Lives. If this book leaves you with a lifetime interest in archaeology and prehistory, with enough background knowledge to understand the reasoning behind archaeological stories in such popular journals as National Geographic magazine, and with respect for archaeologists and the achievements of our forebears, then its job is done.

COVERAGE AND SPECIAL FEATURES

Ancient Lives makes no attempt to be a comprehensive survey of archaeology and prehistory. We focus on general issues at the expense of irrelevant detail and specialized controversies.

Coverage

This book covers all aspects of archaeology and prehistory, but pays particular attention to the following:

  • Archaeological ethics, stewardship, and conservation of the past (Chapters 1, 2, and 17). Frequently neglected in beginning archaeology courses, these issues are fundamental to the survival of the discipline.
  • Alternative perspectives on the past and on time (Chapters 1 and 3) and important issues for Native Americans and other indigenous peoples.
  • The people of the past and the study of human diversity, including gender and ethnicity (Part 2).
  • The study of ancient religious beliefs and other cultural intangibles, a fascinating and rapidly expanding direction in the field (Chapter 6).
  • Career opportunities in archaeology and living with the past on a day-by-day basis (Chapter 17).
  • A balanced, global perspective on human prehistory that emphasizes no one region at the expense of others.
  • A jargon-free narrative focusing on four basic developments:
    – Early human evolution. Chapter 8 discusses the latest advances in the study of human origins, including the latest fossil discoveries in East Africa.
    – Origins of modern humans. Chapters 9 and 10 cover new research on the controversial issue of the earliest modern humans and fresh perceptions of Neanderthal ancestry and behavior, as well as the diaspora of Homo sapiens sapiens across the world.
    – Origins of food production. Chapter 11 describes the first farmers of the Old World, incorporating new dates for early agriculture obtained from accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) radiocarbon.
  • – Origins of states and civilization. Chapters 12, 13, 15, and 16 offer an up-to-date description and analysis of the first civilizations in the Old World and the Americas.
    – Lastly, Chapter 17 gives a frank appraisal of career prospects in archaeology.

Inevitably, I made compromises in the subject matter. Ancient Lives does not provide much coverage of the history of archaeology, or of cultural resource management (CRM), although I mention CRM and its career possibilities. Nor is there much discussion of archaeological theory. All these topics are more appropriately taught in greater detail in more advanced undergraduate courses. So are the minute details of archaeological survey, remote sensing, excavation, artifact analysis, and local archaeological sequences. In all cases, I give examples of books or articles that provide more information on these important topics. The fact that something is not covered here does not mean that it is unimportant.

Special Features

  • A jargon-free, easy-to-read style.
  • Comprehensive glossaries of technical terms and sites and cultures, to amplify formal definitions given at intervals in the text in boldface, for terms, and italics, for sites and cultures.
  • Boxes that describe key methods such as radiocarbon dating or molecular genetics. Discoveries and site boxes cover particularly significant subjects that are mentioned only briefly in the main narrative.
  • Unique, truly global coverage of archaeology and prehistory, reflected in a balanced treatment of many parts of the world.
  • The "Guide to Further Reading," at the end of each chapter, that directs the reader to more specialized literature or more comprehensive coverage.
  • A comprehensive illustration program designed to amplify the text.

Boxes

Three types of in-text boxes enhance the narrative:

  • Doing Archaeology. These boxes introduce key dating methods and other scientific approaches, such as radiocarbon and AMS dating, flotation for the recovery of seeds, and sourcing of obsidian (volcanic rock) traded over long distances in ancient times.
  • Sites. Each of the first 16 chapters includes one or more boxes describing important sites and some aspect of them that has unusual interest.
  • Discoveries. Details of important archaeological discoveries are explored in the Discoveries boxes.

Ancillary Materials

The ancillary materials that accompany this textbook are carefully created to enhance the topics being discussed.

Instructor's Manual with Tests. For each chapter in the text, this manual provides a detailed outline, list of objectives, discussion questions, classroom activities, and additional resources. The test bank includes multiple-choice, true/false, and essay questions for each chapter.

TestGen. This dual-platform CD-ROM is a test generator designed to allow the creation of personalized exams.

Companion Website™. In tandem with the text, students can now take full advantage of the World Wide Web to enrich their study of archaeology and prehistory through the Fagan Companion Website™. This resource correlates the text with related material available on the Internet. Features include chapter objectives, study questions, research projects, and links to additional material that can reinforce and enhance the content of each chapter.

Research Navigator™. Research Navigator™ is the easiest way for students to start a research assignment or research paper. Complete with extensive help on the research process and three exclusive dates of credible and reliable source material, include EBSCO's ContentSelect™ Academic Journal Database, The New York Times Search-by-Subject Archive, and "Best of the Web" Link Library. Research Navigator™ helps students quickly and efficiently make the most of their research time.

Evaluating Online Resources, Anthropology 2004. This guide encourages students to be critical consumers of online resources. References related specifically to the discipline of anthropology are included. Included with the guide is an access code for Research Navigator™. This guide is free when packaged with Ancient Lives, Second Edition.

Read More Show Less

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