Ancient Near Eastern History and Culture / Edition 1

Ancient Near Eastern History and Culture / Edition 1

by William H. Stiebing

ISBN-10: 032106674X

ISBN-13: 9780321066749

Pub. Date: 11/08/2002

Publisher: Longman

This general introduction to the history and culture of the Ancient Near East, including Egypt, offers the right amount of detail for the course without being encyclopedic.

Organized by the periods, kingdoms, and empires generally used in Near Eastern political history, the book interlaces social and cultural history with the political narrative. This


This general introduction to the history and culture of the Ancient Near East, including Egypt, offers the right amount of detail for the course without being encyclopedic.

Organized by the periods, kingdoms, and empires generally used in Near Eastern political history, the book interlaces social and cultural history with the political narrative. This combination allows readers to get a rounded introduction to the subject of Ancient Near Eastern history.

Provides an overview of Ancient Near East history and culture, supplemented with a broad variety of primary source materials, without being encyclopedic. Overview of Ancient Near East History. Readers interested in learning about the Ancient Near East.

Product Details

Publication date:
Edition description:
Older Edition
Product dimensions:
7.51(w) x 9.11(h) x 0.73(d)

Table of Contents

List of Tables, Figures, Maps, and Documentsxi
Chapter 1Introduction1
Studying the Ancient Near East1
What Is the "Near East"?1
The Nature of Historical Study3
Antiquity's "Clues"4
Creating a Chronology for the Ancient Near East6
A Note on Chronological Terminology: B.C.E./C.E. vs. B.C./A.D.6
Absolute and Relative Chronology6
Sources for Ancient Near Eastern Chronology8
Prelude: Near Eastern Prehistory10
The Origins of Sedentary Life (c. 10,500-8300 B.C.E.)10
Early Agricultural Communities in Southwest Asia (c. 8300-6000 B.C.E.)13
The Development of Complex Societies in Southwest Asia (c. 6000-3700 B.C.E.)19
Early Cultures of the Nile Valley (c. 8000-3500 B.C.E.)22
Major Social, Economic, and Political Developments of the Neolithic Age23
Chapter 2The Dawn of Civilization in Western Asia29
The Emergence of Mesopotamian Civilization (c. 3700-3000 B.C.E.)29
The Urban Revolution29
The Development of Cuneiform Writing33
The People of Mesopotamia37
The Origins of Elam39
The Mesopotamian Early Dynastic Period (c. 3000-2330 B.C.E.)40
An Era of Independent City States40
The "Royal Tombs" of Ur44
Mesopotamian Culture During the Early Dynastic Era46
Religion and World View46
The Development of Kingship50
Economy and Society51
Education, Literature, and the Arts53
Science, Technology, and Warfare55
Urbanization in Other Areas of Western Asia (c. 3300-2300 B.C.E.)58
Early Bronze Age Syria and Palestine58
Early Bronze Age Anatolia and Iran60
Chapter 3The First Mesopotamian Empires65
The Akkadian Empire (c. 2334-2193 B.C.E)65
Sargon of Agade (c. 2334-2279 B.C.E)65
Divine Kingship68
Administration of the Empire71
The Empire's Collapse72
The Third Dynasty of Ur (c. 2112-2004 B.C.E.)75
Ur's Rise to Power75
Shulgi's Reforms77
The Fall of Ur78
Persian Gulf and Central Asian Civilizations79
Dilmun, Magan, and Meluhha79
The Oxus Civilization84
The Old Babylonian Period (c. 2000-1595 B.C.E.)85
The "Interregnum" After the Fall of Ur85
Hammurabi and His Rivals87
Old Babylonian Cultural Developments90
The End of Hammurabi's Dynasty and the Rise of the Hittites94
The Emergence of New Peoples95
Hurrians and the Mitanni97
Chapter 4Egypt to the End of the Old Kingdom103
The Late Predynastic Era (c. 3500-3000 B.C.E)103
The Geography of Egypt and Nubia103
The People of the Nile Valley105
Prelude to Civilization: The Naqada II Period105
The Formation of the Egyptian State (c. 3050-2686 B.C.E.)108
The Process of Unification108
The Development of Egyptian Writing110
The Early Dynastic Period (Dynasties 1 and 2)112
Major Elements of Egyptian Culture114
Divine Kingship115
Burial and the Afterlife117
Religion and Ritual119
The Old Kingdom (Dynasties 3-6, c. 2686-2180 B.C.E.)123
Djoser and the First Pyramid123
The Zenith of Royal Power: The Fourth Dynasty (c. 2613-2498 B.C.E.)126
The Latter Part of the Old Kingdom: Dynasties 5 and 6 (c. 2498-2180 B.C.E.)130
Early Egyptian Society and Culture131
Chapter 5The Rise and Fall of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom139
The First Intermediate Period: Dynasties 7-11a (c. 2180-2040 B.C.E.)139
Where is Ma'at?139
The Intermediate Period's Effects140
The Middle Kingdom: Dynasties 11b-13a (c. 2040-1720 B.C.E.)143
The Establishment of the Middle Kingdom143
The Impressive Twelfth Dynasty146
Cultural Developments During the Middle Kingdom148
The Second Intermediate Period: Dynasties 13b-17 (c. 1720-1540 B.C.E.)152
The Onset of the Second Intermediate Period152
The Kingdom of Kush (Upper Nubia)153
Hyksos Rule and the Dynasty at Thebes: Dynasties 15 and 17 (c. 1650-1540 B.C.E.)153
Hyksos Relations with the Levant156
Egyptian and Levantine Contacts with the Minoan Culture of Crete158
Chapter 6The Era of Egyptian Greatness162
The Beginning of the Egyptian New Kingdom (c. 1550-1479 B.C.E.)162
The Early Eighteenth Dynasty162
The "Royal Heiress" Theory164
Hatshepsut and Thutmose III (c. 1479-1425 B.C.E.)165
Hatshepsut's Seizure of Power165
The Sole Rule of Thutmose III168
The Egyptian Empire at Its Height (c. 1425-1350 B.C.E.)169
The Reigns of Amenhotep II and Thutmose IV169
Amenhotep III, "The Magnificent"170
The New Egyptian Army173
Late Bronze Age Canaan (Palestine and Coastal Syria)174
Relations with the Aegean Kingdoms176
Akhenaton and the Amarna Period (c. 1350-1334 B.C.E.)178
Controversies of the Amarna Age178
Did Akhenaton Have a Co-Regency With His Father?179
The Beginning of Amenhotep IV's Reign180
Akhenaton's Religion181
The Revolution's Denouement185
The End of the Eighteenth Dynasty (c. 1334-1293 B.C.E.)187
Tutankhamun and the Restoration of Amun187
The Reigns of Ay and Horemheb, (c. 1325-1293 B.C.E.)188
Chapter 7The End of the Bronze Age193
The Zenith of Hittite Power (c. 1344-1180 B.C.E.)193
Revival and Extension of the Hittite Empire193
Hatti's Showdown With Egypt195
Achaeans and Trojans in Hittite Texts?198
Hittite Culture199
Economy, Society, and Government199
Languages and Literature203
The Twilight of the Egyptian Empire (c.1293-1150 B.C.E.)205
The Empire's Final Flash of Greatness205
Invasions of the Sea Peoples208
The Collapse of Bronze Age Societies in the Eastern Mediterranean212
The Mycenaean Kingdoms212
The Demise of the Hittite Empire213
The End of Egyptian Power215
The Decline of Assyria and Babylonia215
What Caused the Collapse?217
Chapter 8Recovery and Transformation (C. 1100-745 B.C.E.)223
Mesopotamia and Egypt223
Assyria and Babylonia223
The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt225
The Kingdom of Urartu227
The Phrygian and Neo-Hittite Kingdoms229
The Aramaeans230
The Phoenicians233
Early Israel241
The Emergence of Israel241
The Formation of the Israelite State (The United Monarchy)244
The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah248
Other Small States of the Southern Levant251
The Philistines251
Ammon, Moab, and Edom253
Small Kingdoms and Confederations in Arabia256
Chapter 9Mesopotamian Suremacy263
The Height of Assyrian Dominion (744-627 B.C.E.)263
Reestablishment and Expansion of Assyrian Power (744-681 B.C.E.)263
The Empire at Its Zenith (680-627 B.C.E.)268
Neo-Assyrian Society and Culture272
The King, Crown Prince, and Queen272
Non-Royal Social Classes274
The Army275
Administration of the Empire276
Art, Literature, and Science277
The Neo-Babylonian (or Chaldean) Empire (625-560 B.C.E.)279
Destruction of Assyria (627-605 B.C.E.)279
Formation of the Neo-Babylonian and Median Empires280
Nebuchadnezzar's Babylon281
The End of the Neo-Babylonian Empire284
The Emergence of Biblical Monotheism286
The Triumph of the Reform Movement286
The Babylonian Exile288
Chapter 10The Persian Empire293
The Origins and Growth of the Achaemenid Empire293
The Fluorescence of the Lydian Kingdom (c. 685-547 B.C.E.)293
The Creation of the Persian Empire294
The Persian Empire at Its Height299
Crisis and Restoration299
Reorganization of the Empire301
Wars With the Greeks303
Persian Culture305
The King and Court305
The Persian Army307
The Religion of Zoroaster308
Persian Architecture and Art310
Judah During the Persian Period313
The Restoration of Judah313
Religious Developments During the Persian Era315
The End of the Achaemenid Persian Empire318
Decline of the Empire (424-330 B.C.E.)318
Conquest by Alexander the Great319
Chapter 11The Legacy of the Ancient Near East323
Food, Drink, and Animals323
Mathematics and Science324
Language and Literature325
Music, Art, and Architecture326
Religion and Speculative Thought327
Chronological Chart334

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