Ancient Near Eastern History and Culture / Edition 1

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This general introduction to the history and culture of the Ancient Near East, including Egypt, offers the right amount of detail for the course without being encyclopedic.

Organized by the periods, kingdoms, and empires generally used in Near Eastern political history, the book interlaces social and cultural history with the political narrative. This combination allows readers to get a rounded introduction to the subject of Ancient Near Eastern history.

Provides an overview of Ancient Near East history and culture, supplemented with a broad variety of primary source materials, without being encyclopedic. Overview of Ancient Near East History. Readers interested in learning about the Ancient Near East.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780321066749
  • Publisher: Longman
  • Publication date: 11/8/2002
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 368
  • Product dimensions: 7.51 (w) x 9.11 (h) x 0.73 (d)

Table of Contents

List of Tables, Figures, Maps, and Documents xi
Preface xv
Acknowledgments xvi
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
Studying the Ancient Near East 1
What Is the "Near East"? 1
The Nature of Historical Study 3
Antiquity's "Clues" 4
Creating a Chronology for the Ancient Near East 6
A Note on Chronological Terminology: B.C.E./C.E. vs. B.C./A.D. 6
Absolute and Relative Chronology 6
Sources for Ancient Near Eastern Chronology 8
Prelude: Near Eastern Prehistory 10
The Origins of Sedentary Life (c. 10,500-8300 B.C.E.) 10
Early Agricultural Communities in Southwest Asia (c. 8300-6000 B.C.E.) 13
The Development of Complex Societies in Southwest Asia (c. 6000-3700 B.C.E.) 19
Early Cultures of the Nile Valley (c. 8000-3500 B.C.E.) 22
Major Social, Economic, and Political Developments of the Neolithic Age 23
Chapter 2 The Dawn of Civilization in Western Asia 29
The Emergence of Mesopotamian Civilization (c. 3700-3000 B.C.E.) 29
The Urban Revolution 29
The Development of Cuneiform Writing 33
The People of Mesopotamia 37
The Origins of Elam 39
The Mesopotamian Early Dynastic Period (c. 3000-2330 B.C.E.) 40
An Era of Independent City States 40
The "Royal Tombs" of Ur 44
Mesopotamian Culture During the Early Dynastic Era 46
Religion and World View 46
The Development of Kingship 50
Economy and Society 51
Education, Literature, and the Arts 53
Science, Technology, and Warfare 55
Urbanization in Other Areas of Western Asia (c. 3300-2300 B.C.E.) 58
Early Bronze Age Syria and Palestine 58
Early Bronze Age Anatolia and Iran 60
Chapter 3 The First Mesopotamian Empires 65
The Akkadian Empire (c. 2334-2193 B.C.E) 65
Sargon of Agade (c. 2334-2279 B.C.E) 65
Divine Kingship 68
Administration of the Empire 71
The Empire's Collapse 72
The Third Dynasty of Ur (c. 2112-2004 B.C.E.) 75
Ur's Rise to Power 75
Shulgi's Reforms 77
The Fall of Ur 78
Persian Gulf and Central Asian Civilizations 79
Dilmun, Magan, and Meluhha 79
The Oxus Civilization 84
The Old Babylonian Period (c. 2000-1595 B.C.E.) 85
The "Interregnum" After the Fall of Ur 85
Hammurabi and His Rivals 87
Old Babylonian Cultural Developments 90
The End of Hammurabi's Dynasty and the Rise of the Hittites 94
The Emergence of New Peoples 95
Indo-Europeans 95
Hurrians and the Mitanni 97
Kassites 98
Chapter 4 Egypt to the End of the Old Kingdom 103
The Late Predynastic Era (c. 3500-3000 B.C.E) 103
The Geography of Egypt and Nubia 103
The People of the Nile Valley 105
Prelude to Civilization: The Naqada II Period 105
The Formation of the Egyptian State (c. 3050-2686 B.C.E.) 108
The Process of Unification 108
The Development of Egyptian Writing 110
The Early Dynastic Period (Dynasties 1 and 2) 112
Major Elements of Egyptian Culture 114
Mat'at 114
Divine Kingship 115
Burial and the Afterlife 117
Religion and Ritual 119
The Old Kingdom (Dynasties 3-6, c. 2686-2180 B.C.E.) 123
Djoser and the First Pyramid 123
The Zenith of Royal Power: The Fourth Dynasty (c. 2613-2498 B.C.E.) 126
The Latter Part of the Old Kingdom: Dynasties 5 and 6 (c. 2498-2180 B.C.E.) 130
Early Egyptian Society and Culture 131
Chapter 5 The Rise and Fall of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom 139
The First Intermediate Period: Dynasties 7-11a (c. 2180-2040 B.C.E.) 139
Where is Ma'at? 139
The Intermediate Period's Effects 140
The Middle Kingdom: Dynasties 11b-13a (c. 2040-1720 B.C.E.) 143
The Establishment of the Middle Kingdom 143
The Impressive Twelfth Dynasty 146
Cultural Developments During the Middle Kingdom 148
The Second Intermediate Period: Dynasties 13b-17 (c. 1720-1540 B.C.E.) 152
The Onset of the Second Intermediate Period 152
The Kingdom of Kush (Upper Nubia) 153
Hyksos Rule and the Dynasty at Thebes: Dynasties 15 and 17 (c. 1650-1540 B.C.E.) 153
Hyksos Relations with the Levant 156
Egyptian and Levantine Contacts with the Minoan Culture of Crete 158
Chapter 6 The Era of Egyptian Greatness 162
The Beginning of the Egyptian New Kingdom (c. 1550-1479 B.C.E.) 162
The Early Eighteenth Dynasty 162
The "Royal Heiress" Theory 164
Hatshepsut and Thutmose III (c. 1479-1425 B.C.E.) 165
Hatshepsut's Seizure of Power 165
The Sole Rule of Thutmose III 168
The Egyptian Empire at Its Height (c. 1425-1350 B.C.E.) 169
The Reigns of Amenhotep II and Thutmose IV 169
Amenhotep III, "The Magnificent" 170
The New Egyptian Army 173
Late Bronze Age Canaan (Palestine and Coastal Syria) 174
Relations with the Aegean Kingdoms 176
Akhenaton and the Amarna Period (c. 1350-1334 B.C.E.) 178
Controversies of the Amarna Age 178
Did Akhenaton Have a Co-Regency With His Father? 179
The Beginning of Amenhotep IV's Reign 180
Akhenaton's Religion 181
The Revolution's Denouement 185
The End of the Eighteenth Dynasty (c. 1334-1293 B.C.E.) 187
Tutankhamun and the Restoration of Amun 187
The Reigns of Ay and Horemheb, (c. 1325-1293 B.C.E.) 188
Chapter 7 The End of the Bronze Age 193
The Zenith of Hittite Power (c. 1344-1180 B.C.E.) 193
Revival and Extension of the Hittite Empire 193
Hatti's Showdown With Egypt 195
Achaeans and Trojans in Hittite Texts? 198
Hittite Culture 199
Economy, Society, and Government 199
Religion 201
Languages and Literature 203
The Twilight of the Egyptian Empire (c.1293-1150 B.C.E.) 205
The Empire's Final Flash of Greatness 205
Invasions of the Sea Peoples 208
The Collapse of Bronze Age Societies in the Eastern Mediterranean 212
The Mycenaean Kingdoms 212
The Demise of the Hittite Empire 213
The End of Egyptian Power 215
The Decline of Assyria and Babylonia 215
What Caused the Collapse? 217
Chapter 8 Recovery and Transformation (C. 1100-745 B.C.E.) 223
Mesopotamia and Egypt 223
Assyria and Babylonia 223
The Third Intermediate Period in Egypt 225
Anatolia 227
The Kingdom of Urartu 227
The Phrygian and Neo-Hittite Kingdoms 229
Syria 230
The Aramaeans 230
The Phoenicians 233
Early Israel 241
The Emergence of Israel 241
The Formation of the Israelite State (The United Monarchy) 244
The Kingdoms of Israel and Judah 248
Other Small States of the Southern Levant 251
The Philistines 251
Ammon, Moab, and Edom 253
Small Kingdoms and Confederations in Arabia 256
Chapter 9 Mesopotamian Suremacy 263
The Height of Assyrian Dominion (744-627 B.C.E.) 263
Reestablishment and Expansion of Assyrian Power (744-681 B.C.E.) 263
The Empire at Its Zenith (680-627 B.C.E.) 268
Neo-Assyrian Society and Culture 272
The King, Crown Prince, and Queen 272
Non-Royal Social Classes 274
The Army 275
Administration of the Empire 276
Art, Literature, and Science 277
The Neo-Babylonian (or Chaldean) Empire (625-560 B.C.E.) 279
Destruction of Assyria (627-605 B.C.E.) 279
Formation of the Neo-Babylonian and Median Empires 280
Nebuchadnezzar's Babylon 281
The End of the Neo-Babylonian Empire 284
The Emergence of Biblical Monotheism 286
The Triumph of the Reform Movement 286
The Babylonian Exile 288
Chapter 10 The Persian Empire 293
The Origins and Growth of the Achaemenid Empire 293
The Fluorescence of the Lydian Kingdom (c. 685-547 B.C.E.) 293
The Creation of the Persian Empire 294
The Persian Empire at Its Height 299
Crisis and Restoration 299
Reorganization of the Empire 301
Wars With the Greeks 303
Persian Culture 305
The King and Court 305
The Persian Army 307
The Religion of Zoroaster 308
Persian Architecture and Art 310
Judah During the Persian Period 313
The Restoration of Judah 313
Religious Developments During the Persian Era 315
The End of the Achaemenid Persian Empire 318
Decline of the Empire (424-330 B.C.E.) 318
Conquest by Alexander the Great 319
Chapter 11 The Legacy of the Ancient Near East 323
Food, Drink, and Animals 323
Mathematics and Science 324
Language and Literature 325
Music, Art, and Architecture 326
Religion and Speculative Thought 327
Glossary 329
Chronological Chart 334
Index 336
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