Ancient Science Through the Golden Age of Greece

Overview

"There are few scholars or scientists today who write as beautifully or as interestingly as [Sarton] . . . [his] book is magnificent." — Ashley Montagu, Saturday Review
Although science did not begin in ancient Greece (millennia of work in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and other regions preceded Greek efforts) it is nevertheless true that methodic, rational investigation of the natural universe originated largely with early Hellenic thinkers. Thus, the major part of this book is of ...

See more details below
Paperback (Dover ed)
$18.92
BN.com price
(Save 17%)$22.95 List Price
Other sellers (Paperback)
  • All (10) from $12.98   
  • New (5) from $14.28   
  • Used (5) from $12.98   
Ancient Science Through the Golden Age of Greece

Available on NOOK devices and apps  
  • NOOK Devices
  • NOOK HD/HD+ Tablet
  • NOOK
  • NOOK Color
  • NOOK Tablet
  • Tablet/Phone
  • NOOK for Windows 8 Tablet
  • NOOK for iOS
  • NOOK for Android
  • NOOK Kids for iPad
  • PC/Mac
  • NOOK for Windows 8
  • NOOK for PC
  • NOOK for Mac
  • NOOK Study
  • NOOK for Web

Want a NOOK? Explore Now

NOOK Book (eBook)
$12.99
BN.com price
(Save 43%)$22.95 List Price

Overview

"There are few scholars or scientists today who write as beautifully or as interestingly as [Sarton] . . . [his] book is magnificent." — Ashley Montagu, Saturday Review
Although science did not begin in ancient Greece (millennia of work in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and other regions preceded Greek efforts) it is nevertheless true that methodic, rational investigation of the natural universe originated largely with early Hellenic thinkers. Thus, the major part of this book is of necessity devoted to Greece. Drawing wherever possible on original sources, Dr. Sarton, one of the world's foremost historians of science, paints a vivid and illuminating picture of mathematics, astronomy, physics, biology, medicine, and other sciences as they emerged from the mists of prehistory and ultimately flourished within the context of Greek society.
The book is divided into three parts. Part One begins with the earliest evidence of prehistoric mathematics, astronomy, and other science. Dr. Sarton then describes the achievements of Egypt and Mesopotamia, the dawn of Greek culture and the remarkable flowering of Ionian science in the sixth century B.C. Thales of Miletos, Anaximandrox, and Xenophanes are among the important figures discussed. An entire chapter focuses on the influential doctrines of Pythagoras.
Part Two opens with the glory of Athens in the fifth century B.C. and its magnificent achievements in poetry and the arts, philosophy, and science. Described in lucid detail are groundbreaking contributions of Heracleitos, Anaxagoras, Protagoras, Zenon of Elea, Parmenides, Democritos, and many others. Also included in this section are perceptive discussions of geographers and historians of the fifth century (Herodotos, Thucydides, and others) and Greek medicine of the fifth century (chiefly Hippocratic).
Part Three focuses on the extraordinary Greek thinkers of the fourth century B.C.: Plato and the Academy, Aristotle, Xenophon and many others, including such important schools of thought as the cynics, stoics, skeptics, and epicureans. Major attention is given to mathematics, astronomy and physics, natural sciences and medicine, Aristotelian humanities, and historiography and other topics.
"Of great value to the general historian and an exciting, arresting story for the lay reader. — The Yale Review

Read More Show Less

Editorial Reviews

Booknews
**** Reprint of the work originally published as A History of Science; v.1; Ancient Science ... by Harvard U. Press in 1952 and cited in BCL3. Dover reintroduces this great classic at a small price and printed on acid-free paper. Annotation c. Book News, Inc., Portland, OR (booknews.com)
Read More Show Less

Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780486274959
  • Publisher: Dover Publications
  • Publication date: 11/17/2011
  • Edition description: Dover ed
  • Edition number: 28
  • Pages: 688
  • Sales rank: 830,027
  • Product dimensions: 5.40 (w) x 8.46 (h) x 1.25 (d)

Read an Excerpt

ANCIENT SCIENCE THROUGH THE GOLDEN AGE OF GREECE


By George Sarton

Dover Publications, Inc.

Copyright © 1980 May Sarton
All rights reserved.
ISBN: 978-0-486-14498-6



CHAPTER 1

THE DAWN OF SCIENCE


When did science begin? Where did it begin? It began whenever and wherever men tried to solve the innumerable problems of life. The first solutions were mere expedients, but that must do for a beginning. Gradually the expedients would be compared, generalized, rationalized, simplified, interrelated, integrated; the texture of science would be slowly woven. The first solutions were petty and awkward but what of it? A Sequoia gigantea two inches high may not be very conspicuous, but it is a Sequoia all the same. It might be claimed that one cannot speak of science at all as long as a certain degree of abstraction has not been reached, but who will measure that degree? When the first mathematician reognized that there was something in common between three palm trees and three donkeys, how abstract was his thought? Or when primitive theologians conceived the invisible presence of a supreme being and thus seemed to reach an incredible degree of abstraction, was their idea really abstract, or was it concrete? Did they postulate God or did they see Him? Were the earliest expedients nothing but expedients or did they include reasonings, religious or artistic cravings? Were they rational or irrational? Was early science wholly practical and mercenary? Was it pure science, such as it was, or a mixture of science with art, religion, or magic?

Such queries are futile, because they lack determination and the answers cannot be verified. It is better to leave out for the nonce the consideration of science as science, and to consider only definite problems and their solutions. The problems can be imagined, because we know the needs of man; he must be able to feed himself and his family, to find a shelter against the inclemencies of the weather, the attacks of wild beast or fellow men, and so on. Our imaginations are not arbitrary, for they are guided by a large number of observed facts. To begin with, archaeologic investigations reveal monuments which help us to realize the kind of objects and tools that our forefathers created and even to understand their methods of using them, and to guess their intentions. The study of languages brings to light ancient words which are like fossil witnesses of early objects or early ideas. Anthropologists have made us familiar with the manners and customs of primitive men who were living under their own eyes. Finally, psychologists have analyzed the reactions of children or of undeveloped minds in the face of the very problems that primitive men had to solve. The amount of information thus obtained from several directions is so large that a scholar's life is too short to encompass it. There is no place here for a review of it, however brief, but only for a few hints.

In order to simplify our task a little, let us assume that the primitive men we are dealing with have already solved some of the most urgent problems, for otherwise their very existence would have remained precarious, not to speak of their progress, material or spiritual. Let us assume that they have discovered how to make a fire and have learned the rudiments of husbandry. They are already — that is, some of them are — learned people and technicians, and they may already be speaking of the good old days when life was more dangerous but simpler and a man did not have to remember so many things. I say "speaking," for by this time they have certainly developed a language, though they are still unable to write it; indeed, they are still unconscious of the possibility of doing so. At this stage, and for a long time to come, writing is neither essential nor necessary. Our own culture is so closely dependent on writing that it requires some effort to imagine one independent of it. Man can go very far without writing, but not without language. Language is the bedrock upon which any culture is built. In the course of time it becomes the richest treasure house of that culture.

One of the greatest mysteries of life is that the languages of even the most primitive peoples, languages that have never been reduced to writing (except by anthropologists), are extremely complex. How did those languages develop as they did? The development was very largely unconscious and casual.

Our reference to investigations made today by field anthropologists is sufficient warning that when we speak of the dawn of science or of any prehistoric period we are not thinking in terms of a chronologic scale of universal application. There is no such scale. The dawn of science occurred ten thousand years ago or more in certain parts of the world; it can still be witnessed in other parts today; and irrespective of place we can observe it to some extent in the mind of any child.


EARLY TECHNICAL PROBLEMS

Let us consider rapidly the multitude of technical problems that early men had to solve if they wished to survive, and, later, to improve their condition and to lighten the burden of life. They had to invent the making of fire and experiment with it in various ways. Not only the husbandman but also the nomad needed many tools, for cutting and carving, flaying, abrading, smoothing, crushing, for the making of holes, for grasping and joining. Each tool was a separate invention, or rather the opening up of a new series of inventions, for each was susceptible of improvements which would be introduced one by one. In early times there was already room for key inventions, which might be applied to an endless group of separate problems and which ushered in unlimited possibilities. For example, there was the general problem of how to devise a handle and how to attach it firmly to a given tool. Many different solutions were found for that problem, one of the most ingenious being that of the Eskimos and Northern Indians, namely, the use of babiche (strings or thongs of rawhide) by means of which the tool and handle are bound together; as the hide dries it shrinks almost to half its length and the two objects are inseparable. A tighter fit could hardly be obtained otherwise.

The husbandman had to discover the useful plants one by one — plants to use as food, or as drugs, or for other domestic purposes — and this implied innumerable experiments. It was not enough for him to discover a plant; he had to select among infinite variations the best modalities of its use. He had to capture animals and to domesticate the very few that were domesticable, to build houses and granaries, to make receptacles of various kinds. There must have been somewhere a first potter, but the potter's art involved the conscious or unconscious cooperation of thousands of people. Heavy loads had to be lifted and transported, sometimes to great distances. How could that be done? Well, it had to be done and it was done. Ingenious people invented the lever, the simple pulley, the use of rollers, and later, much later, that of wheels. A potter of genius applied the wheel to his own art. How could a man cover his body to protect it from the cold or the rain or the burning sun? The use of hides was one solution, the use of leaves or bark another, but nothing equaled the materials obtained by the weaving of certain fibres. When this idea occurred to a great inventor, the textile industry was born. The earliest tools were made of stone or bones; when the practical value of metals was finally realized it became worth while to dig for their ores and to smelt them, to combine them in various ways; this was the beginning of mining and metallurgy. Each of the sentences of this paragraph could easily be expanded into a treatise.

In order to illustrate the almost uncanny ingenuity of "primitive" people, it may suffice to display the three following examples, taken in three parts of the world very distant from each other. The Australian boomerang is so well known that it hardly requires discussion; it is a missile weapon the curved shape of which is so cunningly devised that the weapon when thrown describes extraordinary curves and may even return to the sender. The South American tipiti is an elastic plaited cylinder of jacitara-palm bark which is used to express the juice of the cassava (or manioc); as the cylinder is lengthened, by the weight of a stone or otherwise, the internal pressure increases and the juice flows out. This invention is admirable in its simplicity and effectiveness, but what is more astonishing is that the Indians were able to discover the great nutritive value of cassava. The juice contains a deadly substance (hydrocyanic acid) which must be removed by cooking; otherwise, the consumer would be killed instead of nourished. How did the Indians find the treasure which could be enjoyed only after the poison spoiling it had been removed? My third example is the li [TEXT NOT REPRODUCIBLE IN ASCII], a tripod used in China in prehistoric times. It is a three-legged cooking pot, the legs of which are shaped like cows' udders; various foods may be cooked in each leg with a single fire burning in the middle.

These examples might easily be multiplied. Selected as they have been in three corners of the world as remote from one another as could be, they illustrate the wide distribution of genius. We well know that whatever amount of civilization we enjoy today is the gift of many nations; we do not know so well that the same was already true thousands of years ago. Prehistorians have proved beyond doubt the existence of sophisticated cultures at very early times in many places. This does not disprove the monogenesis of mankind. It is highly probable that the new species Homo sapiens originated in a single place, but so long ago that by the time at which the earliest observable cultures flourished man had already invaded a good part of the world.


PREHISTORIC TRAVEL AND TRADE

Travel was much slower and more difficult in the past than it is now, and one might be tempted to conclude that primitive man moved very little and did not rove far away from his hiding place. That conclusion would be wrong. To begin with, we may observe that the speed of communication did not increase materially until the steam age, a century ago. Primitive people could move as fast as Napoleon's soldiers; sometimes they moved much faster. It is now generally agreed that there was considerable travel, individual and tribal (migrations), in the earliest days that scientific research can reach. For example, the Americas were discovered and colonized thousands of years ago by people coming over from Siberia and crossing the Bering Strait region; every American Indian is ultimately of Asiatic origin. The migrations were probably more frequent and more abundant in the oldest prehistoric periods before the invention of the agricultural arts, for as soon as people mastered those arts they became naturally more sedentary and more timid.

The passage from nomadic to settled life was perhaps the most pregnant step up in the whole history of mankind. That passage was far more important than the ones from stone to bronze or from bronze to iron; it might be called the passage from food gathering to food producing. Man could not settle down for life in any one place until he was secure from enemies, and this implied association with other men and some kind of government, nor until he was secure from want, and this implied the possibility of obtaining in the neighborhood enough food for himself, his family, and his beasts; it implied the arts and the folklore of agriculture. It has been remarked above that the development of mankind does not synchronize everywhere. Some people are more advanced than others, nor do they all pass through the same stages. The passage from nomadic to settled life occurred many millennia ago in some places, yet it has not been completed today by the Arab Bedouins. Man always was the child of circumstances, and since his environment varied enormously from place to place, he was bound to develop differently in different regions.

Men who had learned to cultivate the land were gradually blessed (and cursed) with the ownership of more and more things and bound to the soil by more and more ties. As to their nomadic brethren, roving in search of better hunting or fishing, they might come back periodically to the same grounds, but there was nothing save habit and incipient domestication to oblige them to do so. The real nomads kept moving on without retracing their steps and were likely to cover immense distances.

The distinction between settled people, seminomads, and nomads is generally made with regard to people moving on land, but it applies equally well to those moving on water. No savages have ever been found near water who were not able to navigate it, but some of them were more settled than others, and some were regular sea rovers. The canoe is probably one of the oldest inventions of man, older than the bow; in favored places, where canoes were especially needed and materials for making them were handy, they were invented perhaps as early as thirty thousand years ago. Seaworthy ships came later, yet so early that deep-sea navigation reached a climax many millennia ago. According to the Norwegian archaeologist Anton Wilhelm Brøgger, there was a golden age of oceanic navigation during the period roughly defined as 3000 to 1500 B.C., that is, before the days of Phoenician navigation. This is an archaeological interpolation, but its plausibility is confirmed from many sides. Sailing appealed to early men as it does to the young and strong of every time, and there are few fields wherein their inventiveness appeared more brilliantly. In this field, as in every other, it was not a matter of one invention but of a thousand, and the complete story would be endless. Among the masterpieces of primitive technology we may mention the wooden outrigger canoe of the South Seas, the Irish curragh (or coracle), the Eskimo dory-shaped umiak and their watertight kayak.

The early inhabitants of the northwestern European shores were not afraid of exploring the foggy and tempestuous Atlantic, and the South Sea islanders navigated the Pacific in every direction. For example, Polynesians did not hesitate to sail their canoes from Tahiti to Hawaii, a distance of 2400 nautical miles.

As to primitive commerce, there are many witnesses to it, one of the clearest being the relics of the amber trade. The best-known kind of amber (succinite) is a natural product of the Baltic shores, but pieces of it have been found in prehistoric tombs scattered in so many places that it has been possible to draw maps of the prehistoric amber routes. As amber was very valuable and easy to transport, Scandinavians were able to obtain in exchange for it many goods of the southern regions, which had been favored by nature and were more advanced. Trade, then as now, was one of the main occasions of intercourse, one of the vehicles of civilization.

In the Stone Age the special value of flints for tools was soon realized, and good flints, breaking with sharp edges, were not found everywhere. The existence of flint quarries and of an international flint trade has been proved repeatedly. Alluvial gold must have been observed and collected very early and used for ornaments. The first ores to be exploited were probably sulfides of copper and antimony, both of which are very easily reducible, and thus copper and antimony were discovered. When grains of cassiterite were reduced, tin was obtained, and one of the first metallurgic geniuses had the idea of alloying a little tin with copper and thus obtaining a new metal, bronze, much harder and more serviceable than copper. Wherever that discovery was made or introduced, the Stone Age was followed by a Bronze Age. Later, other inventors found means of reducing the most fusible of the iron ores and the Iron Age began.


(Continues...)

Excerpted from ANCIENT SCIENCE THROUGH THE GOLDEN AGE OF GREECE by George Sarton. Copyright © 1980 May Sarton. Excerpted by permission of Dover Publications, Inc..
All rights reserved. No part of this excerpt may be reproduced or reprinted without permission in writing from the publisher.
Excerpts are provided by Dial-A-Book Inc. solely for the personal use of visitors to this web site.

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

PART ONE ORIENTAL AND GREEK ORIGINS
I THE DAWN OF SCIENCE
    EARLY TECHNICAL PROBLEMS
    PREHISTORIC TRAVEL AND TRADE
    PREHISTORIC MEDICINE
    PREHISTORIC MATHEMATICS
    PREHISTORIC ASTRONOMY
    PURE SCIENCES
    DIFFUSION AND CONVERGENCE
II EGYPT
    THE INVENTION OF WRITING
    THE INVENTION OF PAPYRUS
    ASTRONOMY
    ARCHITECTURE AND ENGINEERING
    MATHEMATICS
    TECHNOLOGY
    METALLURGY AND MINING
    "EGYPTIAN "SCIENCE"
    ART AND LITERATURE
    THE DAWN OF CONSCIENCE
III MESOPOTAMIA
    GEOGRAPHIC AND HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
    INVENTION OF WRITING
    ARCHIVES AND SCHOOLS
    THE BIRTH OF PHILOLOGY
    BABYLONIAN SCIENCE
    MATHEMATICS
    ASTRONOMY
    TECHNOLOGY
    GEOGRAPHY
    NATURAL HISTORY
    THE CODE OF HAMMURABI
    MEDICINE
    HUMANITIES
IV DARK INTERLUDE
    THE AEGEAN AREA
    THE AEGEAN CULTURE
    THE EARLY GREEK AND PHOENICIAN COLONIES. INVENTION OF THE ALPHABET
    THE CONTINUITY OF ORIENTAL INFLUENCES
    MATHEMATICAL TRADITIONS:
      Egyptian arithmetic
      Minoan arithmetic
      Egyptian geometry
      Babylonian mathematics
    ASTRONOMIC TRADITIONS
    BIOLOGIC AND MEDICAL TRADITIONS
    TECHNICAL TRADITIONS
    MYTHOLOGY
    THE DARKEST HOUR BEFORE THE DAWN
V THE DAWN OF GREEK CULTURE. HOMER AND HESIOD
    THE GREEK MIRACLE
    THE Iliad
    MINSTRELS AND RHAPSODISTS
    HOMER?
    MORE ABOUT THE Iliad
    THE Odyssey. HOMER II
    EARLY HOMERIC TRADITIONS
    WHAT DID HOMER TEACH?
    GEOGRAPHY
    MEDICINE
    OTHER ARTS AND CRAFTS
    "HOMER, THE FIRST EDUCATOR OF THE WESTERN WORLD"
    FÉNELON
    LEGENDS
    WOLF AND SCHLIEMANN
    HESIOD
    Works and days
    Descent of the gods
    HESIOD II
    HESIODIC STYLE AND TRADITION
    BIBLIOGRAPHIC NOTES:
      Homer
      Hesiod
VI ASSYRIAN INTERMEZZO
VII IONIAN SCIENCE IN THE SIXTH CENTURY
    THE ASIATIC CRADLE OF GREEK SCIENCE
    "ASIA, THE HOME OF PROPHETS"
    MILETOS
    THE SEVEN WISE MEN
    THALES OF MILETOS
    ANAXIMANDROS OF MILETOS
    ANAXIMENES OF MILETOS
    CLEOSTRATOS OF TENEDOS
    XENOPHANES OF COLOPHON
    EGYPTIAN INTERLUDE
    "NECHO, KING OF EGYPT "
    "HECATAIOS OF MILETOS, THE FATHER OF GEOGRAPHY"
    GREEK TECHNICIANS OF THE SIXTH CENTURY
    CADMOS OF MILETOS
    THE RELIGIOUS BACKGROUND AND THE SUPERSTITIOUS UNDERGROUND
    BIBLIOGRAPHY
VIII PYTHAGORAS
    WHO WAS PYTHAGORAS?
    THE PYTHAGOREAN BROTHERHOOD AND THE EARLY PYTHAGOREAN DOCTRINES
    ARITHMETIC
    GEOMETRY
    ASTRONOMY
    MUSIC AND ARITHMETIC
    MEDICINE
    ALCMAION AND DEMOCEDES
    NUMBERS AND WISDOM
    THE PURSUIT OF KNOWLEDGE IS THE GREATEST PURIFICATION
PART TWO THE FIFTH CENTURY
IX GREECE AGAINST PERSIA. THE GLORY OF ATHENS
    THE PERSIAN WARS
    FIFTY YEARS OF RELATIVE PEACE
    LYRIC POETRY
    THE ARTS
    TRAGEDY
    COMEDY
    THE FIFTH CENTURY ITSELF A TRAGEDY
    THE DANGER OF COMPARING THE PAST WITH THE PRESENT
X PHILOSOPHY AND SCIENCE TO THE DEATH OF SOCRATES
    HERACLEITOS OF EPHESOS
    ANAXAGORAS OF CLAZOMENAE
    THE ELEACTIC SCHOOL. PARMENIDES AND ZENON OF ELEA
    MELISSOS OF SAMOS
    EMPEDOCLES OF AGRIGENTUM
    THE ATOMISTS
    LEUCIPPOS AND DEMOCRITOS
    THE SOPHISTS
    "PROTAGORAS OF ABDERA, GORGIAS OF LEONTINI, AND ANTIPHON OF RHAMNOS"
      Protagoras of Abdera
      Gorgias of Leontini
      Antiphon of Rhamnos
    SOCRATES OF ATHENS
    THE BOOK OF JOB
XI "MATHEMATICS, ASTRONOMY, AND TECHNOLOGY IN THE FIFTH CENTURY"
    MATHEMATICS
      ZENON OF ELEA
      DEMOCRITOS OF ABDERA
      HIPPOCRATES OF CHIOS
      OINOPIDES OF CHIOS
      HIPPIAS OF ELIS
      THE ODOROS OF CYRENE
      ANTIPHON THE SOPHIST
      BRYSON OF HERACLEA
    ASTRONOMY
      PARMENIDES OF ELEA
      PHILOLAOS OF CROTON
      HICETAS OF SYRACUSE
      ECPHANTOS OF SYRACUSE
      THE ASTRONOMIC VIEWS OF LEUCIPPOS AND DEMOCRITOS
      OINOPIDES OF CHIOS
      METON AND EUCTEMON
    TECHNOLOGY AND ENGINEERING
      ARTACHAIES THE PERSIAN
      AGATHARCHOS OF SAMOS
      HIPPODAMOS OF MILETOS
      THE SILVER MINES OF LAURION
XII GEOGRAPHERS AND HISTORIANS OF THE FIFTH CENTURY
    GEOGRAPHY
    SCYLAX OF CARYANDA
    SATASPES THE ACHAIMENIAN
    HANON OF CARTHAGE
    HIMILCON OF CARTHAGE
    "THE HISTORIANS: HERODOTOS, THUCYDIDES, AND CTESIAS"
    HERODOTOS OF HALICARNASSOS
    THUCYDIDES OF ATHENS: The plague of Athens
    HERODOTOS AND THUCYDIDES
    CTESIAS OF CNIDOS
XIII "GREEK MEDICINE OF THE FIFTH CENTURY, CHIEFLY HIPPOCRATIC"
    FROM HOMER TO HIPPOCRATES
    THE SCHOOL OF CNIDOS
    THE SCHOOL OF COS
    HIPPOCRATES OF COS
    HIPPOCRATIC MEDICINE:
    1. Anatomy and physiology
    2. Prognosis versus diagnosis
    3. What diseases did the Hippocratic physicians know?
    4. Hygiene and therapeutics
    5. Medical climatology
    6. Scientific aspects of Hippocratism
    7. Psychologic healing
    THE HIPPOCRATIC ACHIEVEMENTS
    THE ASCLEPIADAI
XIV THE HIPPOCRATIC CORPUS
    COMPLETE OR PARTIAL GENUINENESS OF THE HIPPOCRATIC WRITINGS
    EARLY COMMENTARIES: Printed editions
      MAIN MEDICAL WRITINGS
      1. "The sacred disease, De morbo sacro, Peri hieres nosu"
      2. "Prognostic, Prognostica sive praenotiones, Prognosticon"
      3. "Regimen in acute diseases, De di
      29. "Percepts, Praecepta, Parangeliai"
      LETTERS
      30. APOCHRYPHAL LETTERS
          "THE MEDIEVAL TRADITION OF HIPPOCRATES: Second half of the twelfth century, First half of the thirteenth century, Second half of the thirteenth century, First half of the fourteenth century, Second half of the fourteenth century"
XV COAN ARCHAEOLOGY
PART THREE THE FOURTH CENTURY
XVI PLATO AND THE ACADEMY
    POLITICAL BACKGROUND
    SCOPAS AND PRAXITELES
    PLATO'S LIFE
    THE ACADEMY (387 B.C. TO A.D. 529)
    LATER HISTORY OF THE ACADEMY (348 B.C. TO A.D. 529)
    ORIENTAL INFLUENCES
    THE THEORY OF IDEAS
  PLATOS WRITINGS
    BIBLIOGRAPHICAL SUMMARY
    PLATO'S WORKS AND THEIR CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER
    POLITICS
    THE GREAT BETRAYAL
    PLATO'S POLITICAL PROBLEM
    LEADERSHIP
    POLITICS AND MATHEMATICS
    NEITHER FREEDOM NOR TRUTH IN THE REPUBLIC
    PLATO'S RELIGION
    PLATO'S LACK OF HUMANITY
    THE Timaios
    PLATONIC LOVE
    CONCLUSION
    A NOTE ON THE ANCIENT AND MEDIEVAL TRADITION OF THE Timaios
XVII MATHEMATICS AND ASTRONOMY IN PLATO'S TIME
    MATHEMATICS
      THEAITETOS
      LEODAMOS
      "NEOCLEIDES, AND LEON"
      ARCHYTAS OF TARENTUM
      EUDOXUS OF CNIDOS
    ASTRONOMY
      KIDINNU
      "THE PRECURSORS OF SCIENTIFIC ASTRONOMY: PHILOLAOS, HICETAS, AND ECPHANTOS"
      "THE FOUNDER OF SCIENTIFIC ASTRONOMY, EUDOXOS OF CNIDOS, AND HIS THEORY OF HOMOCENTRIC SPHERES"
      THE ASTRONOMIC FANCIES OF PLATO AND PHILIP OF OPUS. THE INTRODUCTION OF SIDEREAL RELIGION INTO THE WESTERN WORLD
      THE Epinomis
XVIII XENOPHON
    XENOPHON'S WRITINGS
    PLATO AND XENOPHON
    XENOPHON AS EDUCATOR
    FUNCTIONAL ARCHITECTURE
    XENOPHON'S VIEWS ON DIVINATION
    XENOPHON'S HUMOR
    XENOPHON'S INFLUENCE
XIX ARISTOTLE AND ALEXANDER THE LYCEUM
    THE GROWTH OF MACEDONIAN POWER
    THE LIFE OF ARISTOTLE
    "THE LOST ARISTOTLE. HIS EARLY, PLATONIC WRITINGS"
    THE LIVING ARISTOTLE. HIS PERMANENT WRITINGS
    "EDITIONS, TRANSLATIONS, INDEXES"
    ALEXANDER THE GREAT AND THE MACEDONIAN EMPIRE
    THE LYCEUM
    ITS FOUNDATION AND EARLY HISTORY
    EARLY COMMENTATORS
    SOME ASPECTS OF ARISTOTLE'S PHILOSOPHY
    THE ORGANON
XX "MATHEMATICS, ASTRONOMY, AND PHYSICS IN ARISTOTLES TIME"
    MATHEMATICS
      ARISTOTLE THE MATHEMATICIAN
      SPEUSIPPOS OF ATHENS
      XENOCRATES OF CHALCEDON
      MENAICHMOS
      DEINOSTRATOS
      THEUDIOS OF MAGNESIA
      EUDEMOS OF RHODES
      ARISTAIOS THE ELDER
      MATHEMATICS IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE FOURTH CENTURY
    ASTRONOMY
      HERACLEIDES OF PONTOS
      CALLIPOS OF CYZICOS
      ARISTOTLE THE ASTRONOMER
      AUTOLYCOS OF PITANE
      ASTRONOMY IN ARISTOTLE'S TIME
    PHYSICS
      PHYSICS IN THE EARLY LYCEUM
      GREEK MUSIC. ARISTOXENOS OF TARENTUM
XXI THE NATURAL SCIENCES AND MEDICINE IN ARISTOTLE'S TIME
    GEOGRAPHY
      ARISTOTLE THE GEOGRAPHER
      PYTHEAS OF MASSILIA
      NEARCHOS THE CRETAN
      DICAIARCHOS OF MESSINA
    ZOÖLOGY AND BIOLOGY
      "ARISTOTLE, THE ZOÖLOGIST, THE BIOLOGIST: Comparative anatomy and physiology, Habits of animals, Embryology"
    BOTANY
      THE RHIZOTOMISTS
      ARISTOTLE THE BOTANIST
      THEOPHRASTOS OF ERESOS
      THE FATHER OF BOTANY
    GEOLOGY AND MINERALOGY
      EARLY KNOWLEDGE
      THEOPHRASTOS THE MINERALOGIST
    MEDICINE
      ARISTOTLE THE PHYSICIAN
      THE DOGMATIC SCHOOL. DIOCLES OF CARYSTOS
      MENON
XXII ARISTOTELIAN HUMANITIES AND HISTORIOGRAPHY IN THE SECOND HALF OF THE FOURTH CENTURY B.C.
    ECOLOGY
    ETHICS
    POLITICS
    "HISTORIOGRAPHY: Ephoros of Cyme, Theopompos of Chios"
    HISTORIANS OF SCIENCE:
      Rhetoric
      Poetics
    CONCLUSION
XXIII OTHER THEORIES OF LIFE AND OF KNOWLEDGE. THE GARDEN AND THE PORCH
    THE CYNICS
    THE SKEPTICS
    EUHEMERISM
    THE GARDEN OF EPICUROS
      EPICUROS OF SAMOS
      EPICUREAN PHYSICS AND PHILOSOPHY
      EPICUROS' STRUGGLE AGAINST CLERICALSM AND SUPERSTITION
      THE SCHOOL
      EPICROS' CHARACTER
      HIS DEATH
    THE STOA
      ZENON OF CITION
      STOIC SCIENCE AND PHILOSOPHY
      BRIEF HISTORY OF THE SCHOOL
EPILOGUE
XXIV THE END OF A CYCLE
  GENERAL BIBLIOGRAPHY
  INDEX
Read More Show Less

Customer Reviews

Be the first to write a review
( 0 )
Rating Distribution

5 Star

(0)

4 Star

(0)

3 Star

(0)

2 Star

(0)

1 Star

(0)

Your Rating:

Your Name: Create a Pen Name or

Barnes & Noble.com Review Rules

Our reader reviews allow you to share your comments on titles you liked, or didn't, with others. By submitting an online review, you are representing to Barnes & Noble.com that all information contained in your review is original and accurate in all respects, and that the submission of such content by you and the posting of such content by Barnes & Noble.com does not and will not violate the rights of any third party. Please follow the rules below to help ensure that your review can be posted.

Reviews by Our Customers Under the Age of 13

We highly value and respect everyone's opinion concerning the titles we offer. However, we cannot allow persons under the age of 13 to have accounts at BN.com or to post customer reviews. Please see our Terms of Use for more details.

What to exclude from your review:

Please do not write about reviews, commentary, or information posted on the product page. If you see any errors in the information on the product page, please send us an email.

Reviews should not contain any of the following:

  • - HTML tags, profanity, obscenities, vulgarities, or comments that defame anyone
  • - Time-sensitive information such as tour dates, signings, lectures, etc.
  • - Single-word reviews. Other people will read your review to discover why you liked or didn't like the title. Be descriptive.
  • - Comments focusing on the author or that may ruin the ending for others
  • - Phone numbers, addresses, URLs
  • - Pricing and availability information or alternative ordering information
  • - Advertisements or commercial solicitation

Reminder:

  • - By submitting a review, you grant to Barnes & Noble.com and its sublicensees the royalty-free, perpetual, irrevocable right and license to use the review in accordance with the Barnes & Noble.com Terms of Use.
  • - Barnes & Noble.com reserves the right not to post any review -- particularly those that do not follow the terms and conditions of these Rules. Barnes & Noble.com also reserves the right to remove any review at any time without notice.
  • - See Terms of Use for other conditions and disclaimers.
Search for Products You'd Like to Recommend

Recommend other products that relate to your review. Just search for them below and share!

Create a Pen Name

Your Pen Name is your unique identity on BN.com. It will appear on the reviews you write and other website activities. Your Pen Name cannot be edited, changed or deleted once submitted.

 
Your Pen Name can be any combination of alphanumeric characters (plus - and _), and must be at least two characters long.

Continue Anonymously

    If you find inappropriate content, please report it to Barnes & Noble
    Why is this product inappropriate?
    Comments (optional)