Anesthesia and the Fetus


This book covers all aspects of anesthesia affecting the fetus throughout in utero life. The book comprises three sections looking at: 1) endpoints for fetal and neonatal outcomes, 2) anesthetic interventions that may affect these endpoint variables, and 3) confounding variables which may modify the effects of anesthesia and analgesia on outcomes. A concise, pratical guide backed up by theory, it also discusses wider ethical and legal considerations. With increasing uses of anesthesia throughout pregancy, this ...

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This book covers all aspects of anesthesia affecting the fetus throughout in utero life. The book comprises three sections looking at: 1) endpoints for fetal and neonatal outcomes, 2) anesthetic interventions that may affect these endpoint variables, and 3) confounding variables which may modify the effects of anesthesia and analgesia on outcomes. A concise, pratical guide backed up by theory, it also discusses wider ethical and legal considerations. With increasing uses of anesthesia throughout pregancy, this book makes anesthetists and obstetricians aware of the potential affects of anesthetics on fetal development and outcomes.

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Editorial Reviews

From the Publisher
“The book would be a valuable addition to most obstetric anaesthetic departments as well as informing paediatric anaesthetists, paediatricians and obstetricians of the current controversies regarding anaesthetic influences on foetal development and outcomes.” (Anaesthesia and Intensive Care Journal, 1 November 2013)

“I must commend the editors for their success in bringing together such an enviable international list of expert clinicians from such diverse backgrounds as anaesthesia, obstetric medicine, neonatology and human development in order to share their knowledge. This is definitely a reference book that all anaesthetic department libraries should possess.” (Anaesthesia, 15 October 2013)

“Clearly this book will be ideal for reference in departmental and hospital libraries and I will be recommending this to ours.” (The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist, 12 July 2013)

“I have thoroughly enjoyed reading this book, and I would highly recommend it to every clinician involved in the care of the mother and her unborn child during pregnancy.” (Acta Paediatrica, 1 August 2013)

Doody's Review Service
Reviewer: Tariq M. Malik, MD (University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine)
Description: This book covers the effects of anesthetic medicines on the well-being of the fetus and reviews fetal and maternal physiology as well as the pharmacokinetic and pharmacological aspects in both healthy and compromised situations.
Purpose: The purpose is to focus on the care of the fetus before delivery. As noted by the editors, this is an evolving field and it requires a team approach from multiple specialties.
Audience: The book targets anesthesiologists, especially those who practice obstetric anesthesia. It will be useful for anesthesiologists at all levels of experience. The book has been written by very experienced clinicians.
Features: Though small, the book is quite extensive in its coverage. The 40 chapters are grouped into six sections. Section one focuses on fetal development and physiology and maternal physiology and pharmacology, while section two reviews current techniques for assessing fetal well-being, such as imaging techniques, fetal heart rate monitoring, and acid-base testing. The heart of the book is section three, which covers anesthetic techniques for labor pain, cesarean section, EXIT (ex utero intrapartum treatment) procedures, and the effects of anesthetic drugs on the fetus. The issues of maternal substance abuse, fever, and regional anesthesia and intrauterine fetal procedures are also covered. Section four reviews complications presented by preeclampsia and multiple pregnancies. Section five covers resuscitation of mothers in the case of major trauma or cardiac arrest situations, as well intrauterine fetal resuscitation and neonatal resuscitation. The last section covers ethical and legal issues related to pregnancy. The chapters are short, the approach is very direct, and the information is evidence based and well referenced. The book covers a number of practical topics often overlooked in regular obstetric books. However, this is not a textbook of obstetric anesthesia and it is not meant to replace basic textbooks in this area.
Assessment: No other book does what this one does. It complements any standard textbook on obstetric anesthesia and is a must-have reference for anyone who practices obstetric anesthesia.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9781444337075
  • Publisher: Wiley
  • Publication date: 2/11/2013
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 418
  • Product dimensions: 7.40 (w) x 9.80 (h) x 1.00 (d)

Meet the Author

Yehuda Ginosar, BSc, MBBS, Hadassah Hebrew University Medical Center, Jerusalem, Israel

Felicity Reynolds, MD, FRCA, FRCOG, one time St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK

Stephen Halpern, MD, MSc, University of Toronto , Toronto, Canada

Carl P. Weiner, MD, MBA, FACOG, University of Kansas, School of Medicine, Kansas City, USA

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Table of Contents

Contributors, ix

Preface, xvi

Acknowledgments, xviii

Section I: Basic Principles

1 Intrauterine growth and development, 3
Timothy Moss, Cheryl Albuquerque & Richard Harding

2 Maternal physiological adaptations to pregnancy, 19
Julie Phillips, MD, Melissa Covington, MD & George Osol, PhD

3 Placental respiratory gas exchange, 25
Lowell Davis

4 The fetal circulation, 32
Loren P. Thompson, PhD & Kazumasa Hashimoto, MD

5 Fetal responses to hypoxia, 39
Tania L. Kasdaglis, MD and Ahmet A. Baschat MD

6 Pharmacokinetics in pregnancy, 53
Janine R Hutson, MSc, Chagit Klieger-Grossmann MD & Gideon Koren MD, FRCPC, FABMT

7 The first few breaths: normal transition from intra- to extra-uterine life, 63
Smadar Eventov-Friedman, MD/PhD & Benjamin Bar-Oz, MD

Section II: Endpoint Variables: Assessments of Fetal Wellbeing and Neonatal Outcome

8 Validity of endpoint measurement, 75
Pamela Angle MD MSc, FRCPC, Stephen Halpern MD MSc, FRCPC, Marcos Silva MD & Alex Kiss PhD

Section III: Antenatal and Intrapartum Assessment of the Fetus

9 Imaging of the fetus and the uteroplacental blood supply: ultrasound, 89
Kypros Nicolaides

10 Imaging of the fetus and the uteroplacental blood supply: MRI, 97
Caroline Wright & Philip Baker

11 Fetal heart rate monitoring, 104
Alison M. Premo & Sarah J. Kilpatrick

12 Fetal acid-base monitoring, 114
Lennart Nordström

13 Fetal pulse oximetry, 123
Paul B Colditz & Christine East

14 Neonatal assessment and prediction of neonatal outcome, 129
Vadivelam Murthy & Anne Greenough

Section IV: Interventions: anesthesia, analgesia, and their effects on the fetus

15 Environmental exposure to anesthetic agents, 141
Asher Ornoy, MD

16 Anesthesia and analgesia for assisted reproduction techniques and during the first trimester, 147
Arvind Palanisamy, MD, FRCA & Lawrence C. Tsen, MD

17 The effect of anesthetic drugs on the developing fetus: considerations in non-obstetric surgery, 156
Richard S. Gist MD CDR MC USN & Yaakov Beilin MD

18 Substance abuse and pregnancy, 165
Donald H. Penning MD, MS, FRCP & Allison J. Lee, MD

19 Intrauterine fetal procedures for congenital anomalies, 173
Amar Nijagal MD, Hanmin Lee MD & Mark Rosen MD

20 The EXIT procedure, 183
Sheldon M. Stohl, MD, Hindi E. Stohl, MD, Ari Y. Weintraub, MD & Kha M. Tran, MD

21 Mechanisms and consequences of anesthetic-induced neuroapoptosis in the developing brain, 192
Zhaowei Zhou, Adam P Januszewski, Mervyn Maze & Daqing Ma

22 Relevance to clinical anesthesia of anesthetic-induced neurotoxicity in developing animals, 200
Catherine E. Creeley, Mervyn Maze & John W. Olney

23 External cephalic version, 210
Carolyn F. Weiniger MB ChB & Yossef Ezra MD

Section V: Anesthesia for Cesarean Delivery

24 Effects on the fetus of general versus regional anesthesia, 217
Sharon Orbach-Zinger MD and Yehuda Ginosar BSc MBBS

25 Anesthesia for cesarean delivery: effects on the fetus of maternal blood pressure control, 235
ProfessorWarwick D. Ngan Kee, BHB, MBChB, MD, FANZCA, FHKCA, FHKAM

26 Effects on the fetus of maternal oxygen administration, 244
Neeti Sadana, MD and Scott Segal, MD, MHCM

27 Effects on the fetus of maternal position during cesarean delivery, 251
Robin Russell MB BS MD FRCA

Section VI: Analgesia for labor

28 Effects on the fetus of systemic vs. neuraxial analgesia, 263
Stephen H. Halpern MD, MSc, FRCPC & Marcos Silva MD

29 The effects on the fetus of early versus late regional analgesia, 270
Cynthia A. Wong, MD 270

30 Regional analgesia, maternal fever, and its effect on the fetus and neonate, 277
Tabitha A. Tanqueray, Philip J. Steer & Steve M. Yentis

31 Effects on the fetus of major maternal anesthetic complications, 285
Felicity Plaat MA MBBS FRCA & Ruth Bedson MBBS FRCA

Section VII: Confounding Variables: The Compromised Fetus, the Compromised Mother

32 Twins and higher order multiple pregnancies: implications for the anesthesiologist, 295
Y. Habaz, J. Barrett & E.S. Shinwell

33 Preeclampsia: the compromised fetus, the compromised mother, 301
Henry L. Galan, MD & Todd R. Lovgren, MD

34 Fetal distress, 313
Robert A Dyer, FCA (SA), PhD & Leann K Schoeman, FCOG (SA)

Section VIII: Trauma and Resuscitation

35 Maternal trauma, 325
Yuval Meroz MD, Uriel Elchalal, MD & Avraham I Rivkind, MD FACS

36 Maternal resuscitation and perimortem cesarean delivery, 333
Sharon Einav, MD, Sorina Grisaru-Granovski, MD, PhD & Joseph Varon MD, FACP, FCCP, FCCM

37 Fetal resuscitation, 343
Stephen Michael Kinsella & Andrew Shennan

38 Neonatal resuscitation and immediate neonatal emergencies, 350
Ritu Chitkara, MD, Anand K. Rajani, MD & Louis P. Halamek, MD

Section IX: Medicine, Ethics, and the Law

39 Fetal beneficence and maternal autonomy: ethics and the law, 363
William J. Sullivan, QC & M. Joanne Douglas, MD, FRCPC

40 Maternal-fetal research in pregnancy, 372
Frank A. Chervenak, MD & Laurence B. McCullough, PhD

Index, 379

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