Animal Acoustic Communication: Sound Analysis and Research Methods

Overview

The field of animal acoustic communication has experienced exciting growth in recent years as techniques borrowed from many scientific disciplines have been applied in new ways. For a modern, integrated approach to research in comparative bioacoustics, researchers need access to a wealth of technical an methodological information. This volume answers that need. Animal Acoustic Communication not only provides researchers with an update on the most recent techniques, especially the application of digital computers,...
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Overview

The field of animal acoustic communication has experienced exciting growth in recent years as techniques borrowed from many scientific disciplines have been applied in new ways. For a modern, integrated approach to research in comparative bioacoustics, researchers need access to a wealth of technical an methodological information. This volume answers that need. Animal Acoustic Communication not only provides researchers with an update on the most recent techniques, especially the application of digital computers, but also offers in a single volume an overview of all aspects of this field of study. Its consistent, readable style makes this volume an accessible handbook for students and a valuable resource for more established researchers.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9783642762222
  • Publisher: Springer Berlin Heidelberg
  • Publication date: 7/31/2012
  • Edition description: Softcover reprint of the original 1st ed. 1998
  • Edition number: 1
  • Pages: 421
  • Product dimensions: 6.14 (w) x 9.21 (h) x 0.91 (d)

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Acoustic Signals of Animals: Recording, Field Measurements, Analysis and Description H. C. Gerhardt
1 Introduction

2 Field Recordings and Measurements
2.1 Equipment
2.2 On-Site Measurements
2.3 Signal Amplitude, Directionality, and Background Noise Levels
2.4 Patterns of Sound Propagation in Natural Habitats
3 Laboratory Analysis of Animal Sounds
3.1 Terminology
3.2 Temporal and Spectral Analysis: Some General Principles
4 Examples of Descriptions and Analyses
4.1 Temporal Properties of Pulsatile Calls
4.2 Amplitude-Time Envelopes
4.3 Relationships between Fine-Scale Temporal and Spectral Properties
4.4 Spectrally Complex Calls 5 Summary References.-

Chapter 2 Digital Signal Acquisition and Representation
M. Clements
1 Introduction

2 Digital Signal Processing
2.1 Major Applications of DSP
2.2 Definition of Digital Systems
2.3 Difference Equations

3 Digital Filter Frequency Response
3.1 Unit-Sample Response Characterization
3.2 Frequency-Domain Interpretation of Systems
3.3 Frequency-Domain Interpretation of Signals

4 Conversion Between Analog and Digital Data Forms
4.1 The Sampling Theorem
4.2 Signal Recovery by Filtering
4.3 Fourier Transform Relations
4.4 Effects of Sampling Rates
4.5 Reconstruction

5 Fundamental Digital Processing Techniques
5.1 Power Spectra
5.2 Time and Frequency Resolution
5.3 Windows 5.4 Spectral Smoothing
5.5 The Discrete Fourier Transform
5.6 Correlation
5.7 Auorrelation
5.8 Cross-correlation
5.9 Spectrograms

6 An Intoduction to Some Advanced Topics
6.1 Digital Filtering
6.2 Linear Prediction
6.3 Homomorphic Analysis

7 Summary.-

Chapter 3 Digital Signal Analysis, Editing, and Synthesis
K. Beeman

1 Introduction
2 Temporal and Spectral Measurements
3 Time-Varying Amplitude Analysis
3.1 Amplitude Envelopes
3.2 Gate Functions

4 Spectral Analysis
4.1 Power Spectrum Features
4.2 Measuring Similarity Among Power Spectra
4.3 Other Spectral Analysis Techniques

5 Spectrographic Analysis
5.1 Spectrogram Generation
5.2 Spectrogram Display
5.3 Spectrogram Parameter Measurements

6 Classification of Naturally Occurring Animal Sounds
6.1 Properties of Ideal Signals
6.1.1 Periodicity
6.1.2 Amplitude Modulation
6.1.3 Frequency Modulation
6.1.4 Biologically Relevant Sound Types

7 Time-varying Frequency Analysis
7.1 Deriving Spectral Contours
7.2 Sound-similarity Comparison

8 Digital Sound Synthesis
8.1 Editing
8.2 Arithmetic Manipulation and Generation of Sound
8.3 Synthesis Models
8.3.1 Tonal Model
8.4 Sources of and A Functions
8.4.1 Mathematically Based Functions
8.4.2 Functions Derived from Natural Sounds

9 Sound Manipulation and Generation Techniques
9.1 Duration Scaling
9.2 Amplitude-Envelope Manipulations
9.3 Spectral Manipulations
9.3.1 Frequency Shifting and Scaling
9.3.2 Frequency Modulation
9.4 Synthesis of Biological Sound Types
9.4.1 Tonal and Polytonal Signals
9.4.2 Pulse-Repetition Signals
9.4.3 Harmonic Signals
9.4.4 Noisy Signals
9.5 Miscellaneous Synthesis Topics
9.5.1 Template Sounds
9.5.2 Noise Removal
10 Summary References.-

Chapter 4 Application of Filters in Bioacoustics
P. K. Stoddard

1 Introduction

2 General Uses of Filters and Some Cautions 3

Anatomy and Performance of a Filter

4 Properties of Various Analog Filters

5 Antialiasing and Antiimaging Filters
5.1 A/D Conversion Requires an Analog Lowpass Filter
5.2 Choosing an Antialiasing Filter
5.3 D/A Conversion also Requires an Analog Lowpass Filter
5.4 Analog Filters: Passive Versus Active Components

6 Analog Versus Digital Filters

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