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Overview

Animal Science and Industry, fifth edition, relates animal science principles to efficient livestock and poultry production. Comprehensive information and discussion focuses on (1) biological principles of animal function and management; (2) business and financial considerations in efficient animal production systems; (3) appreciation of high-quality animal products - meat, milk, wool, and the use of horses for work and pleasure; and (4) marketing of animals and the processing of their products.
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Editorial Reviews

Booknews
New edition of an introductory text first published in 1960 relating the principles of animal science to efficient livestock and poultry production. Coverage includes biological principles of animal function and management<-- >e.g. digestive and metabolic systems, nutrition, animal growth and carcass composition, reproduction physiology<-->as well as business and financial considerations<-->evaluating slaughter and breeding animals; and the marketing of animals and processing of their products<-->wool, pork, milk, poultry, eggs. Annotation c. by Book News, Inc., Portland, Or.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130826534
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 6/12/2000
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 6
  • Pages: 746
  • Product dimensions: 7.99 (w) x 10.00 (h) x 0.49 (d)

Read an Excerpt

PREFACE:

Preface

FOCUS OF THIS TEXT: THE STUDENT AND THE INSTRUCTOR

The principal objective of Animal Science and Industry is to make the introduction to animal science an enjoyable and rewarding experience for the student—one that provides a sound foundation for further learning and stimulates the student's interest in pursuing additional courses and experiences in animal sciences. This sixth edition of Animal Science and Industry also has two principal goals:

  • To provide students who are not majoring in animal science and those with nonfarm backgrounds appropriate information to understand animal agriculture and its role in our society and economy. This is a challenging goal that cannot be accomplished by use of this text alone but requires special efforts from both instructor and student. The instructor can help assure student success with well-prepared lectures, assignment of appropriate reading from the text to support lecture material, providing well-structured and organized laboratory sessions where possible, and offering timely help sessions. The student should make every effort to attend each class session, to develop an organized set of notes and supplement them with specific subject matter from the text, and to become acquainted with upcoming lecture topics by reading ahead in the text. With effort from both student and instructor, every student should be able to successfully progress through the introductory course. Then, both instructor and student will be rewarded.
  • To provide students majoring in animal science—as well as those in preprofessional scienceprograms—material, principles, and concepts that will better prepare them for more specialized and advanced courses.

The authors greatly appreciate the role of the instructor in teaching an introductory course in animal science to students of diverse backgrounds and interests. We hope instructors will find the material in the text to be of sufficient depth and breadth and to be presented in a manner that is easy to read and understand. We have provided both basic principles of animal sciences and realistic examples of their application to efficient animal care and production in an attempt to make instruction easier and more exciting.

This revised edition places emphasis upon the principles of animal science and their relationship to livestock and poultry production. Comprehensive information and discussion focuses on: (1) biological principles of animal function and management; (2) characteristics of the different animal species production systems; (3) production of high-quality animal products—meat, milk, eggs, wool—and the use of the horse for work and pleasure; and (4) systems and concepts in marketing animals and the processing of their products.

Most animal science instructors have found that learning in introductory courses is more effective and the principles presented are more usable when there is a comparative basis for learning. Therefore, this book was developed to provide an integrated and comparative presentation of the scientific principles that apply to most species involved in animal agriculture, and to describe major differences among species.

Animal Science and Industry, sixth edition, continues to present material in considerable scientific depth in the major disciplines of animal science, and provides coverage and updating of a broad number of topics. Research and technology have led to significant advances in animal production practices, marketing, and merchandising of products. Discussion of the more pertinent of these advances has been incorporated into selected chapters.

Throughout the revision of this text, the needs of the student has been our highest priority. The authors recognize the diverse backgrounds of students enrolled in most introductory animal science courses. Animal Science and Industry does not assume extensive acquaintance with all domesticated species or their enterprises. Therefore, it provides appropriate descriptions and vocabulary in current usage in the animal industry. This edition also contains new and challenging material for the student with a strong animal production background.

MAJOR CHANGES IN THIS EDITION

Every effort has been made in this sixth edition to improve upon the strengths of earlier editions. Some of those acquainted with previous editions have expressed appreciation for the larger page size in the previous edition and this feature is continued in this sixth edition. This change provides for more pleasing organization and appearance of illustrations and tables, improved position relative to specific topics in the text, and enhanced usage of page margins. The effectiveness of this edition has been maintained by the continued use of color, endpapers containing useful charts, and a twenty-page color insert that focuses on certain topics of interest.

This text resolves a problem that often confronts the instructor during the initial portion of the course as it provides an early overview of the breadth of animal science and related industries. With this approach, later discussions relating to the principles of animal science will be better appreciated and understood, hopefully by all students. Each of the major animal enterprises is briefly described in a new section of Chapter 1 so that initial coverage of specific species in separate chapters is not required. Also added to the introductory chapter are the topics of aquaculture, an overview and acquaintance with animal agriculture and animal welfare, and the challenges of maintaining a desired environment through proper animal waste management. The exciting topic of biotechnology and examples of its application in animal agriculture to increase productivity has been expanded in Chapter 2.

Because aquaculture is rapidly expanding in the United States, providing an alternative enterprise for some farmers, and providing a significant portion of the human food supply, Chapter 36 has been devoted to this new topic. The principles of animal science are emphasized and applied to efficient aquaculture production.

Based upon peer reviews, the authors also have chosen to expand the chapter on horses and ponies (Chapter 32) particularly in important aspects of day-to-day management.

The sixth edition of Animal Science and Industry describes the important principles of animal science in each of the major disciplines: nutrition, environment, health, behavior, reproduction, lactation, genetics and breeding, products, and marketing. These principles are then applied in chapters that discuss sound production and management practices for beef cows and calves, dairy, horses and ponies, poultry (eggs, broilers, and turkeys), sheep, swine, and feeder-feedlot, and fish enterprises.

LEARNING AIDS

To help students focus on important concepts and terminology, several learning aids have been incorporated into this sixth edition. These include:

  • Chapter Introduction. Each chapter begins with a brief introduction and overview of the chapter topic. Also provided is a list of objectives the reader should be able to accomplish—define, describe, explain—upon completion of that chapter.
  • Review Questions. In order to emphasize important material and review of concepts and facts within each chapter, questions for study and discussion are provided at the end of each chapter. These questions are designed to encourage students to think independently, and to reinforce and retain information they have studied and encountered in lecture and laboratory sessions. Those who wish to check further their knowledge of the subject matter will find the CD packaged with this text an invaluable aid. It contains more than 1600 additional review questions (with answers), 45 for each chapter of the text.
  • Margin Glossary. This feature has been included to place further emphasis and understanding on important terms and their definitions contained in the nearby text. The student only needs to refer to the Text Glossary in Appendix C for further description and terms not found in the margins.
  • Vocabulary. Important new terms within each chapter are italicized and also presented in the Glossary (Appendix C) at the end of the book.
  • Color Insert and Endpaper Tables. Review of the descriptive color plate and inside cover information enables the student to become acquainted with the various animal enterprises and their characteristics, as well as with common terminology. More effective instruction can then proceed into discussion of the major disciplines of animal science.
  • Information Boxes. Also continued in this sixth edition are information boxes in numerous chapters. These boxes enhance the student's appreciation and understanding of topics related to the material covered in the chapters. They also are provided to increase the student's interest in particular areas of animal science.
  • Other Aids. Several chapters refer to additional information found in Appendix A that provides sketches of market grades of livestock and Appendix B that provides illustrations of animals, their external parts and related terms. Throughout the text, brief footnotes provide clarification and additional information.

SEQUENCE OF TOPICS

Many options are available to the instructor because of the organization and content of this text. Each chapter can be presented independently. The Instructor's Manual provides supporting materials such as topic overviews, additional materials, and questions for quizzes and examinations.

The first two chapters introduce the reader to animal agriculture and the animal industry. Several chapters on nutrition follow: nutrients, ruminant and nonruminant digestion, and appropriate feeds and feeding of common species. These are areas in which most students who have managed animals for food and pleasure want to become more proficient. Following the chapters on nutrition are chapters related to animal comfort, responsiveness, and performance; animal growth; the feeding enterprise; and animal environment, health, and behavior.

Equally important to success in breeding and management of herds and flocks are the topics of reproduction and lactation (Chapter 14-16). Emphasis is placed upon the structures and normal function of the male and female reproductive systems and the need for synchronization of events for successful fertilization, pregnancy, and parturition. The topic of lactation follows logically An understanding of the mammary system of all farm mammals, milk synthesis, and milk let-down is a prerequisite to achievement of desired quantity and quality of milk for thrifty, growing offspring, or for sale for human consumption.

Chapters 17 through 20—on genetics, genetic improvement, animal evaluation, and mating systems—enable the student to learn and easily understand the basic principles. Chapter 21 introduces the student to the more popular breeds and their historical, current, and future roles in animal improvement. We hope it will instill appreciation for breeds as sources of DNA needed for competitive production of consumer-desired animal products in the twenty-first century.

Few animal science students are acquainted with the marketing of animals and their products. Therefore, Chapters 22 through 26 provide a wealth of information on marketing terminology and procedures, humane handling and slaughtering, and-important aspects of meat processing and merchandising.

Application of the basic principles of animal science is emphasized in the chapters discussing animal production and management (Chapters 27-36). These topics include an overview of the industry of specific species and current practices, including recent technological developments and recommendations to improve efficiency of production.

The authors greatly appreciate the ability and desire of college and university instructors to implement the most efficient structure in their introductory course. This text permits flexibility. For example, an instructor may prefer to teach a section on animal products or species production systems earlier in the course, prior to the more in-depth study of animal genetics, reproductive and environmental physiology, nutrition, and behavior. This edition is arranged so that chapters or specific sections can be easily referenced by both instructor and student.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This text is the result of a combined effort of the principal authors; many knowledgeable scientists, teachers, and industry leaders who provided assistance and suggestions; and the editors and support staff of Prentice Hall.

Special appreciation is extended to those who outlined, drafted, and reviewed chapters and sections of the book, and who were individually acknowledged in earlier editions. These individuals include colleagues and associates from the following universities: Iowa State University, Kansas State University, Louisiana State University, Louisiana University at Monroe, Ohio State University Oregon State University, New Mexico State University, North Carolina State University, Oregon State University, Purdue University, South Dakota State University, Texas A & M University, Texas Tech University, University of Arkansas, University of California-Davis, University of Florida, University of Illinois, University of Nebraska, University of Wisconsin, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute.

The authors also appreciate the help of colleagues in the animal industries, fields of animal production, and other universities and colleges who provided photos and illustrations. The authors particularly appreciate the guidance and assistance of LaDon Swan, Aquaculture Extension Specialist, Purdue University, and the Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant Program in the development of Chapter 36—Aquaculture. Also, personnel in numerous USDA agencies were especially helpful in providing the most current statistical information.

An effort has been made to properly cite sources of illustrations, data, and other materials, and to provide proper credit to individuals, institutions, and organizations. If proper credit has not been given, the omission is unintentional and sincerely regretted.

The dedicated editorial services of Arik Ohnstad and his staff to ensure a well-edited and attractive sixth edition are greatly appreciated.

Finally, the authors would like to offer special thanks to the many students they have taught and counseled, and who inspired them to develop a popular text well suited for course work and later reference.

Read More Show Less

Table of Contents

Preface
1 Animal Agriculture 1
2 The Animal Industry 25
3 Nutrient and their Sources 45
4 The Digestive and Metabolic Systems 77
5 Nutrition of Nonruminants 91
6 Nutrition of Ruminants 107
7 Nutrition of Horses and Ponies 127
8 Evaluation of Feeder Animals 141
9 Animal Growth and Carcass Composition 161
10 The Feeding Enterprise 173
11 Animal Environment and Adaptation 185
12 Animal Health 205
13 Animal Behavior 229
14 Physiology of Reproduction 251
15 Management Regime and Reproductive Efficiency 283
16 Lactation 295
17 Genetics 315
18 Heritability and Genetic Improvement 335
19 Evaluation of Breeding Animals 351
20 Mating Systems 371
21 Breeds 389
22 Marketing Meat Animals 415
23 Evaluating Slaughter Animals 439
24 Market Classes and Grades 455
25 Processing Meat Animals 477
26 Meat as a Product 501
27 Wool and Mohair 519
28 The Business of Producing Pork 533
29 The Cow Herd and Ewe Flock 553
30 The Business of Dairying 575
31 Milk Handling and Marketing 593
32 Horses and Ponies 609
33 The Business of Producing Eggs 631
34 The Egg as a Product 647
35 The Business of Commercial Poultry Meat Production 659
App. A Grade Photos and Tables 677
App. B Glossary 685
Index 699
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Preface

PREFACE:

Preface

FOCUS OF THIS TEXT: THE STUDENT AND THE INSTRUCTOR

The principal objective of Animal Science and Industry is to make the introduction to animal science an enjoyable and rewarding experience for the student—one that provides a sound foundation for further learning and stimulates the student's interest in pursuing additional courses and experiences in animal sciences. This sixth edition of Animal Science and Industry also has two principal goals:

  • To provide students who are not majoring in animal science and those with nonfarm backgrounds appropriate information to understand animal agriculture and its role in our society and economy. This is a challenging goal that cannot be accomplished by use of this text alone but requires special efforts from both instructor and student. The instructor can help assure student success with well-prepared lectures, assignment of appropriate reading from the text to support lecture material, providing well-structured and organized laboratory sessions where possible, and offering timely help sessions. The student should make every effort to attend each class session, to develop an organized set of notes and supplement them with specific subject matter from the text, and to become acquainted with upcoming lecture topics by reading ahead in the text. With effort from both student and instructor, every student should be able to successfully progress through the introductory course. Then, both instructor and student will be rewarded.
  • To provide students majoring in animal science—as well as those in preprofessionalscienceprograms—material, principles, and concepts that will better prepare them for more specialized and advanced courses.

The authors greatly appreciate the role of the instructor in teaching an introductory course in animal science to students of diverse backgrounds and interests. We hope instructors will find the material in the text to be of sufficient depth and breadth and to be presented in a manner that is easy to read and understand. We have provided both basic principles of animal sciences and realistic examples of their application to efficient animal care and production in an attempt to make instruction easier and more exciting.

This revised edition places emphasis upon the principles of animal science and their relationship to livestock and poultry production. Comprehensive information and discussion focuses on: (1) biological principles of animal function and management; (2) characteristics of the different animal species production systems; (3) production of high-quality animal products—meat, milk, eggs, wool—and the use of the horse for work and pleasure; and (4) systems and concepts in marketing animals and the processing of their products.

Most animal science instructors have found that learning in introductory courses is more effective and the principles presented are more usable when there is a comparative basis for learning. Therefore, this book was developed to provide an integrated and comparative presentation of the scientific principles that apply to most species involved in animal agriculture, and to describe major differences among species.

Animal Science and Industry, sixth edition, continues to present material in considerable scientific depth in the major disciplines of animal science, and provides coverage and updating of a broad number of topics. Research and technology have led to significant advances in animal production practices, marketing, and merchandising of products. Discussion of the more pertinent of these advances has been incorporated into selected chapters.

Throughout the revision of this text, the needs of the student has been our highest priority. The authors recognize the diverse backgrounds of students enrolled in most introductory animal science courses. Animal Science and Industry does not assume extensive acquaintance with all domesticated species or their enterprises. Therefore, it provides appropriate descriptions and vocabulary in current usage in the animal industry. This edition also contains new and challenging material for the student with a strong animal production background.

MAJOR CHANGES IN THIS EDITION

Every effort has been made in this sixth edition to improve upon the strengths of earlier editions. Some of those acquainted with previous editions have expressed appreciation for the larger page size in the previous edition and this feature is continued in this sixth edition. This change provides for more pleasing organization and appearance of illustrations and tables, improved position relative to specific topics in the text, and enhanced usage of page margins. The effectiveness of this edition has been maintained by the continued use of color, endpapers containing useful charts, and a twenty-page color insert that focuses on certain topics of interest.

This text resolves a problem that often confronts the instructor during the initial portion of the course as it provides an early overview of the breadth of animal science and related industries. With this approach, later discussions relating to the principles of animal science will be better appreciated and understood, hopefully by all students. Each of the major animal enterprises is briefly described in a new section of Chapter 1 so that initial coverage of specific species in separate chapters is not required. Also added to the introductory chapter are the topics of aquaculture, an overview and acquaintance with animal agriculture and animal welfare, and the challenges of maintaining a desired environment through proper animal waste management. The exciting topic of biotechnology and examples of its application in animal agriculture to increase productivity has been expanded in Chapter 2.

Because aquaculture is rapidly expanding in the United States, providing an alternative enterprise for some farmers, and providing a significant portion of the human food supply, Chapter 36 has been devoted to this new topic. The principles of animal science are emphasized and applied to efficient aquaculture production.

Based upon peer reviews, the authors also have chosen to expand the chapter on horses and ponies (Chapter 32) particularly in important aspects of day-to-day management.

The sixth edition of Animal Science and Industry describes the important principles of animal science in each of the major disciplines: nutrition, environment, health, behavior, reproduction, lactation, genetics and breeding, products, and marketing. These principles are then applied in chapters that discuss sound production and management practices for beef cows and calves, dairy, horses and ponies, poultry (eggs, broilers, and turkeys), sheep, swine, and feeder-feedlot, and fish enterprises.

LEARNING AIDS

To help students focus on important concepts and terminology, several learning aids have been incorporated into this sixth edition. These include:

  • Chapter Introduction. Each chapter begins with a brief introduction and overview of the chapter topic. Also provided is a list of objectives the reader should be able to accomplish—define, describe, explain—upon completion of that chapter.
  • Review Questions. In order to emphasize important material and review of concepts and facts within each chapter, questions for study and discussion are provided at the end of each chapter. These questions are designed to encourage students to think independently, and to reinforce and retain information they have studied and encountered in lecture and laboratory sessions. Those who wish to check further their knowledge of the subject matter will find the CD packaged with this text an invaluable aid. It contains more than 1600 additional review questions (with answers), 45 for each chapter of the text.
  • Margin Glossary. This feature has been included to place further emphasis and understanding on important terms and their definitions contained in the nearby text. The student only needs to refer to the Text Glossary in Appendix C for further description and terms not found in the margins.
  • Vocabulary. Important new terms within each chapter are italicized and also presented in the Glossary (Appendix C) at the end of the book.
  • Color Insert and Endpaper Tables. Review of the descriptive color plate and inside cover information enables the student to become acquainted with the various animal enterprises and their characteristics, as well as with common terminology. More effective instruction can then proceed into discussion of the major disciplines of animal science.
  • Information Boxes. Also continued in this sixth edition are information boxes in numerous chapters. These boxes enhance the student's appreciation and understanding of topics related to the material covered in the chapters. They also are provided to increase the student's interest in particular areas of animal science.
  • Other Aids. Several chapters refer to additional information found in Appendix A that provides sketches of market grades of livestock and Appendix B that provides illustrations of animals, their external parts and related terms. Throughout the text, brief footnotes provide clarification and additional information.

SEQUENCE OF TOPICS

Many options are available to the instructor because of the organization and content of this text. Each chapter can be presented independently. The Instructor's Manual provides supporting materials such as topic overviews, additional materials, and questions for quizzes and examinations.

The first two chapters introduce the reader to animal agriculture and the animal industry. Several chapters on nutrition follow: nutrients, ruminant and nonruminant digestion, and appropriate feeds and feeding of common species. These are areas in which most students who have managed animals for food and pleasure want to become more proficient. Following the chapters on nutrition are chapters related to animal comfort, responsiveness, and performance; animal growth; the feeding enterprise; and animal environment, health, and behavior.

Equally important to success in breeding and management of herds and flocks are the topics of reproduction and lactation (Chapter 14-16). Emphasis is placed upon the structures and normal function of the male and female reproductive systems and the need for synchronization of events for successful fertilization, pregnancy, and parturition. The topic of lactation follows logically An understanding of the mammary system of all farm mammals, milk synthesis, and milk let-down is a prerequisite to achievement of desired quantity and quality of milk for thrifty, growing offspring, or for sale for human consumption.

Chapters 17 through 20—on genetics, genetic improvement, animal evaluation, and mating systems—enable the student to learn and easily understand the basic principles. Chapter 21 introduces the student to the more popular breeds and their historical, current, and future roles in animal improvement. We hope it will instill appreciation for breeds as sources of DNA needed for competitive production of consumer-desired animal products in the twenty-first century.

Few animal science students are acquainted with the marketing of animals and their products. Therefore, Chapters 22 through 26 provide a wealth of information on marketing terminology and procedures, humane handling and slaughtering, and-important aspects of meat processing and merchandising.

Application of the basic principles of animal science is emphasized in the chapters discussing animal production and management (Chapters 27-36). These topics include an overview of the industry of specific species and current practices, including recent technological developments and recommendations to improve efficiency of production.

The authors greatly appreciate the ability and desire of college and university instructors to implement the most efficient structure in their introductory course. This text permits flexibility. For example, an instructor may prefer to teach a section on animal products or species production systems earlier in the course, prior to the more in-depth study of animal genetics, reproductive and environmental physiology, nutrition, and behavior. This edition is arranged so that chapters or specific sections can be easily referenced by both instructor and student.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This text is the result of a combined effort of the principal authors; many knowledgeable scientists, teachers, and industry leaders who provided assistance and suggestions; and the editors and support staff of Prentice Hall.

Special appreciation is extended to those who outlined, drafted, and reviewed chapters and sections of the book, and who were individually acknowledged in earlier editions. These individuals include colleagues and associates from the following universities: Iowa State University, Kansas State University, Louisiana State University, Louisiana University at Monroe, Ohio State University Oregon State University, New Mexico State University, North Carolina State University, Oregon State University, Purdue University, South Dakota State University, Texas A & M University, Texas Tech University, University of Arkansas, University of California-Davis, University of Florida, University of Illinois, University of Nebraska, University of Wisconsin, and Virginia Polytechnic Institute.

The authors also appreciate the help of colleagues in the animal industries, fields of animal production, and other universities and colleges who provided photos and illustrations. The authors particularly appreciate the guidance and assistance of LaDon Swan, Aquaculture Extension Specialist, Purdue University, and the Illinois-Indiana Sea Grant Program in the development of Chapter 36—Aquaculture. Also, personnel in numerous USDA agencies were especially helpful in providing the most current statistical information.

An effort has been made to properly cite sources of illustrations, data, and other materials, and to provide proper credit to individuals, institutions, and organizations. If proper credit has not been given, the omission is unintentional and sincerely regretted.

The dedicated editorial services of Arik Ohnstad and his staff to ensure a well-edited and attractive sixth edition are greatly appreciated.

Finally, the authors would like to offer special thanks to the many students they have taught and counseled, and who inspired them to develop a popular text well suited for course work and later reference.

Read More Show Less

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