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Overview

Now in its seventh edition, Animal Science and Industry remains an outstanding, easy to read introduction to the principles of animal science as well as the industry of animal production and management. It provides comprehensive coverage vital to the proper care and well-being of animals, including animal nutrition and digestion, environment, health, behavior, reproduction, lactation, and genetics/breeding. Also included are all aspects of specific production and management practices-as well as concepts in the marketing of animals and the processing of their products-as these aspects relate to beef, dairy, horse, poultry, sheep, swine, and aquaculture industries. Global trends in animal product consumption, to feed manufacturing, the ruminant digestive system, nutrition and feedlot management, farm animal reproduction, genes and chromosomes, the importance of milk production in different species, growth and development, marketing meat animals, the merchandising and promotion of wool, the business of producing eggs, and much more. For those in farm and animal production enterprises.

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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780130462565
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
  • Publication date: 5/20/2004
  • Edition description: 7TH
  • Edition number: 7
  • Pages: 784
  • Sales rank: 558,393
  • Product dimensions: 8.18 (w) x 9.92 (h) x 1.26 (d)

Meet the Author

Read an Excerpt

FOCUS OF THIS TEXT: THE STUDENT AND THE INSTRUCTOR

The principal objective of Animal Science and Industry is to make the introduction to animal science an enjoyable and rewarding experience for the student—one that provides a sound foundation for further learning and stimulates the student's interest in pursuing additional courses and experiences in animal sciences. This seventh edition of Animal Science and Industry also has two principal goals:

  • To provide students who are not majoring in animal science and those with nonfarm backgrounds appropriate information to understand animal agriculture and its role in our society and economy This is a challenging goal that cannot be accomplished by use of this text alone but requires special efforts from both instructor and student. The instructor can help assure student success with well-prepared lectures, assignment of appropriate reading from the text to support lecture material, providing well-structured and organized laboratory sessions where possible, and offering timely help sessions. The student should make every effort to attend each class session, to develop an organized set of notes and supplement them with specific subject matter from the text, and to become acquainted with upcoming lecture topics by reading ahead in the text. With effort from both student and instructor, every student should be able to successfully progress through the introductory course. Then, both instructor and student will be rewarded.
  • To provide students majoring in animal science—as well as those in preprofessional science programs—material, principles, and concepts that will better prepare them for more specialized and advanced courses.

The authors greatly appreciate the role of the instructor in teaching an introductory course in animal science to students of diverse backgrounds and interests. We hope instructors will find the material in the text to be of sufficient depth and breadth and to be presented in a manner that is easy to read and understand. We have provided both basic principles of animal sciences and realistic examples of their application to efficient animal care and production in an attempt to make instruction easier and more exciting.

This revised edition places emphasis upon the principles of animal science and their relationship to livestock and poultry production. Comprehensive information and discussion focuses on: (1) biological principles of animal function and management; (2) characteristics of the different animal species production systems; (3) production of high-quality animal products—meat, milk, eggs, wool—and the use of the horse for work and pleasure; and (4) systems and concepts in marketing animals and the processing of their products.

Most animal science instructors have found that learning in introductory courses is more effective and the principles presented are more usable when there is a comparative basis for learning. Therefore, this book was developed to provide an integrated and comparative presentation of the scientific principles that apply to most species involved in animal agriculture, and to describe major differences among species.

Animal Science and Industry, sixth edition, continues to present material in considerable scientific depth in the major disciplines of animal science, and provides coverage and updating of a broad number of topics. Research and technology have led to significant advances in animal production practices, marketing, and merchandising of products. Discussion of the more pertinent of these advances has been incorporated into selected chapters.

Throughout the revision of this text, the needs of the student has been our highest priority. The authors recognize the diverse backgrounds of students enrolled in most introductory animal science courses. Animal Science and Industry does not assume extensive acquaintance with all domesticated species or their enterprises. Therefore, it provides appropriate descriptions and vocabulary in current usage in the animal industry. This edition also contains new and challenging material for the student with a strong animal production background.

Every effort has been made in this seventh edition to improve upon the strengths of earlier editions. Some of those acquainted with previous editions have expressed appreciation for the larger page size in the previous edition and this feature is continued in this seventh edition. This change provides for more pleasing organization and appearance of illustrations.

This textbook resolves a problem that often confronts the instructor during the initial portion of the course as it provides an early overview of the breadth of animal science and related industries. With this approach, later discussions relating to the principles of animal science will be better appreciated and understood. Each of the major animal enterprises is briefly described in a new section of Chapter 1 so that initial coverage of specific species in separate chapters is not required. Also added to the introductory chapter is the topic of companion animals.

The role of companion animals in animal science is rapidly developing, providing students an alternative animal to study and careers beyond traditional agriculture. These animals are a significant part of human society and the economy, Chapter 37 has been devoted to this new topic.

LEARNING AIDS

To help students focus on important concepts and terminology, several learning aids have been incorporated into this seventh edition. These include:

  • Chapter Introduction. Each chapter begins with a brief introduction and overview of the chapter topic. Also provided is a list of objectives the reader should be able to accomplish—define, describe, explain—upon completion of that chapter.
  • Review Questions. In order to emphasize important material and review of concepts and facts within each chapter, questions for study and discussion are provided at the end of each chapter. These questions are designed to encourage students to think independently, and to reinforce and retain information they have studied and encountered in lecture and laboratory sessions. Those who wish to check further their knowledge of the subject matter will find the CD packaged with this text an invaluable aid. It contains more than 1600 additional review questions (with answers), 45 for each chapter of the text.
  • Margin Glossary. This feature has been included to place further emphasis and understanding on important terms and their definitions contained in the nearby text. The student only needs to refer to the Text Glossary in Appendix C for further description and terms not found in the margins.
  • Vocabulary. Important new terms within each chapter are italicized and also presented in the Glossary (Appendix C) at the end of the book.
  • Color Insert and Endpaper Tables. Review of the descriptive color plate and inside cover information enables the student to become acquainted with the various animal enterprises and their characteristics, as well as with common terminology. More effective instruction can then proceed into discussion of the major disciplines of animal science.
  • Information Boxes. Also continued in this sixth edition are information boxes in numerous chapters. These boxes enhance the student's appreciation and understanding of topics related to the material covered in the chapters. They also are provided to increase the student's interest in particular areas of animal science.
  • Other Aids. Several chapters refer to additional information found in Appendix A that provides sketches of market grades of livestock and Appendix B that provides illustrations of animals, their external parts and related terms. Throughout the text, brief footnotes provide clarification and additional Information.
SEQUENCE OF TOPICS

Many options are available to the instructor because of the organization and content of this text. Each chapter can be presented independently. The Instructor's Manual provides supporting materials such as topic overviews, additional materials. and questions for quizzes and examinations.

The first two chapters introduce the reader to animal agriculture and the animal industry. Several chapters on nutrition follow: nutrients, ruminant and nonruminant digestion, and appropriate feeds and feeding of common species. These are areas in which most students who have managed animals for food and pleasure want to become more proficient. Following the chapters on nutrition are chapters related to animal comfort, responsiveness, and performance; animal growth; the feeding enterprise; and animal environment, health, and behavior.

Equally important to success in breeding and management of herds and flocks are the topics of reproduction and lactation (Chapter 11-16). Emphasis is placed upon the structures and normal function of the male and female reproductive systems and the need for synchronization of events for successful fertilization, pregnancy, and parturition. The topic of lactation follows logically: An understanding of the mammary system of all farm mammals, milk synthesis, and milk let-down is a prerequisite to achievement of desired quantity and quality of milk for thrifty, growing offspring, or for sale for human consumption.

Chapters 17 through 20—on genetics, genetic improvement, animal evaluation, and mating systems—enable the student to learn and easily understand the basic principles. Chapter 21 introduces the student to the more popular breeds and their historical, current, and future roles in animal improvement. We hope it will instill appreciation for breeds as sources of DNA needed for competitive production of consumer-desired animal products in the twenty-first century.

Few animal science students are acquainted with the marketing of animals and their products. Therefore, Chapters 22 through 26 provide wealth of information on marketing terminology and procedures, humane handling and slaughtering, and important aspects of meat processing and merchandising.

Application of the basic principles of animal science is emphasized in the chapters discussing animal production and management (Chapters 27-36). Chapter 37 emphasizes the broad world of companion animals. These topics include an overview of the industry of specific species and current practices, including recent technological developments and recommendations to improve efficiency of production.

The authors greatly appreciate the ability and desire of college and university instructors to implement the most efficient structure in their introductory course. This text permits flexibility. For example, an instructor may prefer to teach a section on animal products or species production systems earlier in the course, prior to the more in-depth study of animal genetics, reproductive and environmental physiology; nutrition, and behavior. This edition is arranged so that chapters or specific sections can be easily referenced by both instructor and student.

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Table of Contents

1. Animal Agriculture.

Global Trends in Animal Product Consumption. Changes in American Farm Population, Numbers, and Size. U.S. Land Resources. Why Are American Farmers So Productive? Animal Agriculture: The Role of Animals. The Gene Pool and Animal Classification. Animal Adaptation. Essential Factors of All Animal Enterprises. Characteristics of Specific Enterprises. Animal Agriculture, Animal Welfare, and Companion Animals. The Environment and Animal Waste Management. Questions for Study and Discussion.

2. The Animal Industry.

Livestock and Poultry Density. The Animal Genetics Industry. The Feed Industry. Veterinarians and Animal Health. Facilities and Equipment. Markets. Processors. Restaurants and Food Retailers. The Animal Sciences. Government Agencies and Private Organizations. Questions for Study and Discussion.

3. Nutrients and Their Sources.

Classes of Nutrients. How Nutrients May Be Used. Carbohydrates. Lipids: Fats and Oils. Proteins (Amino Acids). Water. Minerals. Vitamins. Nutrient Absorption and Formation by Plants. Feeds and Their Nutrient Content. Questions for Study and Discussion.

4. The Digestive and Metabolic Systems.

Nonruminant Digestive System. Prehension, Mastication, and Salivation. Enzymatic Digestion. Absorption. Digestive System of the Horse. Ruminant Digestive System. Nutrient Transport. Nutrient Storage. Nutrient Utilization in the Cell. Questions for Study and Discussion.

5. Nutrition of Nonruminants.

Nutrient Requirements. Recommended Nutrient Levels. Formulating Rations. Feeds and Their Effect on Consumption. Feed Additives. Nutritional Imbalances and Deficiencies. Other Species. Nutrition and the Newborn. Questions for Study and Discussion.

6. Nutrition of Ruminants.

Nutrient Requirements. Factors Affecting Feed Intake. Formulating Daily Rations for Cows and Ewes. Rations for Finishing Cattle and Lambs. Dairy Calves and Growing Heifers (Herd Replacements). Dairy Cows. Questions for Study and Discussion.

7. Nutrition of Horses and Ponies.

Nutrient Requirements. Feeds. Consumption and Influences. Nutrition and Performance. Pregnancy and the Foal. Other Feeding Management Precautions. Nutritional Deficiencies and Imbalances. Questions for Study and Discussion.

8. Evaluation of Feeder Animals.

Inheritance and Range in Performing Ability. Feeder Cattle. Feeder Lambs. Feeder Pigs. Questions for Study and Discussion.

9. Animal Growth and Carcass Composition.

Chronological Versus Physiological Growth. Measures of Growth. The Growth Curve and Its Phases. Hormonal Control of Growth. Factors Affecting Growth. Carcass Composition. Questions for Study and Discussion.

10. The Feeding Enterprise.

Geographic Concentration. Feedlot Management. Capital and Costs. Influences on Animal Performance and Feedlot Profit. Profit Margin. Price Protection. Tax Considerations. Questions for Study and Discussion.

11. Animal Environment and Adaptation.

Heat Loss and Heat Production. The Comfort Zone and Critical Temperature. Physiological Acclimatization to Temperature Stress. Controlling Heat Stress. Controlling Cold Stress. Ration Adjustments During Heat or Cold Stress. Other Environmental Factors. Ventilation. Flooring or Lot Surface. Space Requirements. Animal Waste Management. Questions for Study and Discussion.

12. Animal Health.

Economic and Human Safety Concerns. Disease Defined and Classified. Predators and Injuries. Nutritional Deficiencies. Metabolic Disorders. Toxins and Poisons. Parasites and Protozoa. Types of Infectious Agents. Immunity and Vaccination. Reproductive and Respiratory Problems. Eradication and Repopulation Programs. Typical Herd Health Programs. Role of the Veterinarian. Diagnostic Services. Biosecurity. Questions for Study and Discussion.

13. Animal Behavior.

Animal Behavior as a Science. Domestication and Genetic Influences on Behavior. Environmental Influences on Behavior. Physiology. Perception and the Sensory Systems. Learning and Training. Animal Communication. Understanding Animal Behavior. Group Behavior and Social Order. Grazing and Feeding Behavior. Sleeping and Resting Behavior. Sexual and Reproductive Behavior. Behavioral Problems and Abnormalities. Questions for Study and Discussion.

14. Physiology of Reproduction.

Reproductive Performance and Profitability. The Male Reproductive System. The Female Reproductive System. Pregnancy. The Reproductive System in Domesticated Fowl. Artificial Insemination. Estrus Synchronization. Multiple Ovulation. Embryo Transplanting. Questions for Study and Discussion.

15. Management Regime and Reproductive Efficiency.

Critical Nutrients for Reproduction. Growth and Development of Breeding Stock. Flushing and Other Nutritional Considerations. Other Influences on Conception. Nutritional Management During Pregnancy. Reproductive Efficiency in Poultry. Questions for Study and Discussion.

16. Lactation.

Importance of Milk Production in Various Species. Hormonal Influences in Mammary Development and Lactation. Location, Number, and Appearance of Mammary Glands. Anatomy of the Udder. Milk Synthesis--Components of Milk. Rate of Milk Synthesis. Milk Let-Down. Nutrition and Milk Composition. Colostrum. Flavors and Odors. Appearance and Other Milk

Quality Factors. Udder Health, Mastitis, and Mammary Gland Injuries. Questions for Study and Discussion.

17. Genetics.

Genes and Chromosomes. Transmission of Genes. Single Gene Effects. Inheritance of Sex. Multiple Gene Effects. Cytoplasmic Inheritance. Genotype and Phenotype. Rules for Improvement by Selection. Genetic Variation. Examples of Genetic Improvement. Influence of Prolificacy and Generation Interval on Improvement Rate. Questions for Study Discussion.

18. Heritability and Genetic Improvement.

Heredity Versus Environmental Influences. The Meaning of Heritability. Heritability of Individual Traits. Level of Heritability

and Selection Effort. Methods to Improve Selection Accuracy. Predicting Rate of Improvement. Multiple-Trait Selection and Rate of Improvement. Questions for Study and Discussion.

19. Evaluation of Breeding Animals.

Desirable Traits. Identification Systems. Recording Birth Dates. Importance of Records. Growth and Feed Efficiency Performance Records. Measuring Meatiness or Muscling. Reproduction Efficiency. Conformation Traits. Other Production Traits. Using Selection Indexes. Using Relatives to Appraise Merit--Progeny Testing. Culling From the Breeding Herd or Flock. Questions for Study and Discussion.

20. Mating Systems.

Random Mating. Inbreeding. Outbreeding. Crossbreeding. Crossing Lines or Strains. Rotational Crossbreeding Programs. The Future--Heterosis Versus Selection. The Animal Improvement Industry--Livestock and Poultry Breeders. Questions for Study and Discussion.

21. Breeds.

Why Breeds Have Developed. Chronology of Breed Development. Variation Within Breeds. Cattle Breeds. Swine Breeds. Sheep Breeds. Goat Breeds. Poultry Breeds and Varieties. Key Points in Breed Selection. Questions for Study and Discussion.

22. Marketing Meat Animals.

Supply, Demand, and Price. Long-Term Cycles in Livestock Numbers. Seasonal Patterns. Direct Marketing. Auctions. Terminal Markets. Dealers and Order Buyers. Market Pools and Group Marketing. Marketing Costs. Regulatory Agencies. Market News. Questions for Study and Discussion.

23. Evaluating Slaughter Animals.

Age and Weight. Influence of Sex and Sex Condition. Meatiness. Finish. Dressing Percent and Cutability. Grade. Byproducts. Injuries and Health. Questions for Study and Discussion.

24. Live Animal Market Classes and Grades.

Development of Classes and Grades. Cattle Classes. Sheep Classes. Swine Classes. Poultry Classes. USDA Grades for Slaughter Animals and Carcasses. Grades for Slaughter Cattle and Beef Carcasses. Grades for Slaughter Lambs and Sheep and Their Carcasses. Grades for Slaughter Hogs and Pork Carcasses. Grades for Poultry. Private Meat Pricing and Grading. Questions for Study and Discussion.

25. Processing Meat Animals.

Slaughter Procedures. Inspection. Additional Food Safety Measures. Cooling. Meat Grading. Other Regulations of Meat Processing. Fabrication--Wholesale and Retail Cuts. Aging and Tenderizing. Curing and Smoking. Specialty Meat Items. Meat Distribution Systems. Byproducts. Questions for Study and Discussion.

26. Meat as a Food.

Trends in Meat Consumption. Elasticity of Demand. Geographic and Other Influences on Meat Consumption. Holidays and Religious Beliefs. Promotion of Meat and Meat Products. Nutritive Value. Tenderness. Flavor and Aroma. Marbling. Color. Preservation. Questions for Study and Discussion.

27. Wool and Mohair.

Characteristics of Wool. Wool Quality and Grades. Wool Processing. Global and U.S. Production of Wool. Wool Marketing. Merchandising and Promotion. Mohair. Other Fibers and Furs. Questions for Study and Discussion.

28. The Business of Producing Pork.

Geographic and Seasonal Distribution. Swine Business Structures and Ownership. Farrow-to-Finish Operations. Feeder Pig Production Enterprises. Pig Finishing Operations. Investment. Labor and Management. Feed. Genetic Sources and Breeding

Systems. Manure and Odor Management. Marketing. Pork Industry Organization. Questions for Study and Discussion.

29. The Cow Herd and Ewe Flock.

Feeder Calf Production. Geographic Distribution of Cow Herds. Types and Sizes of Cow-Calf Herds. Feed and Other Cow-Calf Herd Costs. Weaning and Management of Feeder Calves for Sale. Feeder Cattle Marketing. Cow-Calf Herd Mating Systems. Distribution and Types of Ewe Flocks. Ewe Flock Investment and Labor. Feed and Other Ewe Flock Costs. Sheep

Breeding Systems. Sheep Management Problems. Lamb Marketing. Questions for Study and Discussion.

30. The Business of Dairying.

Characteristics and Trends. Geographic Distribution, Size, and Types of Units. Labor. Feed and Other Costs. Handling Male Calves. Sound Dairy Herd Management Practices. Marketing Animals Culled from the Herd. Dairy Goat Management. Questions for Study and Discussion.

31. Milk Handling and Marketing.

Facilities for the Dairy Herd. Milking Machines and Procedures. Cooling and Holding Milk at the Production Unit. Milk Marketing. Milk Pricing Systems. Processing and Manufacturing. Consumption Trends. Promotion of Dairy Products. Questions for Study and Discussion.

32. Horses and Ponies.

Size and Scope of the Industry. Types, Colors, and Breeds. Conformation and Body Parts. Teeth and Age Determination. Unsoundnesses. Gaits. Housing and Fencing for the Horse. Feeding Guidelines. Health Management. Feet and Dental Care. Breeding Management of the Mare and Stallion. Brood Mare and Foal Management. Training. Equitation. Questions for Study and Discussion.

33. The Business of Producing Eggs.

Geographic Distribution of Egg Production. Types and Sizes of Production Units. Growing Replacement Pullets. Managing the Layer Flock. Induced Molting. Handlling Manure and Unit Emissions. Egg Marketing. Questions for Study and Discussion.

34. The Egg as a Product.

Characteristics and Attributes. Classes and Grades. Inheritance and Egg Quality. Effect of Season and Age of Hen on Egg Quality. Effect of Health and Nutrition of the Hen on Egg Quality. Shell Egg Handling and Packaging. Shell Egg Distribution and Merchandising. Egg Processing and Products. Consumption Trends. Questions for Study and Discussion.

35. The Business of Commercial Poultry Meat Production.

Geographic Distribution and Specialization. Broiler Units: Types and Sizes. Broiler Management. Contract Growing. From Growing House to Processor. Turkey Production. Other Meat-Producing Fowl. Questions for Study and Discussion.

36. Aquaculture.

Global Aquaculture. U.S. Aquaculture Food Production. Water Sources and Factors Affecting Water Quality. Methods of Fish Culture. Fish Culture Management Practices. Fish Health Management. Harvesting of Food Fish. Marketing. Processing into a Consumer-Ready Product. The Attributes of Fish as a Food. Questions for Study and Discussion.

37. Companion Animals.

What Is a Companion Animal? Humans and Companion Animals. Animals and Human Society. Dog and Cat Nutrition. Breeds and Characteristics. Questions for Study and Discussion.

Appendix A: Grade Photos.

Appendix B: Illustration of Animal Parts and Terms.

Glossary.

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Preface

FOCUS OF THIS TEXT: THE STUDENT AND THE INSTRUCTOR

The principal objective of Animal Science and Industry is to make the introduction to animal science an enjoyable and rewarding experience for the student—one that provides a sound foundation for further learning and stimulates the student's interest in pursuing additional courses and experiences in animal sciences. This seventh edition of Animal Science and Industry also has two principal goals:

  • To provide students who are not majoring in animal science and those with nonfarm backgrounds appropriate information to understand animal agriculture and its role in our society and economy This is a challenging goal that cannot be accomplished by use of this text alone but requires special efforts from both instructor and student. The instructor can help assure student success with well-prepared lectures, assignment of appropriate reading from the text to support lecture material, providing well-structured and organized laboratory sessions where possible, and offering timely help sessions. The student should make every effort to attend each class session, to develop an organized set of notes and supplement them with specific subject matter from the text, and to become acquainted with upcoming lecture topics by reading ahead in the text. With effort from both student and instructor, every student should be able to successfully progress through the introductory course. Then, both instructor and student will be rewarded.
  • To provide students majoring in animal science—as well as those in preprofessional science programs—material, principles, and concepts that will better prepare them for more specialized and advanced courses.

The authors greatly appreciate the role of the instructor in teaching an introductory course in animal science to students of diverse backgrounds and interests. We hope instructors will find the material in the text to be of sufficient depth and breadth and to be presented in a manner that is easy to read and understand. We have provided both basic principles of animal sciences and realistic examples of their application to efficient animal care and production in an attempt to make instruction easier and more exciting.

This revised edition places emphasis upon the principles of animal science and their relationship to livestock and poultry production. Comprehensive information and discussion focuses on: (1) biological principles of animal function and management; (2) characteristics of the different animal species production systems; (3) production of high-quality animal products—meat, milk, eggs, wool—and the use of the horse for work and pleasure; and (4) systems and concepts in marketing animals and the processing of their products.

Most animal science instructors have found that learning in introductory courses is more effective and the principles presented are more usable when there is a comparative basis for learning. Therefore, this book was developed to provide an integrated and comparative presentation of the scientific principles that apply to most species involved in animal agriculture, and to describe major differences among species.

Animal Science and Industry, sixth edition, continues to present material in considerable scientific depth in the major disciplines of animal science, and provides coverage and updating of a broad number of topics. Research and technology have led to significant advances in animal production practices, marketing, and merchandising of products. Discussion of the more pertinent of these advances has been incorporated into selected chapters.

Throughout the revision of this text, the needs of the student has been our highest priority. The authors recognize the diverse backgrounds of students enrolled in most introductory animal science courses. Animal Science and Industry does not assume extensive acquaintance with all domesticated species or their enterprises. Therefore, it provides appropriate descriptions and vocabulary in current usage in the animal industry. This edition also contains new and challenging material for the student with a strong animal production background.

Every effort has been made in this seventh edition to improve upon the strengths of earlier editions. Some of those acquainted with previous editions have expressed appreciation for the larger page size in the previous edition and this feature is continued in this seventh edition. This change provides for more pleasing organization and appearance of illustrations.

This textbook resolves a problem that often confronts the instructor during the initial portion of the course as it provides an early overview of the breadth of animal science and related industries. With this approach, later discussions relating to the principles of animal science will be better appreciated and understood. Each of the major animal enterprises is briefly described in a new section of Chapter 1 so that initial coverage of specific species in separate chapters is not required. Also added to the introductory chapter is the topic of companion animals.

The role of companion animals in animal science is rapidly developing, providing students an alternative animal to study and careers beyond traditional agriculture. These animals are a significant part of human society and the economy, Chapter 37 has been devoted to this new topic.

LEARNING AIDS

To help students focus on important concepts and terminology, several learning aids have been incorporated into this seventh edition. These include:

  • Chapter Introduction. Each chapter begins with a brief introduction and overview of the chapter topic. Also provided is a list of objectives the reader should be able to accomplish—define, describe, explain—upon completion of that chapter.
  • Review Questions. In order to emphasize important material and review of concepts and facts within each chapter, questions for study and discussion are provided at the end of each chapter. These questions are designed to encourage students to think independently, and to reinforce and retain information they have studied and encountered in lecture and laboratory sessions. Those who wish to check further their knowledge of the subject matter will find the CD packaged with this text an invaluable aid. It contains more than 1600 additional review questions (with answers), 45 for each chapter of the text.
  • Margin Glossary. This feature has been included to place further emphasis and understanding on important terms and their definitions contained in the nearby text. The student only needs to refer to the Text Glossary in Appendix C for further description and terms not found in the margins.
  • Vocabulary. Important new terms within each chapter are italicized and also presented in the Glossary (Appendix C) at the end of the book.
  • Color Insert and Endpaper Tables. Review of the descriptive color plate and inside cover information enables the student to become acquainted with the various animal enterprises and their characteristics, as well as with common terminology. More effective instruction can then proceed into discussion of the major disciplines of animal science.
  • Information Boxes. Also continued in this sixth edition are information boxes in numerous chapters. These boxes enhance the student's appreciation and understanding of topics related to the material covered in the chapters. They also are provided to increase the student's interest in particular areas of animal science.
  • Other Aids. Several chapters refer to additional information found in Appendix A that provides sketches of market grades of livestock and Appendix B that provides illustrations of animals, their external parts and related terms. Throughout the text, brief footnotes provide clarification and additional Information.

SEQUENCE OF TOPICS

Many options are available to the instructor because of the organization and content of this text. Each chapter can be presented independently. The Instructor's Manual provides supporting materials such as topic overviews, additional materials. and questions for quizzes and examinations.

The first two chapters introduce the reader to animal agriculture and the animal industry. Several chapters on nutrition follow: nutrients, ruminant and nonruminant digestion, and appropriate feeds and feeding of common species. These are areas in which most students who have managed animals for food and pleasure want to become more proficient. Following the chapters on nutrition are chapters related to animal comfort, responsiveness, and performance; animal growth; the feeding enterprise; and animal environment, health, and behavior.

Equally important to success in breeding and management of herds and flocks are the topics of reproduction and lactation (Chapter 11-16). Emphasis is placed upon the structures and normal function of the male and female reproductive systems and the need for synchronization of events for successful fertilization, pregnancy, and parturition. The topic of lactation follows logically: An understanding of the mammary system of all farm mammals, milk synthesis, and milk let-down is a prerequisite to achievement of desired quantity and quality of milk for thrifty, growing offspring, or for sale for human consumption.

Chapters 17 through 20—on genetics, genetic improvement, animal evaluation, and mating systems—enable the student to learn and easily understand the basic principles. Chapter 21 introduces the student to the more popular breeds and their historical, current, and future roles in animal improvement. We hope it will instill appreciation for breeds as sources of DNA needed for competitive production of consumer-desired animal products in the twenty-first century.

Few animal science students are acquainted with the marketing of animals and their products. Therefore, Chapters 22 through 26 provide wealth of information on marketing terminology and procedures, humane handling and slaughtering, and important aspects of meat processing and merchandising.

Application of the basic principles of animal science is emphasized in the chapters discussing animal production and management (Chapters 27-36). Chapter 37 emphasizes the broad world of companion animals. These topics include an overview of the industry of specific species and current practices, including recent technological developments and recommendations to improve efficiency of production.

The authors greatly appreciate the ability and desire of college and university instructors to implement the most efficient structure in their introductory course. This text permits flexibility. For example, an instructor may prefer to teach a section on animal products or species production systems earlier in the course, prior to the more in-depth study of animal genetics, reproductive and environmental physiology; nutrition, and behavior. This edition is arranged so that chapters or specific sections can be easily referenced by both instructor and student.

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