Annual Editions: Criminal Justice 08/09 / Edition 32by ANNUAL EDITION
Pub. Date: 02/11/2008
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
This Thirty-Second Edition of ANNUAL EDITIONS: CRIMINAL JUSTICE provides convenient, inexpensive access to current articles selected from the best of the public press. Organizational features include: an annotated listing of selected World Wide Web sites; an annotated table of contents; a topic guide; a general introduction; brief overviews for each section; a topical index; and an instructor’s resource guide with testing materials. USING ANNUAL EDITIONS IN THE CLASSROOM is offered as a practical guide for instructors. ANNUAL EDITIONS titles are supported by our student website, www.mhcls.com/online.
Table of Contents
UNIT 1. Crime and Justice in America
1. What Is the Sequence of Events in the Criminal Justice System?, Report to the Nation on Crime and Justice, January 1998
This report reveals that the response to crime is a complex process, involving citizens as well as many agencies, levels, and branches of government.
2. Preparing for the Future, Nancy M. Ritter, National Institute of Justice Journal, November 2006
Three leading criminal justice experts talk about what effectsterrorism, the growth of multicultural populations, massive migration, upheavals in age-composition demographics, technological developments, and globalization will have on the world’s criminal justice systems in the foreseeable future.
3. Arraigning Terror, Rogers M. Smith, Dissent, Spring 2004
This article discusses the sweeping restructuring of the nation’s intelligence-gathering and coercive institutions that took place after September 11th, as well as the dangers to civil liberties that the Bush administration has ignored. Smith also deals with what can be done to provide procedural safeguards against abuses to our civil rights and liberties.
4. Of Crime and Punishment, Robert Vodde et al., FDU Magazine, Summer/Fall 2006
Criminal justice faculty and alumni at a New Jersey University are asked about some of the most high-profile issues in criminal justice today, such as the death penalty, domestic spying, police profiling, the Patriot Act, excessive force, and the war on drugs. Their answers reveal the enormously complex considerations that can tip the scales of justice.
5. Global Co-op Feeds FBI’s Botnet Fight, Matt Hines, InfoWorld, June 14, 2007
Botnets are banks of computers infected by viruses caused by individuals located throughout the globe who are operating networks of zombie PCs, and the FBI in fighting back with its Operation Bot Roast.
6. Toward a Transvaluation of Criminal ‘Justice’: On Vengeance, Peacemaking, and Punishment, Christopher R. Williams, Humanity & Society, May 2002
This essay reflects the author’s effort to understand the dynamics of anger, hate, and violence that permeate not only the system of criminal justice, but human relations on all levels. Williams believes that the institutions of law, politics, and media have an obligation to model practices that are conducive to social health, and such models would not entail attitudes of resentment, hatred, and revenge.
7. Trust and Confidence in Criminal Justice, Lawrence W. Sherman, National Institute of Justice Journal, 2002
The criminal justice system is a paradox of progress. It is less corrupt, brutal, and racially unfair than it has been in the past. It has also become more effective, with greater diversity in its staffing. Yet Americans today have less confidence in the criminal justice system than in many other institutions.UNIT 2. Victimology
8. Do Batterer Intervention Programs Work?, National Institute of Justice Report, September 2003
Two studies in Florida and New York tested whether the most common type of batterer intervention programs work. The findings raised serious questions about the effectiveness of these programs. Although they found that the programs do not change attitudes, those with the most to lose were the least likely re-offend.
9. Telling the Truth About Damned Lies and Statistics, Joel Best, The Chronicle of Higher Education, May 4, 2001
We should not ignore all statistics or assume that every number is false. Some statistics are bad, but others are useful. Joel Best thinks that we need good statistics to talk sensibly about social problems.
10. Violence and the Remaking of a Self, Susan J. Brison, The Chronicle of Higher Education, January 18, 2002
The horror and violence associated with the crime of rape is clearly evident in the words of Susan Brison as she describes her victimization, attempts at coping with the aftereffects, and the eventual remaking of herself into a survivor of this terrible crime.
11. Understanding Stockholm Syndrome, Nathalie De Fabrique et al, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, July 2007
This article discusses the Stockholm Syndrome, the psychological response of a hostage or an individual in a similar situation where the more dominant person has the power to put the victim’s life in danger. The victim sometimes becomes emotionally attached to his captors, and may even defend them after the ordeal has ended.
12. Sexual Assault on Campus: What Colleges and Universities Are Doing About It, Heather M. Karjane, Bonnie S. Fisher, and Francis T. Cullen, NIJ Journal, December 2005
Congress asked the National Institute of Justice to find out what schools are doing to prevent and respond to reports of sexual assault. Among other facts, the study found that in the vast majority of rapes, victim and assailant know each other, and half of all student victims do not consider such incidents to be rapes.
13. Ordering Restitution to the Crime Victim, OVC Legal Series, November 2002
This bulletin provides an overview of state laws addressing the rights of victims to receive court-ordered restitution from offenders in criminal cases.UNIT 3. The Police
14. The NYPD’s War On Terror, Craig Horowitz, Newyorkmetro.com, February 3, 2003
Frustrated by the lack of help from Washington since September 11th, police commissioner Ray Kelly has created his own versions of the CIA and the FBI within the department, with officers being stationed globally. We will know if he has succeeded, says Craig Horowitz, if nothing happens.
15. Racial Profiling and Its Apologists, Tim Wise, Z Magazine, March 2002
Racial profiling cannot be justified on the basis of general crime rate data. But, according to Tim Wise, “unless and until the stereotypes that underlie [it] are attacked and exposed as a fraud, the practice will likely continue…” The fact remains that the typical offender in violent crime categories is white.
16. Ethics and Criminal Justice: Some Observations on Police Misconduct, Bryan Byers, ACJS Today, September/October 2000
Bryan Byers discusses police misconduct in terms of ethical violations as well as police departments’ responses to such behavior.
17. Stress Management...and the Stress-proof Vest, Robert Fox, Law and Order, February 2007
Police commit suicide at up to three times the national average, and are eight times more likely to kill themselves than to become a victim of a homicide. Research indicates that the personalities of those who enter the policing profession are not much different from those of the general population. This article discusses how the law enforcement environment may be at fault.
18. Dealing with Employee Stress, James D. Sewell, FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, July 2006
Some managers forget that their actions can create a stressful work environment, affecting the success and well-being of a work unit or organization. This article enumerates some of these practices and discusses what steps can be taken to reduce employee stress they may cause.
19. Settling Disputes Across a Table When Officer and Citizen Clash, Al Baker, The New York Times, September 20, 2006
Since 1998, the law creating the Civilian Complaint Board also provided Mediation as a possibility for handling accusations against New York City police officers, which was rarely used until recently. This article describes how the process works, as well as reactions from police officers and other interested parties.UNIT 4. The Judicial System
20. Jury Consulting on Trial, D. W. Miller, The Chronicle of Higher Education, November 23, 2001
The notion of scientific jury selection took hold in the early 1970s; since then, however, scholars have found little evidence that social science makes a big difference in jury selection. Furthermore, even if research offered lawyers a wealth of predictive information, they would not always be able to use it as they do not have complete control over jury selection.
21. Jury Duty: When History and Life Coincide, Elisabeth I. Perry, The Chronicle of Higher Education, October 25, 2002
Women no longer get an automatic pass when it comes to jury duty. In a recent trial, the gender and racial politics of the jury’s deliberations proved determinative to the trial’s outcome.
22. Looking Askance at Eyewitness Testimony, D. W. Miller, The Chronicle of Higher Education, February 25, 2000
Eyewitness identification often leads to the conviction of innocent people. In this article, psychologists offer advice on how to handle such evidence.
23. Why Do Hung Juries Hang?, Paula Hannaford-Agor, et al, National Institute of Justice Journal, July 2004
Surveys conducted to see how “hung” juries might be avoided found that multiple counts against a defendant, complex evidence, and the quality of evidence were some of the factors affecting the outcome of a trial. As a result of the findings, recommendations for decreasing mistrials are discussed, including doing away with the requirement of juror unanimity.
24. Exiling Sex Offenders from Town, Robert F. Worth, The New York Times, October 3, 2005
Towns and counties across the country have passed laws that banish anyone convicted of a sex crime against a minor, driven by studies that have found that pedophiles have recidivism rates of more than 50 percent, and do not tend to respond to treatment. However, a leading authority says that many other criminal groups have higher rates, and violent repeat sex offenders are extremely rare.
25. Judges Turn Therapist in Problem-Solving Court, Leslie Eaton and Leslie Kaufman, The New York Times, April 26, 2005
The authors look at the explosion of problem-solving courts, courts in which judges can play an active role in litigants’ lives. These courts deal with such issues as drug treatment, domestic violence, mental health, homelessness, and sex offender management; but some critics say that while these courts may seem kind, in fact they are unduly harsh.
26. When the Poor Go to Court, Kit R. Roane, U.S. News & World Report, January 23, 2006
Today, in this country, many poor people wind up being sentenced to jail time without ever seeing a lawyer. Without advocates, some of them serve longer sentences than the law requires, or plead guilty to crimes they didn’t commit just to get out of jail. A few receive the death penalty because their court-appointed lawyers were incompetent, lazy, or both.
27. Justice & Antonin Scalia, Julia Vitullo-Martin, Commonweal, March 28, 2003
The author of this article sketches a picture of a Supreme Court justice who can be provocative and even shocking on race, and combative on issues that usually call for compassion, such as the death penalty.UNIT 5. Juvenile Justice
28. Reforming Juvenile Justice, Barry Krisberg, The American Prospect, September 2005
The author discusses the fact that in many states the juvenile justice system has reverted to the punitive approach it was originally designed to replace, despite the wealth of evidence that has validated the assumptions that children are not just “small adults”. He also looks at the much advertised predictions of a generation of “super-predators”.
29. DARE Program: Sacred Cow or Fatted Calf?, Julia C. Mead, The New York Times, February 1, 2000
Numerous studies across the country cast doubt on DARE‘s effectiveness. Its graduates are no less likely to use drugs than any other children. The studies have concluded, and the lack of discussion about DARE’s shortcomings along with its widespread popularity are seen as part of the problem.
30. The 21st Century Juvenile Justice Work Force, Meghan Howe, Elyse Clawson, and John Larivee, Corrections Today, February 2007
The issue of whether it is appropriate to consider juvenile and adult correctional workers as one work force is addressed in this article. A study indicated that recruitment for juvenile institutions was extremely difficult, emphasizing the need to market juvenile justice as a viable career option to young people.
31. Teens Caught in the Middle, , The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior Letter, January 2006
Drug treatment for young persons involved with the juvenile justice system is grossly inadequate. This article discusses the trend to change this. But are we still falling short?
32. Jailed for Life After Crimes as Teenagers, Adam Liptak, The New York Times, October 3, 2005
The United States is one of only a handful of countries that will put a 15-year-old behind bars forever, and their numbers have increased sharply over the past decade. The article shows how juveniles can be sent away for life, even when the evidence shows they were not central figures in a crime.
33. Co-Offending and Patterns of Juvenile Crime, Joan McCord and Kevin P. Conway, NIJ Journal, December 2005
A study of juvenile offenders in an urban center uncovered several patterns of crime related to the fact that juveniles who commit crimes typically do so with others, and co-offenders are likely to be recidivists. Statistics on crimes create a distorted picture when co-offending is not considered.UNIT 6. Punishment and Corrections
34. Changing Directions, James V. Peguese, Corrections Today, July 2005
In this article, the author argues that social issues such as crime rates, funding, and political power play key roles in how corrections do business. When society thinks the theory of “lock ‘em up” is the only feasible way to deal with offenders, we have to pay the soaring costs involved.
35. Felon Fallout, Alan Greenblatt, Governing, March 2007
More policy makers are becoming convinced of the need for offering prisoners some choices other than staring at a wall, but rehabilitation still doesn’t sit well with the public. Nevertheless, overcrowding and soaring corrections costs are pushing prison reform to the top of states’ policy agendas.
36. The Results of American Incarceration, Todd R. Clear, The World & I, December 2003
Any answer to the question, “What do we get from imprisonment?,” has to recognize that U.S. imprisonment operates differently than it does in any other democratic state in the world. The author discusses the American war on crime—with the resulting 600 percent increase in prison populations—proposing that our prison population results mostly from U.S. policies enacted to deal with crime, and much less from crime itself.
37. Experiment Will Test the Effectiveness of Post-Prison Employment Programs, Erik Eckholm, The New York Times, October 1, 2006
Two thousand newly released prisoners are part of a program that will study their employment and recidivism rates. Half of them will receive limited aid, but the other half will also receive additional help – a few months of temporary work to get into the rhythms of a regular job.
38. Do We Need the Death Penalty?, Dudley Sharp and Steven W. Hawkins, The World & I, September 2002
The authors present differing perspectives on the issue of the death penalty. Sharp argues that the death penalty is just and right, saying that sometimes it is simply the most appropriate punishment for vile crime. Hawkins presents cases of innocent people wrongly convicted who spent years on death row, and makes the argument that most people facing execution are victims of racism, poverty, and other problems.
39. Private Prisons Expect a Boom, Meredith Kolodner, The New York Times, July 19, 2006
The government intends to detain more suspected illegal immigrants while they await their hearings instead of releasing them on their own recognizance, and private prison companies are poised to benefit. But critics of increasing privatization say that health care and civil rights are at risk for many detainees.
40. Jail Time Is Learning Time, Signe Nelson and Lynn Olcott, Corrections Today, February 2006
The number of adolescent who enter legal courts is approximately the same as those who enter college each year. Many are incarcerated. This article describes the education of adolescent inmates who lack adequate cognitive, career, and stress-management skills, and English language proficiency. More than half of these minors earn their GEDs. Classes also deal with men’s and women’s issues, aggression/violence control, drug abuse, and moral/ethical behaviors.
41. The Professor Was a Prison Guard, Jeffrey J. Williams, The Chronicle of Higher Education, April 6, 2007
Working in prison gives a kind of adult education that cannot be gotten any where else. The author learned about the importance of loyalty, knowing that a co-worker “had my back”; but he also found that loyalty can be corrosive in the workplace. He compares working in academe with his job in prison and finds some similarities.
42. Supermax Prisons, Jeffrey Ian Ross, Society, March/April 2007
The isolation, lack of meaningful activity, and shortage of human contact take their toll on supermax residents, often leading to severe psychological disorders. Several corrections and human rights organizations question whether these prisons are a violation of our Constitution.
43. The Unique Brutality of Texas, Joseph Rosenbloom, The American Prospect, July 1, 2004
Joseph Rosenbloom looks at why Texas continues to execute people at an incredible rate. He finds that the reasons are rooted not so much in public opinion as in the fact that conservative Republicans have consolidated their power over the state’s main political institutions, including the judiciary system. A judge who appears to offer leniency in a capital case knows that such a decision may cost him dearly in the next Republican primary.
44. Help for the Hardest Part of Prison: Staying Out, Erik Eckholm, The New York Times, August 12, 2006
Inmate populations in the 1980s and 1990s climbed to record levels while education and training withered. Prisoners with little chance of getting a job and histories of substance abuse were sent home without help. Now a new trend is beginning to make progress, easing offenders’ re-entry to society, with the goal of bringing the revolving door to a halt, or at least slowing it.
45. Changing the Lives of Prisoners: A New Agenda, Lawrence T. Jablecki, The Humanist, November/December 2005
This article argues that it’s time to “think outside the box” and shows how providing prisoners with general educational programs, counseling, and visitation opportunities for families of inmates will go a long way toward protecting the lives and property of law-abiding citizens.
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