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This Thirteenth Edition of ANNUAL EDITIONS: STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT provides convenient, inexpensive access to current articles selected from the best of the public press. Organizational features include: an annotated listing of selected World Wide Web sites; an annotated table of contents; a topic guide; a general introduction; brief overviews for each section; a topical index; and an instructor’s resource guide with testing materials. USING ANNUAL EDITIONS IN THE CLASSROOM is offered as a practical guide for instructors. ANNUAL EDITIONS titles are supported by our student website, www.mhcls.com/online.
UNIT 1. Early Commentaries
The Federalist, No. 17, Alexander Hamilton,
The Federalist Papers, 1787
According to Alexander Hamilton, a number of factors combine to make it highly unlikely that the
national government will become too powerful in the new
federal system that is proposed in the Constitution drafted during the summer of 1787.
James Madison writes that the authority of
state governments will not be endangered by the central government in the new
federal system. He argues that history, the nature and role of state governments, and the relatively few powers delegated to the national government in the Constitution support his conclusion.
After noting that there is considerable
diversity among the states, James Bryce focuses on factors that promote uniformity among them. He also discusses the constitutional and legal standing of the states within the context of American
With reference to the views of three historic figures—Alexander Hamilton, Franklin Roosevelt, and Benjamin Franklin—Carl Tubbesing explores three explanations for the growth of the
nationalgovernment’s power at the expense of the states.
William Pound traces the history of national and state government roles in governing the United States. He focuses on
fiscal federalism, the arrangements whereby responsibilities for raising
revenues to finance government services are divided among national, state, and local governments.
U.S. Department of Education, according to Scott Young, has become more flexible in assessing state government responses to the
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001.
Garry Boulard reports the responses of
state legislatures and the
U.S. Congress to the
Supreme Court’s controversial
Kelo v. City of New London ruling in 2005. In its 5-4 decision, the Court ruled that states can use the power of
eminent domain to take over private property solely for
Alan Ehrenhalt discusses the marked difference between the principle and the practice of
devolution in the context of national, state, and local governments in the United States.
Don Hamilton recounts how, beginning in 1981, the state of Oregon gradually moved to conducting all elections by mail. He also addresses the partisan impact and other effects of Oregon’s
Sam Rosenfeld reports how several states have been following Oregon’s
vote-by-mail lead and making changes in their electoral procedures.
Nicholas Thompson reports on the extensive
disenfranchisement of former prisoners across the United States and disputes the desirability of such a policy. He also notes the
racial implications of the situation.
Alexander Wohl reveals a seemingly inevitable consequence of
electing state and local judges to office—the financing of campaigns by contributions in ways that call into question the impartiality of later court rulings.
Alan Ehrenhalt suggest that too many
state government officials are
elected and argues that many of these officials should be
Peter Schrag argues that the nondeliberative nature of
initiatives and other instruments of
direct democracy threatens the well-being of minority rights.
Jennifer Drage Bowser comments on how the incidence of
initiatives increased during the last few decades of the twentieth century. She discusses the pros and cons of this way of making state government policies.
In the context of the 2003
recall campaign against
Governor Gray Davis of California, Alan Greenblatt provides an overview of the availability of the recall procedure for elected state and local government officials across the United States.
Brian Adams considers the role of
public meetings in
local government decision-making. He concludes that they seem to play a different role from that commonly attributed to them.
Bonnie Bressers reports that recent trends of broadcast consolidation and monopoly ownership have adversely affected
local radio news.
Based on the results of an online survey of
state legislators and
journalists, Nicole Casal Moore reports that the two groups have different viewpoints on each other’s
ethics, and overall performance.
Steve Weinberg argues that journalists have not adequately covered the activities of
local prosecutors, despite the very important government powers that they exercise. He also reports some interesting and important findings about prosecutors produced by a few journalists who have covered them seriously.
Alan Rosenthal systematically evaluates Otto von Bismark’s well-known observation likening the
legislative process to sausage making.
This selection reports that twelve American states have imposed
term limits on their
state legislators, with three more about to impose them. The implications of term limits in Nebraska and other states are discussed.
This selection chronicles the growth in the percentage of state legislators who are women since 1969. It also identifies the ten highest ranking and ten lowest ranking states in terms of
female state legislators today.
Rob Gurwitt examines the way
city councils in
America’s large cities are functioning today. He suggests that individual city council members have become increasingly parochial in their concerns and that city councils as a whole have become dysfunctional in the twenty-first century.
The author approvingly reports the cooperative approach to governing that has brought Atlanta Mayor Shirley Franklin considerable success during her first term in office.
Alan Greenblatt reports on the growing prominence and power of
state attorney generals over the past decade or so. He suggests that successful
lawsuits against several major corporations have helped change the dynamics of
corporate regulation in this country and notes that a dissident group of Republican state attorneys general have banded together in opposition to what has been happening.
The authors discuss the ways that
California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger deals with journalists and note the effect of his celebrity status on the
press coverage he receives.
Mark Barabak analyzes the political fortunes of
California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger. In doing so, he addresses the potential and limitations of celebrity "outsiders" in American politics.
A former Philadelphia judge discusses
mandatory sentencing laws and their negative effects on the criminal justice system and on her own career.
Eyal Press reports on the mostly successful efforts in one state, Montana, to implement the
U.S. Supreme Court’s landmark ruling in
Gideon v. Wainwright. The Gideon decision requires
states to provide
defense attorneys to poor persons accused of a serious crime.
This article reports the increasingly powerful role of
state courts in determining the
funding of public schools and sometimes, in turn, public education itself.
Barry Krisberg surveys the history of
juvenile justice reforms beginning in the nineteenth century and then focuses on
renewed reform efforts starting in the 1970s and continuing today.
The authors describe the changing faces of
American cities and explore several urban government responses to the changes that have been occurring. They suggest that
de-annexation may be viable responses to the shrinking of large cities.
Rob Gurwitt reports on the way
local governments use
annexation in various states.
Using Chicago as an example, Christopher Swope explains how and why
urban zoning laws become outdated and treats some of the considerations to be taken into account when drafting revisions.
Laurent Belsie describes the sorts of steps that
local governments in
rural areas with declining population take to survive.
Steven Ginsberg discusses the generally low regard with which Americans view the
property tax, but he argues that this kind of tax has several positive attributes.
Graham Williams notes that collecting
sales taxes has become an increasingly challenging task for states, largely because of the growth in
Internet sales. He describes efforts being made to simplify state sales tax systems.
Mandy Rafool surveys the use of various types of
legalized gambling that are taxed by
state governments to raise
Richard Florida explores what seems to be a new factor relating to
economic development efforts by state and local governments: the need for a
social and cultural environment that members of “the creative class” will find congenial.
Gary Greenberg describes how
local governments across the country are aggressively using their power of
eminent domain to “condemn” and buy private property in pursuit of
Daniel McGraw details how
tax increment financing districts are used to attract large retail stores and discusses the adverse consequences of this particular technique of
Bobbi Murray describes the disappointing results from many
economic development incentives given by
state and local governments. In turn, she reports on the growing movement for greater
accountability in such economic development ventures.
Jonathan Walters explores the growth in
state governments and reviews the pros and cons of
privatizing many state government functions.
The authors identify a dozen forms of schools and schooling in addition to traditional ones. They argue that
school governance in the United States is undergoing rapid and unprecedented change.
Samantha M. Shapiro reports that some states have turned over parts of
prisons—and corresponding portions of prison budgets—to evangelical
The authors note the important place of
state government spending and in the lives of Medicaid beneficiaries. They identify ten ways that state governments can seek to keep Medicaid more cost-efficient.
Melissa Savage reports how the enactment of
graduated driver’s license laws by
state governments has saved
Garry Boulard identifies various problems arising from the
meth epidemic and reports different approaches that
state governments are using to address them.
The authors argue that
state governments, which are responsible for chartering corporations, should take steps to rein in