Annual Editions: Physical Anthropology 13/14 / Edition 22

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More About This Textbook

Overview

The Annual Editions series is designed to provide convenient, inexpensive access to a wide range of current articles from some of the most respected magazines, newspapers, and journals published today. Annual Editions are updated on a regular basis through a continuous monitoring of over 300 periodical sources. The articles selected are authored by prominent scholars, researchers, and commentators writing for a general audience. Annual Editions volumes have a number of organizational features designed to make them especially valuable for classroom use: a general introduction; an annotated table of contents; a topic guide; an annotated listing of supporting World Wide Web sites; Learning Outcomes and a brief overview at the beginning of each unit; and a Critical Thinking section at the end of each article. Each volume also offers an online Instructor's Resource Guide with testing materials. Using Annual Editions in the Classroom is a general guide that provides a number of interesting and functional ideas for using Annual Editions readers in the classroom. Visit www.mhhe.com/annualeditions for more details.
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Product Details

  • ISBN-13: 9780078135903
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Higher Education
  • Publication date: 10/26/2012
  • Series: Annual Editions Series
  • Edition description: Older Edition
  • Edition number: 22
  • Pages: 256
  • Sales rank: 219,621
  • Product dimensions: 8.30 (w) x 10.90 (h) x 0.50 (d)

Table of Contents

Annual Editions: Physical Anthropology 13/14, Twenty-Second Edition

Preface

Series

Correlation Guide

Topic Guide

Internet References

UNIT 1: Evolutionary Perspectives

Unit Overview

1. Was Darwin Wrong?, David Quammen, Online Extra, National Geographic Magazine, November 2004
Evolutionary theory is not just an ephemeral guess, but is a well-established set of concepts that has come to be critically important to human welfare, medical science, and understanding the world around us.
2. The Facts of Evolution, Michael Shermer, from Why Darwin Matters, Henry Holt & Co., 2006
Evolutionary theory is rooted in a rich array of data from the past. While the specifics of evolution are still being studied and unraveled, the general theory is the most tested in science, tests spanning the past century and a half.
3. Evolution in Action, Jonathan Weiner, Natural History, November 2005
More than 250 scientists around the world are documenting evolution in action. Some of the most dramatic cases are those that result from the ecological pressures that human beings are imposing on the planet.
4. Darwin and His Disciples, Jean-Andre Prager, History Review, December 2011
The political impact of Darwin's work was to undermine creationist doctrine, provide ideological support for such philosophies as communism and laissez-faire economics, and replace religious doctrine with science. Darwin's ideas were even used to foster the eugenics movement and the concept of social welfare planning, including universal health care.
5. The Latest Face of Creationism, Glenn Branch and Eugenie C. Scott, Scientific American, January 2009
Creationists have long battled against the teaching of evolution in the classroom. Because of a series of legal setbacks, their strategies have had to evolve from promoting their own perspective to undermining science literacy.
6. Why Should Students Learn Evolution?, Brian J. Alters and Sandra M. Alters, Defending Evolution in the Classroom, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc., 2001
In explaining how organisms of today got to be the way they are, the evolutionary perspective helps us to make sense of the history of life and explains relationships among species. It is an essential framework within which scientists organize and interpret observations, and make predictions about the living world.

UNIT 2: Primates

Unit Overview

7. First, Kill the Babies, Carl Zimmer, Discover, September 1996
Infanticide has been found to exist among many primate species in addition to other kinds of animals. At first, it seemed to contradict one of the hallmarks of primate social life—long-time intimate care of the young. Yet, another view is that it is part of an alternative reproductive strategy that enhances the fitness and survival of the next generation.
8. The 2% Difference, Robert Sapolsky, Discover, April 2006
Now that scientists have decoded the chimpanzee genome, we know that we share 98% of our DNA with chimps. So how can we be so different? The answer lies in the fact that a very few mutations make for some very big differences.
9. The Mind of the Chimpanzee, Jane Goodall, from Through a Window, Houghton Mifflin, 1990
It has long been recognized that the differences in anatomy and physiology between apes and humans is only a matter of degree. Because of the work of Jane Goodall, we have come to realize that there is continuity in the mental and emotional developments as well.
10. Got Culture?, Craig Stanford, from Significant Others, Basic Books, 2001
The study of the rudimentary cultural abilities of the chimpanzee not only sharpens our understanding of our uniqueness as humans, but it also suggests an ancient ancestry of the mental abilities that we and the chimpanzees have in common.
11. Dim Forest, Bright Chimps, Christophe Boesch and Hedwige Boesch-Achermann, Natural History, September 1991
Contrary to expectations, forest-dwelling chimpanzees seem to be more committed to cooperative hunting and tool use than are savanna chimpanzees. Such findings may have implications for the understanding of the course of human evolution.
12. Peace Among Primates, Robert Sapolsky, Greater Good Magazine, April 5, April 12, April 19, 2008
Are we humans hard-wired for violence? Recent studies indicate that the behavior of at least some primate species, and certainly our own, is driven by the social structures and ecological settings, not simply by our genes.

UNIT 3: Sex and Gender

Unit Overview

13. What Are Friends For?, Barbara Smuts, Natural History, February 1987
An understanding of friendship bonds that exist among baboons is not only destroying our stereotypes about monkeys in the wild, but is also calling into question the traditional views concerning the relationships between the sexes in early hominid evolution.
14. What's Love Got to Do with It?: Sex Among Our Closest Relatives Is a Rather Open Affair, Meredith F. Small, Discover, June 1992
The bonobos' use of sex to reduce tension and to form alliances is raising some interesting questions regarding human evolution. Does this behavior help to explain the origin of our sexuality? Or should we see it as just another primate aberration that occurred after the split from the human lineage?
15. The Double Life of Women, Annie Murphy Paul, Psychology Today, November/December 2010
Women actually have two sexualities, one when they are ovulating and the other during the rest of the month. Moreover, the invisible turns of the reproductive cycle shape the everyday behavior of both women and men as her cycle influences not just her preference in a partner, but her personality as well.
16. Mothers and Others, Sarah Blaffer Hrdy, Natural History, May 2001
In many species, including our own, mothers are assisted in rearing their offspring by others. The more we adhere to this evolutionary heritage of "cooperative breeding," the more likely we are to raise emotionally healthy children.

UNIT 4: The Fossil Evidence

Unit Overview

17. The Human Family's Earliest Ancestors, Ann Gibbons, Smithsonian, March 2010
A rare hominid skeleton from 4.4 million years ago displays some surprising features, such as a skull and pelvis that hint at upright walking combined with hands and feet that show a facility for climbing trees. Is she our direct ancestor or an early offshoot?
18. First of Our Kind, Kate Wong, Scientific American, April 2012
Researchers have revealed new details about the anatomy of Australopithecus sediba, a primitive hominin that existed around the same time early Homo species first began to appear on Earth. The new findings make it clear that this ancient relative displayed both primitive characteristics as well as modern, human-like traits. The mosaic nature of hominin features, researchers suggest, make A. sediba the best candidate for an ancestor to the genus Homo.
19. Rethinking Neanderthals, Joe Alper, Smithsonian, June 2003
Contrary to the widely held view that Neanderthals were evolutionary failures, the fact is that they persisted through some of the harshest climates imaginable. Over a period of 200,000 years, they had made some rather sophisticated tools and have had a social life that involved taking care of the wounded and burying the dead.
20. Twilight of the Neandertals, Kate Wong, Scientific American, August 2009
With their large brains and enormous strength, Neandertals were well suited to the rigors of hunting ice age mammals. But as the climate changed and a new kind of human appeared on the landscape, their numbers dwindled and they could no longer compete.

UNIT 5: Late Hominid Evolution

Unit Overview

21. A New View of the Birth of Homo sapiens, Ann Gibbons, Science Magazine, January 28, 2011
Did modern humans come out of Africa, spread around the world and replace, rather than mate with, the archaic humans they met? New genomic data is shedding light on this decades-long dispute. It appears that neither the out-of-Africa replacement model nor the multi-regional hypothesis will completely win out.
22. Meet the New Human Family, Jill Neimark, Discover, May 2011
There was a time when our ancestors shared the planet with other human species. Today, we stand alone, but the remains of the others, in the form of fossils as well as in the record of our DNA, tell remarkable stories.
23. Refuting a Myth About Human Origins, John J. Shea, American Scientist, March/April 2011
For decades, archeologists have believed that modern human behavior as reflected in tools and food-getting strategies developed along with what is identified in the fossil record as "modern Homo sapiens," but archeological evidence now shows that some of these behaviors, most importantly our capacity for wide behavioral variability, actually occurred among people who had lived very long ago, particularly in Africa.
24. The Birth of Childhood, Ann Gibbons, Science Magazine, November 2008
Unlike our closest relatives, the apes, humans depend on their parents for a long period after weaning. New investigative technology has allowed researchers to determine when and why our long childhood evolved.
25. The Evolution of Grandparents, Rachel Caspari, Scientific American, August 2011
A marked increase in survivorship of adults in the Upper Paleolithic had far-reaching effects on the nature of society. The appearance of a grandparental generation meant more resources available to the group, significant population increases and a greater efficiency in the transmission and accumulation of cultural knowledge for future generations. These changes may very well have accounted for our ancestors being the only hominid species left standing.
26. A Bigger, Better Brain, Maddalena Bearzi and Craig Stanford, American Scientist, September/October 2010
The diverse food-getting strategies employed by dolphin and ape societies are an excellent gauge of their social complexity as well as an example of how brain complexity, social complexity, and ecological complexity are all linked.
27. The Limits of Intelligence, Douglas Fox, Scientific American, June 14, 2011
Although there has been a general relationship between increases in brain size and intelligence in human evolution, the connection is not as obvious as it may seem. The more we learn about this most fascinating aspect of our development, the more we are led to conclude that the laws of physics may well prevent us from having an ever more powerful thinking machine.
28. Top Ten Myths About the Brain, Laura Helmuth, Smithsonian, May 20, 2011
In contrast to the wonderfully informative studies being conducted on the human brain, as discussed in the previous article, there exists a considerable amount of folk mythology about our most distinctive organ. For a variety of reasons, including poorly designed research, theoretical biases, hidden agendas and wishful thinking, many of the myths are, unfortunately, more widely known and espoused than the evermore fascinating scientific findings.
29. The Naked Truth, Nina G. Jablonski, Scientific American, February 2010
Recent findings lay bare the origins of human hairlessness and hint that naked skin was a key factor in the emergence of other human traits, such as the ability to cover long distances in the pursuit of food.

UNIT 6: Human Diversity

Unit Overview

30. Can White Men Jump?: Ethnicity, Genes, Culture, and Success, David Shenk, from The Genius in All of Us, Doubleday, 2010
Clusters of ethnic and geographical athletic success prompt suspicions of hidden genetic advantages. The real advantages are much more cultural, more nuanced, and less hidden.
31. Skin Deep, Nina G. Jablonski and George Chaplin, Scientific American, October 2002
Although recent migrations and cultural adaptation tend to complicate the picture, human skin color has evolved to be dark enough to prevent sunlight from destroying the nutrient folate, but light enough to foster the production of vitamin D.
32. How Real Is Race?: Using Anthropology to Make Sense of Human Diversity, Carol Mukhopadhyay and Rosemary C. Henze, Phi Delta Kappan, May 2003
The authors claim that race is not a scientifically valid biological category. Instead, looking at it as a historically specific way of thinking about categorizing and treating human beings, race can be seen as a cultural invention.
33. The Tall and the Short of It, Barry Bogin, Discover, February 1998
Rather than being able to adapt to a single environment, we can, thanks to our genetically endowed plasticity, change our bodies to cope with a wide variety of environments. In this light, research suggests that we can use the average height of any group of people as a barometer of the health of that particular society.
34. Dead Men Do Tell Tales, William R. Maples, from Dead Men Do Tell Tales, Broadway Books, 1994
This classic piece by Maples maintains its relevance as a plea for the continued and expanded use of forensic anthropology. There are just too many stories yet to be told and so much justice yet to be carried out.

UNIT 7: Living with the Past

Unit Overview

35. Different Minds, Kate Ravilious, New Scientist Magazine, November 15, 2011
The genes that currently cause mental illness, such as schizophrenia and autism, may have arisen during the first great flowering of human technology 100,000 years ago. Some anthropologists believe that such genes, under nurturing conditions, may have conferred benefits, such as innovative thinking and adaptability and may have actually been selected for.
36. The Viral Superhighway, George J. Armelagos, The Sciences, January/February 1998
The modern world is becoming a viral superhighway. Environmental disruptions and international travel have brought on a new era of human illness, one marked by new diabolical diseases.
37. The Perfect Plague, Jared Diamond and Nathan Wolfe, Discover, November 2008
Globalization, changing climate, and the threat of drug resistance have conspired to set the stage for that perfect microbial storm; a situation in which an emerging pathogen—another HIV or smallpox perhaps—might burst on the scene and kill millions of people before we can respond.
38. The Human Vector, Wendy Orent, Discover, March 2012
Myths abound as to the origins of pandemic diseases and how they spread. In this article, the author shows that the spread of disease is primarily a social phenomenon and goes on to outline the measures that must be taken to prevent pandemics.
39. The Inuit Paradox, Patricia Gadsby, Discover, October 2004
The traditional diet of the Far North, with its high-protein, high-fat content, shows that there are no essential foodsÑonly essential nutrients.
40. Curse and Blessing of the Ghetto, Jared Diamond, Discover, March 1991
Tay-Sachs disease is a choosy killer, one that targeted Eastern European Jews above all others for centuries. By decoding its lethal logic, we can learn a great deal about how genetic diseases evolve—and how they can be conquered.
41. Ironing It Out, Sharon Moalem, from Survival of the Sickest, HarperCollins, 2007
Hemochromatosis is a hereditary disease that disrupts the human body's ability to metabolize iron. To understand why such a deadly disease would be bred into our genetic code, we need to take a closer look at European history, the bubonic plague, and medical practices that were discredited.
42. Children Who Sue for Being Born, Anjana Ahuja, New Scientist Magazine, October 29, 2011
This article discusses wrongful life lawsuits, cases filed by children with birth defects against medical professionals in Israel. Genetic testing is prevalent in Israel in part due to the high rates of genetic disorders such as Tay-Sachs disease, deafness and Down's syndrome in communities where consanguineous marriage is common. Further concerns are being raised about the possible abortion of healthy fetuses and lawyers who trawl for cases.

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