Annual Editions: Psychology 09/10 / Edition 40by William Buskist
Pub. Date: 01/13/2009
Publisher: McGraw-Hill Companies, The
Annual Editions is a series of over 65 volumes, each designed to provide convenient, inexpensive access to a wide range of current articles from some of the most respected magazines, newspapers, and journals published today. Annual Editions are updated on a regular basis through a continuous monitoring of over 300 periodical sources. The articles selected are… See more details below
Annual Editions is a series of over 65 volumes, each designed to provide convenient, inexpensive access to a wide range of current articles from some of the most respected magazines, newspapers, and journals published today. Annual Editions are updated on a regular basis through a continuous monitoring of over 300 periodical sources. The articles selected are authored by prominent scholars, researchers, and commentators writing for a general audience. The Annual Editions volumes have a number of common organizational features designed to make them particularly useful in the classroom: a general introduction; an annotated table of contents; a topic guide; an annotated listing of selected World Wide Web sites; and a brief overview for each section. Each volume also offers an online Instructor's Resource Guide with testing materials. Using Annual Editions in the Classroom is the general instructor's guide for our popular Annual Editions series and is available in print (0073301906) or online. Visit www.mhcls.com for more details.
Table of Contents
AE Psychology, 09/10
UNIT 1: The Science of Psychology
1. Why Study Psychology?, Linda M. Bartoshuk et al., APS Observer, May 2004
Four well-known psychologists describe why they studied psychology and how they are currently using their training. Each psychologist works in a different but important subfield of psychology.
2. Does Psychology Make a Significant Difference in Our Lives?, Philip G. Zimbardo, American Psychologist, July/August 2004.
Noted psychologist Philip Zimbardo argues that psychology indeed does make a difference in our lives. Psychologists, however, need to continue to "give psychology away" to the public. Zimbardo highlights psychology's achievements in the fields of testing, behavior change, therapy, life-span development, parenting, stress, the unconscious, work, and prejudice. He also highlights areas where psychology can make notable differences in the future, for example preventing the spread of AIDS.
3. The 10 Commandments of Helping Students Distinguish Science from Pseudoscience in Psychology, Scott O. Lilienfeld, APS Observer, September 2005
Author Scott Lilienfeld contends that beginning psychology students believe that the term "psychology" is synonymous with popular psychology, a discipline not firmly grounded in science. Lilienfeld continues that students should learn to be skeptical about popular psychology and to learn to discriminate good science and sound psychology from pseudoscience and psychology as presented in the mass media.
4. Science vs. Idealogy: Rebecca A. Clay, Monitor on Psychology, June, 2008.
Although scientists receive extensive training in conducting high quality research and their work undergoes careful scrutiny before it is published, psychological science is often misunderstood and sometimes abused by government, popular culture, and ordinary individuals with hidden agendas. Such misuse often occurs when the subject of the research is controversial.UNIT 2: Biological Bases of Behavior
5. The Amazing Brain, Richard Restak, The Washington Times, September 5, 2004
Neuroscience is helping psychologists and other scientists understand the brain and its functions. Important discoveries are helping researchers and practitioners make sense out of seemingly incomprehensible neurological syndromes now that we know more about neural pathways in the brain.
6. The Threatened Brain, Stephen Maren, Science, August 24, 2007.
An important function of the brain is to detect environmental threats, evaluate their dangerousness, and orchestrate the body's reaction to them. Maren reviews research that shows that the brain reacts differently to proximal versus distal threats. A breakdown in the brain mechanisms involved in our response to threat may give rise to chronic anxiety disorders.
7. Phantom Pain and the Brain, Sadie F. Dingfelder, Monitor on Psychology, January 2007.
Neuroscientists have discovered that the primary somatosensory cortex not only registers the detection of tactile (touch) information, it also registers sensory illusions that take place in other regions of the brain. This knowledge could give neuroscientists the chance to develop procedures and drugs that directly address sensory and perceptual problems such as the phantom pain suffered by individuals who have lost a limb.
8. The Home Team Advantage . . . and Other Sex Hormone Secrets, Sherry Baker, Psychology Today, January/February 2007.
Although we have known for some time that the sex hormones testosterone and estrogen play key roles in brain functioning, we are just now beginning to understand their influence on social behavior. Baker provides us an overview of these hormones on our biosocial nature.UNIT 3: Perceptual Processes
9. Extreme States, Steven Kotler, Discover, July 2005
Out-of-body and near-death experiences are part of the parcel of parapsychological phenomena that have fascinated people for centuries. Psychologists armed with new brain imaging techniques are just beginning to understand how and why these experiences occur.
10. A Matter of Taste, Mary Beckman, Smithsonian, August 2004
The author reviews the research of psychologist Linda Bartoshuk who studies taste. She has discovered " supertasters", individuals who have many taste buds (papillae on their tongues) and whose taste experiences are intense. Bartoshuk also discovered that taste sensitivity can affect health via the foods people prefer.
11. What Dreams Are Made Of, Marianne Szegedy-Maszak, U.S. News & World Report, May 15, 2006.
Sleeping and dreaming are altered states of consciousness or altered states of perception, as is extrasensory perception, for example. Dreams have fascinated laypersons and scientists for centuries. New neuroimaging techniques are providing cluesas to why people dream and how sleeping and dreaming (or lack thereof) affect us when we are awake.
12. About Face, Eric Jaffe, APS Observer, February, 2008.
Facial processing is a perceptual activity that allows us to recognize faces as distinct and familiar. Jaffe reviews the current status of this area of psychology research using lay language. Jaffe focuses on the current controversies in the field, including whether facial recognition is the result of innate, specialized factors or due to a slower learning of facial features. The study of people who suffer from prosopagnosia, or the inability to recognize faces, is yielding valuable insights into how the brain functions to process facial information.UNIT 4: Learning and Remembering
13. Conversing with Copycats, Amy Cynkar, Monitor on Psychology, March, 2007.
Recent research with computer models has revealed new clues as to how humans acquire language. This line of investigation not only challenges the notion that language learning is innate, it also offers promise to open up new avenues for studying language impairment.
14. Move Over, Mice, Sadie F. Dingfelder, Monitor on Psychology, March 2007. Robots have long been the stuff of science fiction, but recently psychologists have discovered that robots can be very useful for investigating how humans learn and perhaps how they develop other skills and abilities like learn to recognize objects in their environment and become intelligent.
15. The Perils and Promises of Praise, Carol S. Dweck, Educational Leadership, October, 2007.
Psychologist Carol Dweck explains the positive and negative effects of praise on student learning and how praise can be used as an intervention to produce more learning in students. She contends that students may have one of two mind-sets—a fixed mind-set that focuses on how others judge them or a growth mind-set that centers around learning in general, and learning from one's mistakes in particular. Her research has shown that praising students for possessing a quality leads to a fixed mind-set whereas praising students for making an effort to acquire that quality contributes to a growth mind-set.UNIT 5: Cognitive Processes
16. What Was I Thinking?, Eric Jaffe, APS Observer, May 2004
Nobel Laureate and psychologist Daniel Kahneman's remarks at the National Institute of Health are reviewed by Eric Jaffe. Kahneman purposely flawed his talk to demonstrate that flawed thinking plays no favorites, even with Nobel Laureates. Kahneman's studies of expert intuitions have found that under certain conditions—such as being overly confident—even experts are subject to cognitive mistakes.
17. The Culture-Cognition Connection, Lea Winerman, Monitor on Psychology, February 2006.
This article examines the work of psychologist Richard Nesbitt and his colleagues. These researchers explore how people's cultural backgrounds affect their basic cognitive processes, such as categorization, learning, causal reasoning and even attention and perception. Their results fly in the face of an essential psychological assumption—that cognitive processes are universal or, in other words, that such processes operate the same way no matter who the person or what the culture. On the contrary, Nisbett and his team have demonstrated that culture indeed shapes the way we think.
18. Talk to the Hand: New Insights into the Evolution of Language and Gesture, Eric Wargo, APS Observer, May 2008.
How did we humans come to acquire language? Why are there so many languages spoken around the globe? Did we learn to speak with our lips first, then with hand gestures, or was it the other way around? Wago ponders these and other questions in an effort to explore the evolution of human language.UNIT 6: Emotion and Motivation
19. The Success Delusion, Marshall Goldsmith, The Conference Board Review, January/February, 2007.
According to Goldsmith, successful people often suffer from the delusion that their behavior is wholly responsible for their success. This success delusion makes it very difficult for people to change even when others suggest that it will make them more successful than they are now. Having been successful in the past creates the delusion that we will also be successful in the future. Overcoming the success delusion requires that individuals avoid over-commitment and seek feedback from key people in our lives.
20. Feeling Smart: The Science of Emotional Intelligence, Daisy Grewal and Peter Salovey, American Scientist, July/August 2005.
The study of emotional intelligence (EQ) has come of age in that there is a substantial amount of research on the concept. Not only can emotional intelligence be defined and measured, EQ has practical implications for everyday life.
21. Ambition: Why Some People Are Most Likely to Succeed, Jeffrey Kluger, Time, November 14, 2005.
Ambition or achievement motivation, as psychologists label it, varies by the individual and the culture. Some aspects of it appear to be learned but other aspects may be inherited. Nonetheless, it is what gives us the drive to succeed.
22. Eating into the Nation's Obesity Epidemic, Ann Conkle, APS Observer, August 2006
Over the last few years, America has experienced a startling obesity epidemic. Noted expert, Kelly Brownell, assails the "super-size it" mentality of Americans as well as the federal government's lack of response to the epidemic. Psychologists, he believes, can play an important role in getting this epidemic under control by studying public attitudes, eating decisions, and marketing strategies. The public and scientists need to take on this epidemic just as they did the smoking epidemic.
23. A Nurturing Relationship: Mothers as Eating Role Models for their Daughters, Kindy R. Peaslee, Today's Dietician, September, 2007.
Peaslee contends that mothers serve as role models for their daughters' eating habits. Using this idea, mothers can teach their daughters healthy eating behaviors by example. In fact, the author suggests that as far as healthy eating is concerned, there is no one better from whom to learn than mom.
24. All the Rage: Why Everyone is so Angry and Why We Must Calm Down, Andrew Santella, Notre Dame, Summer 2007.
As counterproductive as anger often is, most of us frequently "fly off the handle" at unimportant events in our lives. Some people exhibit such anger that they become dangerous to others as well as themselves. Should some forms of anger be classified as mental disorders? Santella explores this question by discussing the downside as well as the upside of this important emotion.UNIT 7: Development
25. A Learning Machine, Leah Nelson, APS Observer, August 2006
Five different psychologists showcase their studies of learning during infancy to old age. The studies all point to one important theme—that the human brain is plastic and resilient. The brain is infinitely adaptable across the lifespan.
26. The Joke's in You, Michael Price, Monitor on Psychology, November, 2007.
How do people acquire a sense of humor? Why don't all people react in the same ways to humorous events? These sorts of questions serves as the basis for Price's exploration of the developmental aspects of appreciating humor.
27. A Question of Resilience, $$$Emily Bazelton, The New York Times Magazine, April 30, 2006.
The study of resilience in psychology is over 50 years old, Resilience means the ability to "bounce back" after adversity. Scientists today are finding that one of the reasons that children differ in their resiliency is that a particular gene may be involved. An important question is whether that gene is all that necessary.
28. Growing Up Online, Bruce Bower, Science News, June 17, 2006
Adolescents are growing up online, according to Bruce Bower. Online blogs provide psychologists fertile ground for studying adolescent behavior. Bower reports the results of multiple studies about what online behavior is telling us regarding adolescent development.
29. Making Relationships Work: A Conversation with Psychologist, John M. Gottman, Harvard Business Review, December 2007.
John Gottman has devoted his entire career to the study of human relationships, particularly marriage. In this interview, Gottman reveals what makes marriages work and what contributes to their failure.
30. Blessed Are Those Who Mourn—and Those Who Comfort Them, Dolores Puterbaugh, USA Today Magazine, September 2006.
Americans seem to live in a death-denying society. Puterbaugh, a mental health specialist, discusses appropriate and inappropriate ways friends and family should behave toward someone who is grieving. She also alludes to the seminal work of Elisabeth Kubler-Ross.UNIT 8: Personality Processes
31. Culture and the Development of Self-Knowledge, Qi Wang, Current Directions in Psychological Science, Vol. 15, No. 4 Self-concept is an important part of personality and of personal development, but, so, too, is culture. Culture colors specific aspects of self-knowledge but does so differently across various societies.
32. Frisky, but More Risky, Christopher Munsey, Monitor on Psychology, July/August 2006
Sensation-seeking or risk-taking is a personality trait that has fascinated psychologists for several decades. People high in sensation-seeking pursue novel, intense, varied, and complex experiences. This personality trait leads some people to perform risky jobs well but induces others to participate in reckless behaviors.
33. Second Nature, Kathleen McGowan, Psychology Today, March–April, 2008.
For many years, psychologists and others thought that once in place, one's personality is fixed. Personality researchers, though, have discovered that personality is not immutable, but subject to change over the course of a lifetime. McGowan shares the ways in which individuals can transform their personalities for the better.UNIT 9: Social Processes
34. Bad Apples or Bad Barrels?, Eric Wargo, APS Observer, August 2006
Noted social psychologist Philip Zimbardo claims that people can turn from Jekyll to Hyde, the latter of which he calls the Lucifer effect. In this important article, Zimbardo reveals the circumstances under which such transformations occur; one such situation is when we depersonalize others.
35. Young and Restless, Afshin Molavi, Smithsonian, April 2006
Molavi reviews some of the historic demographic and social changes that have occurred in Saudi Arabia, including women's rights, education, burgeoning use of the Internet, the influence of rock music, and the new worldview of Islam. Molavi also addresses whether these changes are for the better and if they are received warmly by several generations.
36. We're Wired to Connect, Mark Matousek, AARP, The Magazine, January/February 2007
Social intelligence matters, or so says noted psychologist Daniel Goleman. It allows us to connect with others in important ways. Goleman decries the decline of human inter-relatedness due to technology. The brain, however, is wired for us to engage with others, and the neuroplasticity of the brain may save our society from decline.UNIT 10: Psychological Disorders
37. A New Approach to Attention Deficit Disorder, Thomas E. Brown, Educational Leadership, February 2007. Over the past three decades more and more children have been diagnosed as having attention deficit disorder. Although the causes of the this complex disorder are not yet well understood, recent research shows a strong link to malfunctioning neural circuitry in the brain.
38. Treating War's Toll on the Mind, Betsy Streisand, U.S. News & World Report, October 9, 2006
Post-traumatic stress disorder is caused by a traumatic event and is characterized by depression, flashbacks, and other symptoms. The Iraq war offers perfect conditions for more soldiers than ever to return home with this disorder. What professionals and the government can do to address this problem is described here.
39. Soldier Support, Christopher Munsey, Monitor on Psychology, April 2006
The Iraqi war is predicted to cause more psychological casualties than any war in our history. Soldiers face the stress of leaving their families and friends behind after deployment as well as intense combat stress once inside Iraq. Psychologists are helping to fashion treatment programs for the soldiers as well as all-important followup care.
40. We Love to be Scared on Halloween, Richard Hébert, APS Observer, October 2006
Many of us will develop an anxiety disorder sometime in our lives. Phobias are but one form of anxiety disorder that are just now becoming better understood. For example, the role of the brain and of specific forms of treatment is being critically examined to help those who suffer from panic and anxiety as well as more specific fears.UNIT 11: Psychological Treatments
41. Couple Therapy, Harvard Mental Health Newsletter, March 2007.
Married couples and other persons having difficulties with family represent roughly half of all clients seeking psychotherapy. How successful is couples therapy and who stands the best chance to benefit by it? These are questions that marriage and family therapists are exploring as they seek to improve treatment for troubled relationships.
42. 'A Struggle for Hope,' Laurie Meyers, Monitor on Psychology, February 2007.
The suicide rate among American Indians has increased dramatically in recent years. Psychologists are working alongside tribal leaders to reduce this trend.
43. PTSD Treatments Grow in Evidence, Effectiveness, Tori DeAnglelis Monitor on Psychology, January, 2008.
The war in Iraq has brought with it great suffering for many including a high incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among returning American soliders. DeAnglelis describes current treatment options for PTSD and discusses their relative effectiveness. The good news is that several treatments appear to be effective in treating the PTSD symptoms.
44. When Do Meds Make the Difference?, Tori DeAnglelis, Monitor on Psychology, February, 2008.
The three most common treatment options available for the treatment of mental disorders are psychotherapy, pharmacotherapy (drugs), or their combination. Psychologists exploring the efficacy of these options reveal that in the long run, psychotherapy produces the best results.
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